Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
The Chumash are a Native American people who inhabited the central and southern coastal regions of California, in portions of what is now San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara and Los Angeles counties, extending from Morro Bay in the north to Malibu in the south. They occupied three of the Channel Islands: Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, San Miguel. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Nipomo, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Lake Castaic, Simi Valley and Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area and lived along the southern California coast for millennia, they inhabited the Antelope Valley in Palmdale and traded with the Kitanemuk tribe in the Mojave desert. The Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources; the tribe lived in an area of three environments: the interior, the coast, the Northern Channel Islands.
These provided a diverse array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is composed of the land outside the coast and spanning the wide plains and mountains; the coast covers the cliffs and land close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the areas of the ocean from which the Chumash harvested. The Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory. All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the incoming ocean winds; the mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy. What villagers gathered and traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of fish and land densely covered by trees and animals, the Chumash had a diverse array of food. Abundant resources and a winter harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a sedentary lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory.
Such connections spread out the land’s wealth, allowing the Chumash to live comfortably without agriculture. The closer a village was to the ocean, the greater its reliance on maritime resources. Due to advanced canoe designs and island people could procure fish and aquatic mammals from farther out. Shellfish were a good source of nutrition: easy to find and abundant. Many of the favored varieties grew in tidal zones. Shellfish grew in abundance during winter to early spring; some of the consumed species included mussels, a wide array of clams. Haliotis rufescens was harvested along the Central California coast in the pre-contact era; the Chumash and other California Indians used red abalone shells to make a variety of fishhooks, beads and other artifacts. Ocean animals such as otters and seals were thought to be the primary meal of coastal tribes people, but recent evidence shows the aforementioned trade networks exchanged oceanic animals for terrestrial foods from the interior. Any village could acquire fish, but the coastal and island communities specialized in catching not just smaller fish, but the massive catches such as swordfish.
This feat, difficult for today’s technology, was made possible by the tomol plank canoe. Its design allowed for the capture of deepwater fish, it facilitated trade routes between villages. Before contact with Europeans, coastal Chumash relied less on terrestrial resources than they did on maritime. Regardless, they consumed similar land resources. Like many other tribes, deer were the most important land mammal. Interior Chumash placed greater value on the deer, to the extent that they had unique hunting practices for them, they dressed as deer and grazed alongside the animals until the hunters were in range to use their arrows. Chumash close to the ocean pursued deer, though in understandably fewer numbers, what more meat the villages needed they acquired from smaller animals such as rabbits and birds. Plant foods composed the rest of Chumash diet acorns, which were the staple food despite the work needed to remove their inherent toxins, they could be ground into a paste, easy to eat and store for years.
Coast live. Native Americans have lived along the California coast for at least 13,000 years; the first settlement started over 13,000 years ago near the Santa Barbara coast. The name Chumash means “bead maker” or “seashell people” being that they originated near the Santa Barbara coast; the Chumash tribes near the coast benefited most with the “close juxtaposition of a variety or marine and terrestrial habitats, intensive upwelling in coastal waters, intentional burning of the landscape made the Santa Barbara Channel region one of the most resource abundant places on the planet”. Before the mission period, the Chumash lived in over 150 independent villages, speaking variations of the same language. Much of their culture consisted of basketry, bead manufacturing and trading, cuisine of local abalone and clam, herbalism which consisted of using local herbs to produce teas and medical rel
Los Angeles Community College District
The Los Angeles Community College District is the community college district serving Los Angeles, United States and some of its neighboring cities and certain unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Its headquarters are in Downtown Los Angeles. Over the past seventy-seven years LACCD has served as educator to more than three million students. In addition to typical college aged students, the LACCD serves adults of all ages. Indeed, over half of all LACCD students are older than 25 years of age, more than a quarter are 35 or older. LACCD educates three times as many Latino students and nearly four times as many African-American students as all of the University of California campuses combined. Eighty percent of LACCD students are from underserved populations; the Los Angeles Community College District is the largest community college district in the United States and is one of the largest in the world. The nine colleges within the district offer educational opportunities to students in Los Angeles.
