Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White was an American historian and educator, the cofounder of Cornell University and served as its first president for nearly two decades. He was known for expanding the scope of college curricula. A politician, he had served as state senator in New York, he was appointed as a US diplomat to Germany and Russia, among other responsibilities. He was born on November 7, 1832, in Homer, New York, to Clara and Horace White. Clara was the daughter of Andrew Dickson, a New York State Assemblyman in 1832 and his wife, their once-successful farm was ruined by a fire when Horace was 13. Despite little formal education and struggles with poverty after his family lost its farm, Horace White became a businessman and wealthy merchant. In 1839 he opened what became a successful bank in Syracuse. Horace and Clara White had two children: Andrew Dickson and his brother. Andrew was baptized in 1835 at the Calvary Episcopal Church on the town green in Homer, he married twice. His first marriage, on September 27, 1857, was to Mary Amanda Outwater, daughter of Peter Outwater and Lucia M. Phillips of Syracuse.
Mary's maternal grandmother Amanda Danforth, daughter of Asa Danforth, Jr. and wife of Elijah Phillips, Jr. was the first white child born in what would become Onondaga County, New York. Her great-grandfathers included General Asa Danforth, an early pioneer of upstate New York and leader of the State Militia, as well as Elijah Philips, Sr. who had responded to the alarm to Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1775 and served as the High Sheriff of Onondaga County. Andrew and Mary had three children together: Frederick Davies White, who committed suicide in his forties in 1901 after a prolonged series of illnesses. After his wife died in 1887, White went on a lecture tour and traveled in Europe with his close friend, Daniel Willard Fiske, librarian at Cornell. After three years as a widower, in 1890, White married Helen Magill, the daughter of Edward Magill, Swarthmore College's second president, she was the first woman in the United States to earn a Ph. D. Like her husband, Helen was a social scientist and educator.
Together and Andrew had one daughter, Karin White. One of Andrew's cousins was Edwin White, who became an artist of the Luminism/Hudson River schools, his nephew was Horace White, governor of New York. Beginning in the fall of 1849, White enrolled as an undergraduate at Geneva College at the insistence of his father, he was inducted as a member of Sigma Phi. In his autobiography, he recalled that he had felt that his time at Geneva was "wasted" by being at the small Episcopalian school, instead of at "one of the larger New England universities". Rather than continue "wasting" his time, White dropped out in 1850. After a period of estrangement, White persuaded his father to let him transfer to Yale College. At Yale, White was a classmate of Daniel Coit Gilman, who would serve as the first president of Johns Hopkins University; the two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society and would remain close friends. They traveled together in Europe after graduation and served together on the Venezuela Boundary Commission.
His roommate was Thomas Frederick Davies, Sr. who became the third bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Michigan, 1889–1905. Other members of White's graduating year included Edmund Clarence Stedman, the poet and essayist. S. Ambassador to Italy. According to White, he was influenced in his academic career and life by Professor Noah Porter, who instructed him in rhetoric and remained a close personal friend until Porter's death. Alpha Sigma Phi inducted White as a member in 1850 and he served as editor of the fraternity's publication, The Tomahawk. White remained active in the fraternity for the rest of his life, founding the Cornell chapter and serving as the national president from 1913 to 1915, he served as an editor of The Lit. known today as the Yale Literary Magazine. He belonged to Linonia, a literary and debating society; as a junior, White won the Yale literary prize for the best essay, writing on the topic "The Greater Distinctions in Statesmanship. As a junior, White joined the junior society Psi Upsilon.
In his senior year, White won the Clark Prize for English disputation and the De Forest prize for public oratory, speaking on the topic "The Diplomatic History of Modern Times". Valued at $100, the De Forest prize was the largest prize of its kind at any educational institution, American or otherwise. In addition to academic pursuits, White was on the Yale crew team, competed in the first Harvard–Yale Regatta in 1852. After graduation, White traveled and studied in Europe with his classmate Daniel Coit Gilman. Between 1853 and 1854, he studied at the Sorbonne, the Collège de France, the University of Berlin, he served as the translator for Thomas H. Seymour, the U. S. Ambassador to Russia, following Gilman's term as translator, although he had not studied French prior to his studies in Europe. After he returned the United States, White enrolled at Yale to earn an M. A. in History and be inducted into Phi Beta Kappa in 1856. In October 1858, White accepted a position as a Professor of History and
The bell gable is an architectural element crowning at the upper end of the wall of church buildings in lieu of a church tower. It consists of a gable end in stone, with small hollow semi-circular arches where the church bells are placed, it is a characteristic example of the simplicity of Romanesque architecture. Bell-gables or espadañas are a feature of Romanesque architecture in Spain. Since they were easier and cheaper to build than a church tower or bell tower, they are common in small village churches throughout the Iberian Peninsula; this simple and sober architectural element would be brought to the Americas and the Philippines by Iberian colonizers. The bell gable rises over the front façade wall, but in some churches it may be located on top of any other wall or on top of the toral arch in the midst of the roof. In Catalonia and the Valencian Community bell-gables are known as campanar de paret or campanar de cadireta; because it reminds one of the back of a chair. In Écija the bell tower of the church of Santa Bárbara fell destroyed by a lightning strike in 1892 and was replaced by an espadaña, a more expedient solution than rebuilding the tower.
