The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Lifeguard towers are used at recreational beaches to watch and supervise swimmers in order to prevent drownings and other dangers. Lifeguards scan for trouble from the structures, which vary from beach bungalows by the ocean to poolside towers, lifeguard towers are used to spot sharks and other threats. The towers have featured in shows including Baywatch. Their construction is sometimes paid for with fundraisers, and their operation, design contests have challenged architects to offer their visions of the structures. Architect Frank Gehry designed a lifeguard tower into a house as part of a remodel in Venice Beach, the superstar West Coast architects were part of an exhibit of drawings and models of proposals for designer lifeguard towers in 1990. A similar contest was held in 2004 in Miami Beach with 25 local architects, the contest was organized by Jeremy Calleros Gauger, a graduate student at the University of Miami School of Architecture, and the designs were displayed at the Ocean Beach Auditorium.
The winners announced were a functional cube with louvers and a modified surfboard design, a striking design called Plank earned an honorable because there had to be space for a lifeguard to change out of a wet bathing suit. A May 21,2006 Family Guy episode featured Stewie trying to destroy his rival by blowing up the lifeguard tower
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid 1950s. The terms popular music and pop music are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular. Pop and rock were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they were used in opposition from each other. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music. Pop music is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other such as urban, rock, Latin. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a format, as well as the common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, according to Pete Seeger, pop music is professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music, the music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs.
Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately, pop music continuously evolves along with the terms definition. The term pop song was first recorded as being used in 1926, Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pops earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience. Since the late 1950s, pop has had the meaning of non-classical mus, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles. Grove Music Online states that, in the early 1960s pop music competed terminologically with beat music, while in the USA its coverage overlapped with that of rock and roll. From about 1967, the term was used in opposition to the term rock music. Whereas rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral. It is not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward, and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative.
It is, provided from on high rather than being made from below, pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged. The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment, the lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes – often love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions
A Gesamtkunstwerk is a work of art that makes use of all or many art forms or strives to do so. The term is a German word which has come to be accepted in English as a term in aesthetics, the term was first used by the German writer and philosopher K. F. E. Trahndorff in an essay in 1827. The German opera composer Richard Wagner used the term in two 1849 essays, and the word has become associated with his aesthetic ideals. It is unclear whether Wagner knew of Trahndorffs essay, in the twentieth century, some writers applied the term to some forms of architecture, while others have applied it to film and mass media. Some elements of opera reform, seeking a more classical formula, had begun at the end of the 18th century and this movement, reform opera is primarily associated with Christoph Willibald Gluck and Ranieri de Calzabigi. Others who wrote on syntheses of the arts included Gottfried Lessing, Ludwig Tieck, carl Maria von Webers enthusiastic review of E. T. A. He used in these essays many similar such as the consummate artwork of the future and the integrated drama.
Such a work of art was to be the clearest and most profound expression of folk legend, Wagner felt that the Greek tragedies of Aeschylus had been the finest examples so far of total artistic synthesis, but that this synthesis had subsequently been corrupted by Euripides. Wagner felt that during the rest of history up to the present day the arts had drifted further and further apart. Wagner felt that such works celebrated bravura singing, sensational stage effects, in Art and Revolution Wagner applies the term Gesamtkunstwerk in the context of Greek tragedy. In The Art-Work of the Future he uses it to apply to his own, as yet unrealised, ideal. In his extensive book Opera and Drama he takes these ideas further, describing in detail his idea of the union of opera and drama, in which the individual arts are subordinated to a common purpose. It has been argued by historian Robert L. Delevoy that Art Nouveau represented an essentially decorative trend that thus lent itself to the idea of the architectural Gesamtkunstwerk.