It serves students located in the Alhambra, Beverly Hills, Culver City, Las Virgenes, Los Angeles, Palos Verdes and San Gabriel school districts. The district covers the Los Angeles city limits, San Fernando, Agoura Hills, Hidden Hills, West Hollywood, Beverly Hills, Culver City, Monterey Park, San Gabriel, Montebello, Vernon, Huntington Park, Cudahy, Bell Gardens, South Gate, Carson, Palos Verdes Estates, Rolling Hills, Rancho Palos Verdes, numerous unincorporated communities, including East Los Angeles, Florence-Firestone and Walnut Park; the LACCD covers an area of more than 882 square miles. East Los Angeles College Los Angeles City College Los Angeles Harbor College Los Angeles Mission College Los Angeles Pierce College Los Angeles Trade-Technical College Los Angeles Valley College Los Angeles Southwest College West Los Angeles College The Los Angeles Community College District is governed by an elected Board of Trustees first established in 1969; the board meets twice a month. The District is modernizing all of its facilities, including all nine of its colleges, through a $6 billion Building Program.
The program is funded through bond measures approved by voters in 2001, 2003, 2008, plus additional funding from the State of California. As of its most recent report $3.1 billion of the $6 billion has been spent or committed. Official website
The Simi Hills are a low rocky mountain range of the Transverse Ranges in eastern Ventura County and western Los Angeles County, of southern California, United States. The Simi Hills are aligned east-west and run for 26 miles, average around 7 mi in north-south width; the Simi Hills are part of the central Transverse Ranges System. They lie entirely within southeastern Ventura County, with some southern and eastern foothills within western Los Angeles County; the Simi Hills are on the western edge of the San Fernando Valley. The Simi Valley lies to the north, the Conejo Valley lies to the southwest; the San Fernando Valley communities of Chatsworth, West Hills, Woodland Hills are in the eastern hills and adjacent valley floor in Los Angeles city and county. The cities of Thousand Oaks, Agoura Hills, Simi Valley city are in the hills and adjacent valleys within Ventura County; the two nearby mountain ranges are: the higher Santa Susana Mountains adjacent on the northeast across Santa Susana Pass.
The hills provide the complete or partial watersheds for several year-round creeks and numerous seasonal streams. They include Las Virgenes Creek, Moore's Canyon Creek, Bell Creek, Dayton Creek, Woolsey Canyon Creek, Brandeis Creek, Runkle Canyon Creek, Arroyo Simi, Palo Comado Creek, Cheeseboro Creek, Arroyo Calabasas. Bell Creek and Arroyo Calabasas are the headwaters of the Los Angeles River, by name its beginning with their confluence in nearby Canoga Park. 90% of the Santa Susana Field Lab property drains into the Los Angeles River via tributaries. Peaks in this region include Simi Peak, 2,403 ft, Chatsworth Peak, 2,314 ft, Escorpión Peak, 1,475 ft; because of its low elevation, the Simi Hills experience rainy, mild winters. Snow is rare in the Simi Hills in the highest areas. Summers are warm and dry and wildfires do occur here. Cool winds from the Pacific Ocean come from the Oxnard Plain and blow into the inland areas through the Santa Clara River Valley and the Conejo Valley, though some low hills, such as Conejo Mountain, block these winds from the Conejo Valley.
The Simi Hills further block these winds, which bring cool weather in both summer and winter from the San Fernando Valley. The southern lower hills are covered in grasslands and oak savanna; the northern rocky hills area is chaparral shrubland and oak woodlands. The Simi Hills are part of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion; the oaks include: the evergreen coastal live oak, the deciduous valley oak, the scrub oak. Riparian zone plants include California arroyo willows. Spring wildflowers include the redbush monkey flower, Plummer's mariposa lily, canyon sunflower. Poison oak is an important member of the native plant habitat community here; the Simi Hills is the principal, much wider, of only two terrestrial wildlife corridors linking the coastal Santa Monica Mountains with the inland Santa Susana Mountains, Topatopa Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains, all of the transverse ranges fauna community. The Simi Hills are the most critical wildlife corridor linkage for the Santa Monica Mountains to these and other Transverse Ranges further east.
