Preparatory school (United Kingdom)
A preparatory school in the United Kingdom is a fee-charging independent primary school that caters for children up to the age of 11, the first year of secondary school. The term "preparatory school" is used as it prepares the children for the Common Entrance Examination to secure a place at a private independent secondary school, including the English public schools, they are now used by parents in the hope of getting their child into a state selective grammar school. Most prep schools are inspected by the Independent Schools Inspectorate, overseen by Ofsted on behalf of the Department for Education. Boys' prep schools are for 8- to 13-year-olds, who are prepared for the Common Entrance Examination, the key to entry into many secondary independent schools. Before the age of seven or eight, the term "pre-prep school" is used. Girls' private schools in England tend to follow the age ranges of state schools more than those of boys. Girls' preparatory schools admit girls from the age of four or five, who will continue to another independent school at 11, or at 13 if the school is co-educational.
However, as more girls now go on to single-sex boys' schools that have become co-educational, the separation is less clear. There are 130,000 pupils in over 500 prep schools of all sizes. Prep schools may be co-educational, they may be boarding schools, weekly boarding, flexi-boarding, or a combination. They fall into the following general categories: Wholly independent prep schools, both charitable and proprietary Junior schools linked to senior schools Choir schools, which educate child choristers of cathedrals, University colleges, some other large religious institutions. Pre-prep schools are associated with prep schools, take children from reception. Earlier provision is characterised as nursery or kindergarten. Prep schools were developed in England and Wales in the early 19th century as boarding schools to prepare boys for leading public schools, such as Eton, Charterhouse and Winchester; the numbers attending such schools increased due to large numbers of parents being overseas in the service of the British Empire.
They are now found in all parts of the United Kingdom, elsewhere. Incorporated Association of Preparatory Schools Independent Schools Council THE MAKING OF THEM - The British Attitude to Children and the Boarding School System
Tatler is a British magazine published by Condé Nast Publications focusing on fashion and lifestyle, as well as coverage of high society and politics. It is targeted towards the British upper-middle class and upper class, those interested in society events, its readership is the wealthiest of all Condé Nast's publications. It was founded in 1901 by Clement Shorter. Tatler has editions in local languages in mainland China and Russia; the editions in Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines are in English. Tatler promotes indigenous British culture by arranging "debutante ball" events in these foreign countries. Tatler was introduced on 3 July 1901, by publisher of The Sphere, it was named after the original literary and society journal founded by Richard Steele in 1709. For some time a weekly publication, it had a subtitle varying on "an illustrated journal of society and the drama", it contained news and pictures of high society balls, charity events, race meetings, shooting parties and gossip, with cartoons by "The Tout" and H. M. Bateman.
In 1940, it absorbed The Bystander, creating a publication called The Bystander. In 1961, Illustrated Newspapers, which published Tatler, The Sphere, The Illustrated London News, was bought by Roy Thomson. In 1965, Tatler was rebranded London Life. In 1968, it was bought by Guy Wayte's Illustrated County Magazine group and the Tatler name restored. Wayte's group had a number of county magazines in the style of Tatler, each of which mixed the same syndicated content with county-specific local content. Wayte, "a moustachioed playboy of a conman" was convicted of fraud in 1980 for inflating the Tatler's circulation figures from 15,000 to 49,000; the magazine was sold and relaunched as a monthly magazine in 1977, called Tatler & Bystander until 1982. Tina Brown, created a vibrant and youthful Tatler and is credited with putting the edge, the irony and the wit back into what was an moribund social title, she referred to it as an upper-class comic and by increasing its influence and circulation made it an interesting enough operation for the owner, Gary Bogard, to sell to the Publishers Condé Nast.
Brown subsequently transferred to New York to Vanity Fair. After several editors and a looming recession and the magazine was once again ailing, Jane Procter was brought in to re-invent the title for the 1990s; the circulation rose to over 90,000, a figure, exceeded five years by Geordie Greig. The magazine created various supplements including The Travel and Restaurant Guides, the referred to and watched Most Invited and The Little Black Book lists, as well as various parties. Kate Reardon became editor in 2011, she was a fashion assistant on American Vogue and aged 21, became the youngest fashion director of Tatler. Under Reardon's directorship, Tatler has retained its position as having the wealthiest audience of Condé Nast's magazines, exceeding an average of $175,000 in 2013. Reardon left the title at the end of 2017. At the beginning of February 2018, the appointment of Richard Dennen as the new editor of Tatler was announced, he will take up the post on 12 February. In 2014, the BBC broadcast a three-part fly-on-the-wall documentary television series, titled Posh People: Inside Tatler, featuring the editorial team going about their various jobs.