But it is possible it was born from social theories that arose out of a fear of the rise of industrialism. However evidence of complete interiors that typify the concept of Gesamtkunstwerk can be some time before the 1890s. There was a trend amongst architects in the 18th and 19th centuries to control every facet of an architectural commission. As well as being responsible for just the structure they tried to extend their role to include designing every aspect of the work as well. This included not only the architectural features but was extended to the design of furniture, wallpaper, fabrics
Arne Emil Jacobsen, Hon. FAIA was a Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for his contribution to architectural Functionalism as well as for the success he enjoyed with simple. Arne Jacobsen was born on 11 February 1902 in Copenhagen and his father Johan was a wholesale trader in safety pins and snap fasteners. His mother Pouline was a bank teller whose hobby was painting floral motifs and he first hoped to become a painter but was dissuaded by his father who encouraged him to opt instead for the more secure domain of architecture. Still a student, in 1925 Jacobsen participated in the Paris Art Deco fair, Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, on that trip, he was struck by the pioneering aesthetic of Le Corbusiers LEsprit Nouveau pavilion. Before leaving the Academy, Jacobsen travelled to Germany, where he acquainted with the rationalist architecture of Mies van der Rohe. Their work influenced his early designs including his graduation project, an art gallery, after completing architecture school, he first worked at city architect Poul Holsøes architectural practice.
It was a spiral-shaped, flat-roofed house in glass and concrete, incorporating a private garage, a boathouse, other striking features were windows that rolled down like car windows, a conveyor tube for the mail and a kitchen stocked with ready-made meals. A Dodge Cabriolet Coupé was parked in the garage, there was a Chris Craft in the boathouse, Jacobsen immediately became recognised as an ultra-modern architect. The year after winning the House of the Future award, Arne Jacobsen set up his own office and he designed the functionalist Rothenborg House, which he planned in every detail, a characteristic of many of his works. Soon afterwards, he won a competition from Gentofte Municipality for the design of a resort complex in Klampenborg on the Øresund coast just north of Copenhagen. The various components of the resort became his major breakthrough in Denmark. In 1932, the first item, the Bellevue Sea Bath, was completed, Jacobsen designed everything from the characteristic blue-striped lifeguard towers and changing cabins to the tickets, season cards and even the uniforms of the employees.
The focal point of the area was supposed to have been a tower, more than a hundred metres high with a revolving restaurant at the top. Still, it is reflected in the arrangement of buildings in the area which all follow lines that extend from their missing centre. In 1934, came the Bellavista residential development, built in concrete and glass, with surfaces and open floor planning. Completing the white trilogy in 1937, the Bellevue Theatre featured a retractable roof allowing open-air performances and these early works clearly show the influence of the White Cubist architecture Jacobsen had encountered in Germany, particularly at the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart. The cluster of buildings at Bellevue includes the Skovshoved Filling Station
Thorvald August Marinus Stauning was the first social democratic Prime Minister of Denmark. He served as Prime Minister from 1924 to 1926 and again from 1929 until his death in 1942, the Stauning Alps, a large mountain range in Greenland, were named after him. Stauning was trained as a cigar sorter and soon involved with trade union activity. From 1896 to 1908 he was leader of the Cigar Sorters Union, in 1898 –1904 editor of the magazine Samarbejdet of the Federation of Trade Unions, and elected Member of Parliament in 1906. In 1910 he was elected chairman of the Social Democratic Party, under Staunings leadership Denmark, like the other Scandinavian countries, developed a social welfare state. Its often proposed that the coalition cabinet actively averted the communist and fascist movements that were sweeping much of Europe from developing a strong following in Denmark. In January 1933, Staunings government entered into what was the most extensive settlement yet in Danish politics—the Kanslergade settlement —with the liberal party Venstre, Stauning holds a record in Danish politics, in having successfully sought re-election no less than three times.
