Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman and printmaker. An innovative and prolific master in three media, he is considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art and the most important in Dutch art history. Unlike most Dutch masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt's works depict a wide range of style and subject matter, from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes and historical scenes and mythological themes as well as animal studies, his contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age, when Dutch art, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was prolific and innovative, gave rise to important new genres. Like many artists of the Dutch Golden Age, such as Jan Vermeer of Delft, Rembrandt was an avid art collector and dealer. Rembrandt never went abroad, but he was influenced by the work of the Italian masters and Netherlandish artists who had studied in Italy, like Pieter Lastman, the Utrecht Caravaggists, Flemish Baroque Peter Paul Rubens.
Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. Rembrandt's portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs, his self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity. Rembrandt's foremost contribution in the history of printmaking was his transformation of the etching process from a new reproductive technique into a true art form, along with Jacques Callot, his reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, his wider reputation was based on them alone.
In his works he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization"; the French sculptor Auguste Rodin said, "Compare me with Rembrandt! What sacrilege! With Rembrandt, the colossus of Art! We should prostrate ourselves before Rembrandt and never compare anyone with him!" Vincent van Gogh wrote, "Rembrandt goes so deep into the mysterious that he says things for which there are no words in any language. It is with justice that they call Rembrandt—magician—that's no easy occupation." Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic, now the Netherlands. He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck, his family was quite well-to-do. Religion is a central theme in Rembrandt's paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest.
His mother was Roman Catholic, his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church. While his work reveals deep Christian faith, there is no evidence that Rembrandt formally belonged to any church, although he had five of his children christened in Dutch Reformed churches in Amsterdam: four in the Oude Kerk and one, Titus, in the Zuiderkerk; as a boy he attended Latin school. At the age of 14, he was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting. After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt stayed a few months with Jacob Pynas and started his own workshop, though Simon van Leeuwen claimed that Joris van Schooten taught Rembrandt in Leiden. Unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime, he opened a studio in Leiden in 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens.
In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of The Hague; as a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. At the end of 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, began to practice as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success, he stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburgh. Saskia came from a good family: her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester of Leeuwarden; when Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. Rembrandt and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandt's relatives. In the same
Walter Horatio Pater was an English essayist and art critic, fiction writer, regarded as one of the great stylists. His works on Renaissance subjects were popular but controversial, reflecting his lost belief in Christianity. Born in Stepney in London's East End, Walter Pater was the second son of Richard Glode Pater, a physician who had moved to London in the early 19th century to practice medicine among the poor. Dr Pater died while Walter was the family moved to Enfield, London. Walter was individually tutored by the headmaster. In 1853, he was sent to The King's School, where the beauty of the cathedral made an impression that would remain with him all his life, he was fourteen when his mother, Maria Pater, died in 1854. As a schoolboy Pater read John Ruskin's Modern Painters, which helped inspire his lifelong attraction to the study of art and gave him a taste for well-crafted prose, he gained a school exhibition, with which he proceeded in 1858 to Oxford. As an undergraduate, Pater was a "reading man", with literary and philosophical interests beyond the prescribed texts.
Flaubert, Gautier and Swinburne were among his early favourites. Visiting his aunt and sisters in Germany during the vacations, he learned German and began to read Hegel and the German philosophers; the scholar Benjamin Jowett was offered to give him private lessons. In Jowett's classes, Pater was a disappointment; as a boy Pater had cherished the idea of entering the Anglican clergy, but at Oxford his faith in Christianity had been shaken. In spite of his inclination towards the ritual and aesthetic elements of the church, he had little interest in Christian doctrine and did not pursue ordination. After graduating, Pater taught Classics and Philosophy to private students, his sister Clara Pater, a pioneer of women's education, taught ancient Greek and Latin at Somerville College, of which he was one of the co-founders. His years of study and reading now paid dividends: he was offered a classical fellowship in 1864 at Brasenose on the strength of his ability to teach modern German philosophy, he settled down to a university career.
The opportunities for wider study and teaching at Oxford, combined with formative visits to the Continent – in 1865 he visited Florence and Ravenna – meant that Pater's preoccupations now multiplied. He became acutely interested in art and literature, started to write articles and criticism. First to be printed was an essay on the metaphysics of Coleridge, "Coleridge's Writings" contributed anonymously in 1866 to the Westminster Review. A few months his essay on Winckelmann, an early expression of his intellectual and artistic idealism, appeared in the same review, followed by "The Poems of William Morris", expressing his admiration for romanticism. In the following years the Fortnightly Review printed his essays on Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, Michelangelo; the last three, with other similar pieces, were collected in his Studies in the History of the Renaissance, renamed in the second and editions The Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry. The Leonardo essay contains Pater's celebrated reverie on the Mona Lisa.
An essay on "The School of Giorgione", added to the third edition, contains Pater's much-quoted maxim "All art aspires towards the condition of music". The final paragraphs of the 1868 William Morris essay were reworked as the book's "Conclusion'; this brief "Conclusion" was to be Pater's most influential – and controversial – publication. It asserts that our physical lives are made up of scientific processes and elemental forces in perpetual motion, "renewed from moment to moment but parting sooner or on their ways". In the mind "the whirlpool is still more rapid": a drift of perceptions, feelings and memories, reduced to impressions "unstable, inconstant", "ringed round for each one of us by that thick wall of personality"; because all is in flux, to get the most from life, we must learn to discriminate through "sharp and eager observation": for Through such discrimination we may "get as many pulsations as possible into the given time": "To burn always with this hard, gem-like flame, to maintain this ecstasy, is success in life."