The Simi's undeveloped native habitat provides routes that protect larger land wildlife of the Santa Monicas from genetic isolation. Large sections of the Simi Hills are protected by parks and open space preserves; the Santa Susana Field Laboratory property, a crucial wildlife corridor to the Santa Susanas, has been proposed for public open space parkland after the closed site's cleanup completion. The Simi Hills were inhabited for over 8,000 years by Paleo-indians and Chumash-Venturaño Native Americans for settlements and hunting grounds; the Chumash had the established village of Hu'wam in Cañon del Escorpión. It was a multicultural'crossroads' destination, where Chumash and Tataviam peoples traded and lived beside Bell Creek below Escorpión Peak, at the present day Bell Canyon Park; this peak in the Simi Hills is one of nine alignment points in Chumash territory and is essential to maintaining the balance of the natural world. Upstream were healing springs and are rock outcrop'grinding stones.'
The Burro Flats Painted Cave, an example of the Rock art of the Chumash people, is nearby. The Juan Bautista de Anza expedition passed through the area in 1769, being the first European sighting of the Simi Hills; the U. S. National Park Service administers the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail which enters at Moore Canyon in El Escorpión Park and crosses across the southern Hills through Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve and Cheeseboro/Palo Comado Canyon Park to the Conejo Valley. In 1845 the land grant for Rancho El Escorpión, beside the Peak and named for it, was issued to one Chumash and two Tongva people and a rare instance of Native Americans being grantees, by Mexican Governor Pío Pico; the Rancho El Conejo was to the west, included that end of the Simi Hills. In the first half of the 20th century, there were four large movie ranches in the Simi Hills for filming motion pictures on location; the gated community of Bell Canyon began development of geographic Bell Canyon in the 1968.
To the north of U. S. 101, east of Thousand Oaks, west of Simi Valley the early 1960s suburban expansion of metropolitan Los Angeles brought the development of small to sized parcels of land in the Simi Hills. Hillside subd
A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures. This allows an exchange of individuals between populations, which may help prevent the negative effects of inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity that occur within isolated populations. Corridors may help facilitate the re-establishment of populations that have been reduced or eliminated due to random events; this may moderate some of the worst effects of habitat fragmentation, wherein urbanization can split up habitat areas, causing animals to lose both their natural habitat and the ability to move between regions to use all of the resources they need to survive. Habitat fragmentation due to human development is an ever-increasing threat to biodiversity, habitat corridors are a possible mitigation; the main goal of implementing habitat corridors is to increase biodiversity. When areas of land are broken up by human interference, population numbers become unstable and many animal and plant species become endangered.
By re-connecting the fragments, the population fluctuations can decrease dramatically. Corridors can contribute to three factors that stabilize a population: Colonization—animals are able to move and occupy new areas when food sources or other natural resources are lacking in their core habitat. Migration—species that relocate seasonally can do so more safely and when it does not interfere with human development barriers. Interbreeding—animals can find new mates in neighboring regions so that genetic diversity can increase and thus have a positive impact on the overall population. Rosenberg et.al. were among the first to define what constitutes a wildlife corridor. The definitions of "biological corridor" had, in the early years of studying corridors, been "vague and inconsistent, they confound form and function" Rosenberg et.al. Developed a conceptual model that emphasized the role of a wildlife corridor as a facilitator of movement, not restricted by requirements of native vegetation or intermediate target patches of habitat.
Their definition required that movement to a target patch via the corridor be greater that if the corridor were absent. Although corridors had been implemented with the assumption that they would increase biodiversity, not enough research had been done to come to a solid conclusion; the case for corridors has been built much less on empirical evidence. Tewksbury et. al. claimed that the early controversies had arisen because most studies had been limited in that they had a narrow taxonomic focus and, that if corridors facilitate animal movement, they should have strong indirect effects on plant populations due to increased pollen and seed by animals. Results of their 2002 experiment provided a large-scale experimental demonstration that habitat corridors facilitate movement of disparate taxa between otherwise isolated patches after controlling for area effects. Another factor that needs to be taken into account is; some species have reacted more positively to corridors than others. A habitat corridor could be considered as a possible solution in an area where the destruction of a natural area has affected its native species.