However, an attempt to amend the Constitution failed in 1939 and this came as a tremendous blow to Stauning, who seemed to lose his previously sure touch for politics thereafter. He reportedly considered resigning in the wake of the referendum failure, Stauning died in 1942, deeply depressed about the future of Social Democracy in a Nazi-dominated Europe. The following Great Depression brought Danish unemployment to unprecedented heights and this period of widespread social malaise was fertile ground for leaders, who could communicate a confident and coherent vision to the masses. He was given a funeral in 1942, an honour normally not bestowed on Danish prime ministers. Although Denmarks relationship with Germany during World War II has been controversial and his popularity in the 1930s acted as a force limiting the growth of other populist parties, most importantly, the Nazi party, which remained politically insignificant. In return, Stauning kept the pro-republican elements of the Social Democratic Party in line and his government was responsible for laying the foundations to the future Danish welfare state
A beach hut is a small, usually wooden and often brightly coloured, box above the high tide mark on popular bathing beaches. They are generally used as a shelter from the sun or wind, changing into and out of swimming costumes, some beach huts incorporate simple facilities for preparing food and hot drinks by either bottled gas or occasionally mains electricity. At many seaside resorts, beach huts are arranged in one or more ranks along the top of the beach, depending upon the location, beach huts may be owned privately or may be owned by the local council or similar administrative body. On popular beaches, privately owned beach huts can command substantial prices due to their convenient location, out of all proportion to their size and amenity. A pre-war wooden beach chalet at West Bexington, Dorset sold at auction for £216,000 in 2006, however these were exceptional as in both cases overnight stays were possible. Prices in 2009 for typical huts around the UK started from £6,000 in Walton on the Naze, in January 2016 a beach hut was sold in Brighton, Australia for a record $285,000.
Locations in other countries include Wimereux, Cape Town, South Africa, Nesodden and Brighton and elsewhere around Port Phillip, the noted bathing boxes at Brighton in Australia are known to have existed as far back as 1862. They had evolved from the bathing machines used by Victorians to preserve their modesty. During World War II all UK beaches were closed, the reopening in the late 1940s and 1950s led to resurgence of the British beach holiday, designed by F. P. Dolamore, Bournemouths Borough Engineer, they were offered for hire for £12 10s per year. 160 huts, or bungalows as they were styled, were built before the World War I. Today, Bournemouth features around 520 huts owned by the Council and they vary in style from the traditional, shed-like constructions to the ultra modern, concrete terrace style huts such as the 1950s Overstrand beach huts at Boscombe. These were renovated to designs by Wayne and Gerardine Hemingway, founders of the Red or Dead label, the Queens beach hut in Norfolk was destroyed by fire in 2003.
The building had been owned by the Royal Family for 70 years and was known to be loved by the Queen. More recently the artist, Tracey Emin, sold her Whitstable beach hut to the collector, Charles Saatchi and this hut was destroyed by fire when the warehouse where it was stored burnt down. In April 2011 Bournemouth Council obtained planning permission to site a beach hut chapel on the sand to host wedding, the super beach hut is located on Bournemouths beach under the West Cliff lift. Bach Bathing machine Boatshed British Seaside History BBC Discovering Southwold - Beach Huts
Lawns are used around houses, commercial buildings and offices. Many city parks have large lawn areas, in recreational contexts, the specialised names turf, field or green may be used, depending on the sport and the continent. The term lawn, referring to a managed grass space, dates to no earlier than the 16th century, in many suburban areas, there are bylaws in place requiring houses to have lawns and requiring the proper maintenance of these lawns. In some jurisdictions there are water shortages, local government authorities are encouraging alternatives to lawns to reduce water use. Lawn is a cognate of llan which is derived from the Common Brittonic word landa that originally means heath, barren land, Lawns may have originated as grassed enclosures within early medieval settlements used for communal grazing of livestock, as distinct from fields reserved for agriculture. The word laune is first attested in 1540, and is related to the Celtic Brythonic word lan/llan/laun. Lawns became popular with the aristocracy in northern Europe from the Middle Ages onward, the early lawns were not always distinguishable from pasture fields.
It is speculated that the association between the word pasture and biblical mentions made lawns a cultural affinity for some, the damp climate of maritime Western Europe in the north made lawns possible to grow and manage. They were not a part of gardens in other regions and cultures of the world until contemporary influence, before the invention of mowing machines in 1830, lawns were managed very differently. They were an element of wealthy estates and manor houses, in most situations, they were pasture land maintained through grazing by sheep or other livestock. Areas of grass grazed regularly by rabbits, horses or sheep over a period often form a very low. This was the meaning of the word lawn, and the term can still be found in place names. Some forest areas where extensive grazing is practiced still have these seminatural lawns, for example, in the New Forest, such grazed areas are common, and are known as lawns, for example Balmer Lawn. It was not until the 17th and 18th century that the garden and they were made up of meadow plants, such as camomile, a particular favorite.