Zvonnitsa Bell tower Bamboo or Brick: The travails of building churches in Spanish Colonial Philippines by Jose Regalado Trota, Ayala Museum
Palekh is an urban locality and the administrative center of Palekhsky District of Ivanovo Oblast, Russia. Population: 5,337 . Palekh has a long history in Russian iconography, the art of painting Russian Orthodox icons for homes and churches; the village emerged as a leading center of Russian icon- and mural-painting in the 19th century. A good example of the Palekh school are the murals and icons from the Church of the Exaltation of the Cross. Today, Palekh is known for the Palekh miniature. Following the October Revolution with its outspoken atheist ideology. Around 1923, the Palekh masters of iconography began to paint papier-mâché boxes while applying the same principles they had learned from painting icons. Palekh is the most renowned of the four famous villages, the others being Kholuy and Fedoskino, each producing similar, yet a distinct artistic style, they used tempera paints of bright colors and painted over a black background. The work represents themes from real life, fairy tales, literary works, folk songs.
Old photos of Palekh
The belfry is a structure enclosing bells for ringing as part of a building as part of a bell tower or steeple. It can refer to the entire tower or building in continental Europe for such a tower attached to a city hall or other civic building. A belfry encloses the room in which the bells are housed; the openings may be left uncovered but are filled with louvers to prevent rain and snow from entering. There may be a separate room below the bell chamber to house the ringers; the word belfry comes from Old French berfrei or beffroi, derived from Proto-Germanic *bergan "to protect" and *frithuz "peace". In larger towns, watchmen in these towers were on the lookout for fires. Though flags were used by the watchmen for communication, these towers contained an alarm bell or bells built into a Bell-Cot, thus Middle English speakers thought berfrei had something to do with bells: they altered it to belfry, an interesting example of the process of folk etymology. Today's Dutch belfort combines the term "bell" with the term "stronghold".
It was a watchtower that a city was permitted to build in its defence, while the Dutch term "klokkenstoel" refers only to the construction of the hanging system, or the way the bell or bells are installed within the tower. Bats in the belfry Belfries of Belgium and France
The Ellacombe apparatus is a mechanism devised for performing change ringing on church bells by striking stationary bells with hammers. However it does not have the same sound as full circle ringing due to the absence of doppler effect as the bells do not rotate and the lack of a damping effect of the clapper after each strike, it requires only one person to operate, unlike the traditional method, where the bells are spun 360 degrees to sound them and one person is needed for each bell. Instead the bells are kept static and a hammer is struck against the inside of the bell; each hammer is connected by a rope to a fixed frame in the bell-ringing room. When in use the ropes are taut, pulling one of the ropes towards the player will strike the hammer against the bell. For normal full circle ringing, the ropes are slackened to allow the hammers to drop away from the moving bells; the system was devised by Reverend Henry Thomas Ellacombe of Gloucestershire, who first had such a system installed in Bitton in 1821.
He created the system to make conventional bell-ringers redundant, so churches did not have to tolerate the behaviour of what he thought were unruly bell-ringers. The Revd Ellacombe was the editor of the bell ringing column of a church periodical called "Church Bells", was not slow to criticise the actions of bell ringers who did not ring for church services. A particular target was "prize ringing", where teams from different churches competed for a prize for the best ringing accompanied by a social event. An example was in 1875 when he weighed in with a diatribe against a ringing competition at Slapton in Devon, when he wrote, "We blame the Vicar and churchwardens for allowing the bells to be so prostituted for the benefits of a publican's pocket...". However in reality, it required advanced and rare expertise for one person to ring changes, which most churches did not have and it alienated bell ringers from the church; the sound of a chime was a feeble substitute for the rich sound of swinging bells, the apparatus fell out of fashion.
The Ellacombe apparatus has been removed from many towers in the UK, but there are still visible holes in the ceiling which the ropes would come through into the ringing chamber, the frames are still in the ringing chamber, without ropes. In towers where the apparatus remains intact, it is used like a Carillon, but to play only simple tunes, as a real carillon is at least 23 bells, which are played serially to produce a melody, or sounded together to play a chord. Chime Carillon Sacred Heart Basilica, New Zealand St Anne's Church, Cork, Ireland Bath Abbey St Mary's Church, Norfolk Dunblane Cathedral St. Peter and Holy Cross Church St. Martin's, Kingsbury Episcopi St Mary's Church, West Chiltington, West Sussex St. Mary's Church, New Jersey, United States St Matthew's Church, Surbiton St Comgall's Church, Northern Ireland St Donard's Church, Northern Ireland Immaculate Conception Church, Ireland St Philomena's Catholic High School for Girls, England Trevor S Jennings; the Development of British Bell Fittings.
Bell Ringing Glossary Campanology: Chimes
The bourdon is the heaviest of the bells that belong to a musical instrument a chime or a carillon, produces its lowest tone. As an example, the largest bell of a carillon of 64 bells, the sixth largest bell hanging in the world, in the Southern Illinois town of Centralia, is identified as the'bourdon.' It weighs 11,000 pounds and is tuned to G. In the Netherlands where carillons are native, the heaviest carillon is in Grote Kerk in Dordrecht; the biggest bell serving as bourdon of any carillon is the low C bell at Riverside Church, New York City. Cast in 1929 as part of the Rockefeller Carillon, it weighs 41,000 pounds and measures 10 feet 2 inches across; this is the largest tuned bell cast. Although carillons are by definition chromatic, the next bell up from the bourdon is traditionally a whole tone higher in pitch, leaving a semitone out of the instrument; the heaviest bell in a diatonically tuned English-style ring of bells is called the tenor. If a larger, heavier bell is present it would be called a bourdon.
Campanology Carillon Pieter and François Hemony
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late