Development such as roads and farms can interrupt plants and animals in the region being destroyed. Furthermore, natural disasters such as wildfires and floods can leave animals with no choice but to evacuate. If the habitat is not connected to a safer one, it will lead to death. A remaining portion of natural habitat is called a remnant, such portions need to be connected because when migration decreases, extinction increases. Corridors can be made in two distinct areas -- land. Water corridors are called riparian ribbons and come in the form of rivers and streams. Land corridors come on a scale as large as wooded strips connecting larger woodland areas. However, they can be as simple as a line of shrubs along a sidewalk; such areas can facilitate the movement of small animals birds, from tree to tree, until they find a safe habitat to nest in. Not only do minimal corridors aid in the movement of animals, they are aesthetically pleasing, which can sometimes encourage the community to accept and support them.
Species can be categorized in one of two groups. Passage users occupy corridors for brief periods of time; these animals use corridors for such events as seasonal migration, dispersal of a juvenile, or moving between parts of a large home range. Large herbivores, medium to large carnivores, migratory species are passage users. One common misconception is that the corridor only needs to be wide enough for the passage users to get through. However, the corridor still must be wide enough to be safe and encourage the animals to use it though they do not live out their entire lives in it. Corridor dwellers can occupy the passage anywhere from several days to several years. Species such as plants, amphibians, birds and small mammals can spend their entire lives in linear habitats. In this case, the corridor must include everything that a species needs to live and breed, such as soil for germination, burrowing areas, multiple other breeding adults. Habitat corridors can be categorized according to their width.
The wider the corridor, the more use it will get from species. However, the width-length ratio, as well as d
Los Angeles Public Library
The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. The system holds more than six million volumes, with over 18 million residents in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded library system in the United States; the system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter. Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, periodicals, computer access and audiovisual materials are available to patrons. Books and audiobooks are loaned for 3 weeks. Music cassettes, music CDs, documentary videos, documentary DVDs are loaned for 1 week. Entertainment videos and entertainment DVDs are loaned for 4 days. Fines are charged. There is a loan limit of 10 books, 10 magazines, 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron's record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library.
Most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time; the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community. The Library's Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location. There is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, language learning tools; the Central Library at 630 West 5th Street, between Grand Avenue and Flower Street in Downtown Los Angeles, remains an important research library, despite the development of accessible databases and public access to the Internet. The library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma; the Los Angeles Library Association was formed in late 1872, by early 1873, a well-stocked reading room had opened under the first librarian, John Littlefield.
Aggressive expansion and growth of the system began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a large network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library sometime prior to 1970; the historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark. The Central Library was designed by Bertram Goodhue; the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings. Named the Central Library, the building was first renamed in honor of the longtime president of the Board of Library Commissioners and President of the University of Southern California, Rufus B. von KleinSmid. The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley; the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library.
The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor given to museums and libraries for service to the community. City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20, 2015; the Los Angeles Public Library was selected for its success in meeting the needs of Angelenos and providing a level of social and cultural services unmatched by any other public institution in the city. The award recognizes the library's programs that help people on their path to citizenship, earn their high school diploma, manage personal finances and access health and well-being services and resources. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture; the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the "Light of Learning" at the apex.
Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics. It has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska designed by Goodhue; the interior of the library is decorated with various figures, statues and grilles, notably a four-part mural by illustrator Dean Cornwell depicting stages of the History of California, completed around 1933. The building is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Central Library was extensively renovated and expanded in a Modernist/Beaux-Arts architecture, according to Norman Pfeiffer, the principal architect of the renovation by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates from 1988 through 1993. It included an eight-story atrium wing dedicated to former mayor Tom Bradley. Now, the library contains an area of 538,000 square feet, has nearly 89 miles of shelves and seating for over 1,400 people; the building's limited access had caused a number of problems.
The accessible public stacks in the reading rooms only displayed about 10 to 20 percent of the actual collections of the Central Library. For anything else, a patron had to submit a request slip and a clerk would retrieve the desired material from the internal stacks. Internal stacks