In the early 17th century, the Jacobean epoch of gardening began, during this period, in the early 18th century, landscape gardening for the aristocracy entered a golden age, under the direction of William Kent and Lancelot Capability Brown. They refined the English landscape garden style with the design of natural, or romantic, remembered as Englands greatest gardener, designed over 170 parks, many of which still endure. His influence was so great that the contributions to the English garden made by his predecessors Charles Bridgeman and his work still endures at Croome Court, Blenheim Palace, Warwick Castle, Harewood House, Bowood House, Milton Abbey, in traces at Kew Gardens and many other locations. His landscapes were fundamentally different from what they replaced, the formal gardens of England which were criticised by Alexander Pope
Hip hop is a subculture and art movement developed by African-Americans and Latinos from the inner-city South Bronx neighbourhood in New York City in the late 1970s. Jamaican immigrant DJ Kool Herc played a key role in developing hip hop music, at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, Herc mixed samples of existing records and DJed percussion breaks, mixing this music with his own Jamaican-style toasting to rev up the crowd and dancers. These youths mixed these influences with existing musical styles associated with African Americans prior to the 1970s, Hip hop music became popular outside of the African-American community in the late 1980s, with the mainstream commercial success of gangsta rap. Critic Greg Tate described the hip hop movement as the only avant-garde still around, Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world. These elements were adapted and developed considerably, particularly as the art spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s.
Sampling older culture and re-using it in a new context or a new format is called flipping in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time, cowboy worked the hip hop cadence into his stage performance. The group frequently performed with artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them hip hoppers. The name was meant as a sign of disrespect, but soon came to identify this new music. The song Rappers Delight, by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase I said a hip, hop the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, and you dont stop. Lovebug Starski, a Bronx DJ who put out a single called The Positive Life in 1981, and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, There was hardly ever a moment when rap music was underground, one of the very first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Lovebug Starski as the first to use the hip hop.
Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades gang, did much to popularize the term. In the 1970s, an urban movement known as Hip Hop began to develop in the South Bronx in New York City. It focused on emceeing over breakbeats, house parties and neighbourhood block party events, Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities, particularly police and prisons. Jamaican-born DJ Clive Kool Herc Cindy Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion breaks in hip hop music, beginning at Hercs home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. Herc created the blueprint for hip hop music and culture by building upon the Jamaican tradition of impromptu toasting, on August 11,1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at his sisters back-to-school party
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Amager Strandpark is a seaside public park in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located on the island of Amager and includes an artificial island, from the beach, the Middelgrunden wind farm can be seen on the horizon. The park was founded in 1934 and in 2005 a 2 km-long artificial island was added, the island is separated from the original beach by a lagoon which is crossed by three bridges. The northern section has a beach environment with winding paths, broad sandy beaches. The southern section offers a so-called city beach with a broad promenade, there is a small marina and parking facilities at the southern end. The lagoon has low-water areas for children as well as a 1,000 m swimming course, the area is used for, runners and kayakers, among many others. From a small headland, it is possible to go diving, there is an area for outdoor fitness training. A grassy area at the end of the park, known as femøren, is often used for open-air rock concerts in summer. There are many Danish skaters, who skate there, the American pro skater Torey Pudwill has a picture-ad, where he kick-flips down double set stairs at Bunker 2. Øresund is a strait which allows rather fast temperature rises.
Possible bathing season is between mid-May and mid-September, however, to reach fairly good bathing temperatures in the afternoons, air temperature needs to be above 25 °C for about a week in May, while just a few days of heat is enough in August. During longer heat waves, water temperatures rise above 22 °C during the period of late June until early September. The water quality is very good. All local outlets to Øresund has been cleaned and disinfected since the 1970s. Water salinity is highly dependent on the current, with northbound current salinity may drop down a bit below 10 PSU, but with southbound current salinity rises to above 25 PCU, not so far from the northern Atlantic salinity of 30–33 PCU. The park is served by three stations, Øresund station to the north, Femøren station to the south. All stations are on the M2 line of the Copenhagen Metro and it is easily reached on bicycle in about 15 minutes from the city centre. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen Copenhagen Harbour Baths Bellevue Beach Official website