One of Tatler's most talked about annual features is the Little Black Book. The supplement is a compilation of "the most eligible, most beddable, most exotically plumaged birds and blokes in town", individuals featured have included those from a number of backgrounds: aristocrats and investment bankers sit alongside celebrities and those working in the media sector. Isabella Blow – Contributing fashion editor-at-large Clare Milford Haven – Social editor Diana Mitford – commissioned to write a Letters from Paris section in the 1960s. Christina Broom – photographer "The Story of Tatler: A 300-year frolic through Tatler's history, from coffee-house tri-weekly to glossy monthly". Tatler: 71–114. November 2009. Tatler – official site Tatler – official site Tatler - official site The Tatler and The Guardian The Tatler, Vol. 1 at Project Gutenberg – an 1899 reprint of the first 49 Issues of the 1709 Tatler
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany. He was Regius Professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Trevor-Roper was a polemicist and essayist on a range of historical topics, but England in the 16th and 17th centuries and Nazi Germany. In the view of John Kenyon, "some of short essays have affected the way we think about the past more than other men's books"; this is echoed by Richard Davenport-Hines and Adam Sisman in the introduction to One Hundred Letters from Hugh Trevor-Roper: "The bulk of his publications is formidable... Some of his essays are of Victorian length. All of them reduce large subjects to their essence. Many of them... have lastingly transformed their fields." On the other hand, his biographer Adam Sisman writes that "the mark of a great historian is that he writes great books, on the subject which he has made his own. By this exacting standard Hugh failed."Trevor-Roper's most read and financially rewarding book was titled The Last Days of Hitler.
It emerged from his assignment as a British intelligence officer in 1945 to discover what happened in the last days of Hitler's bunker. From his interviews with a range of witnesses and study of surviving documents he demonstrated that Hitler was dead and had not escaped from Berlin, he showed that Hitler's dictatorship was not an efficient unified machine but a hodge-podge of overlapping rivalries. Trevor-Roper's reputation was "severely damaged" in 1983 when he authenticated the Hitler Diaries shortly before they were shown to be forgeries. Trevor-Roper was born at Glanton, England, the son of Kathleen Elizabeth Davidson and Bertie William Edward Trevor-Roper, a doctor, descended from Henry Roper, 8th Baron Teynham, who married as her second husband Anne, 16th Baroness Dacre. Trevor-Roper "enjoyed... that he was a collateral descendant of William Roper, the son-in-law and biographer of Sir Thomas More... as a boy he was aware that only a dozen lives separated him from inheriting the Teynham peerage."Trevor-Roper's brother Patrick became a leading eye surgeon and gay rights activist.
Trevor-Roper was educated at Belhaven Hill School and Christ Church, where he read first Classics and Modern History moving to Merton College, Oxford, to become a Research Fellow. Whilst at Oxford, he was a member of the exclusive Stubbs Society, was initiated as a Freemason in the Apollo University Lodge. Trevor-Roper took a first-class degree in Classical Moderations in 1934 and won the Craven, the Ireland and the Hertford scholarships in Classics, he intended to make his career in the Classics, but became bored with what he regarded as the pedantic technical aspects of the classics course at Oxford, switched to History, where he obtained a first-class honours in 1936. Trevor-Roper's first book was a 1940 biography of Archbishop William Laud, in which he challenged many of the prevailing perceptions surrounding Laud. During World War II, Trevor-Roper served as an officer in the Radio Security Service of the Secret Intelligence Service, on the interception of messages from the German intelligence service, the Abwehr.
In early 1940, Trevor-Roper and E. W. B. Gill decrypted some of these intercepts, demonstrating the relevance of the material and spurring Bletchley Park efforts to decrypt the traffic. Intelligence from Abwehr traffic played an important part in many operations including the Double-Cross System, he formed a low opinion of most pre-war professional intelligence agents, but a higher one of some of the post-1939 recruits. In The Philby Affair Trevor-Roper argues that the Soviet spy Kim Philby was never in a position to undermine efforts by the chief of German Military Intelligence Abwehr, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, to overthrow the Nazi regime and negotiate with the British government. In November 1945, Trevor-Roper was ordered by Dick White, the head of counter-intelligence in the British sector of Berlin, to investigate the circumstances of Adolf Hitler's death, to rebut the Soviet propaganda that Hitler was alive and living in the West. Using the alias of "Major Oughton", Trevor-Roper interviewed or prepared questions for several officials and low, present in the Führerbunker with Hitler, and, able to escape to the West, including Bernd Freytag von Loringhoven.
For the most part Trevor-Roper relied on investigations and interviews by hundreds of British and Canadian intelligence officers. He did not have access to Soviet materials. Working Trevor-Roper drafted his report, which served as the basis for his most famous book, The Last Days of Hitler in which he described the last ten days of Hitler's life, the fates of some of the higher-ranking members of the inner circle as well of key lesser figures. Trevor-Roper transformed the evidence into a literary work, with sardonic humour and drama, was much influenced by the prose styles of two of his favourite historians, Edward Gibbon and Lord Macaulay; the book was cleared by British officials in 1946 for publication as soon as the war crimes trials ended. It was published in English in 1947. According to American journalist Ron Rosenbaum, Trevor-Roper received a letter from Lisbon written in Hebrew stating that the Stern Gang would assassinate him for The Last Days of Hitler, which they considered portrayed Hitler as a "demoniacal" figure but let ordinary Germans who followed Hitler off the hook, for this he deserved to die.
Rosenbaum reports that Trevor-Roper to
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'