Forming habits means failure on our part. "While all melts under our feet," Pater wrote, "we may well catch at any exquisite passion, or any contribution to knowledge that seems by a lifted horizon to set the spirit free for a moment, or any stirring of the senses, or work of the artist's hands. Not to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us in the brilliancy of their gifts is, on this short day of frost and sun, to sleep before evening." The resulting "quickened, multiplied consciousness" counters our insecurity in the face of the flux. Moments of vision may come from simple natural effects, as Pater notes elsewhere in the book: "A sudden light transfigures a trivial thing, a weathervane, a windmill, a winnowing flail, the dust in the barn door.
Battle of Cape St Vincent (1797)
The Battle of Cape St Vincent was one of the opening battles of the Anglo-Spanish War, as part of the French Revolutionary Wars, where a British fleet under Admiral Sir John Jervis defeated a larger Spanish fleet under Admiral Don José de Córdoba y Ramos near Cape St. Vincent, Portugal. After the signing of the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1796 allying Spanish and French forces against Great Britain, the British navy blockaded Spain in 1797, impairing communications with its Spanish Empire; the Spanish declaration of war on Britain and Portugal in October 1796 made the British position in the Mediterranean untenable. The combined Franco-Spanish fleet of 38 ships of the line outnumbered the British Mediterranean Fleet of fifteen ships of the line, forcing the British to evacuate their positions in first Corsica and Elba. Early in 1797, the Spanish fleet of 27 ships of the line, which were supposed to join the French fleet at Brest lay at Cartagena, on the Mediterranean Sea, with the intention of sailing to Cádiz as an escort of a 57 merchant convoy, carrying mercury—necessary for gold and silver production—which would enter that Spanish harbour along with warships Neptuno and Bahama, prior to running into the British force.
Don José de Córdoba and the Spanish fleet left Cartagena on 1 February and might have reached Cádiz safely but for a fierce Levanter, the easterly wind, blowing between Gibraltar and Cádiz, which pushed the Spanish fleet further out into the Atlantic than intended. As the winds died down, the fleet began working its way back to Cádiz. In the meantime, the British Mediterranean Fleet, under Admiral Sir John Jervis, had sailed from the Tagus with ten ships of the line to try to intercept the Spanish fleet. On 6 February, Jervis was joined off Cape St. Vincent by a reinforcement of five ships of the line from the Channel Fleet under Rear-Admiral William Parker. On 11 February, the British frigate HMS Minerve, under the command of Commodore Horatio Nelson, passed through the Spanish fleet unseen thanks to heavy fog. Nelson reached the British fleet of fifteen ships off Spain on 13 February, passed the location of the Spanish fleet to Jervis, commanding the fleet from his flagship Victory. Unaware of the size of his opponent's fleet—in the fog, Nelson had not been able to count them—Jervis's squadron sailed to intercept.
Unaware of the British presence, the Spanish continued toward Cádiz. Early on the 14th, Jervis learnt. During the night came the sounds that the British fleet had been waiting to hear – the signal guns of the Spanish ships in the fog. At 2:50 a.m. came the report that the Spanish fleet was some fifteen miles distant. By early morning, at 5:30 a.m. Niger reported them to be closer still; as the dawn came, it brought a foggy February morning. In the increasing light, Jervis saw his fleet around him, he turned to his officers on the quarter-deck of Victory and said, "A victory to England is essential at this moment." Jervis gave orders for the fleet to prepare for the coming action. Captain Thomas Troubridge in Culloden was in the lead. At 6:30 a.m. Culloden signalled that she could see five enemy sail to the south east, with Blenheim and Prince George turned toward the Spanish ships. Jervis had no idea of the size of the fleet he was up against; as they loomed up out of the fog, a signal lieutenant in Barfleur described them as "thumpers, looming like Beachy Head in a fog."
As dawn broke, Jervis's ships were in position to engage the Spanish. On the quarter-deck of Victory, Captain Robert Calder and Captain Benjamin Hallowell counted the ships, it was at this point Jervis discovered that he was outnumbered nearly two-to-one: "There are eight sail of the line, Sir John" "Very well, sir" "There are twenty sail of the line, Sir John" "Very well, sir" "There are twenty five sail of the line, Sir John" "Very well, sir" "There are twenty seven sail of the line, Sir John" "Enough, sir, no more of that. Meanwhile, the Canadian Captain Hallowell became so excited that he thumped the Admiral on the back, "That's right Sir John, and, by God, we'll give them a damn good licking!"As the light grew, it became obvious that the Spanish ships were formed in two loose columns, one of about 18 ships to windward and the other, of about nine ships, somewhat closer to the British. At about 10:30 a.m. the Spanish ships in the weather column were seen to wear turn to port. This gave the impression that they might form a line and pass along the weather column of the British fleet, exposing the smaller British column to the fire of the larger Spanish division.
At 11:00 a.m. Jervis gave his order: Form in a line of battle ahead and astern of Victory as most convenient; when this order was completed the British fleet had formed a single line of battle, sailing in a southerly direction on a course to pass between the two Spanish columns. At 11:12 a.m. Jervis made his next signal: Engage the enemy and at 11:30 a.m. Admiral intends to pass through enemy lines. To the British advantage, the Spanish fleet was formed into two groups and was unprepared for battle, while the British were in line. Jervis ordered the British fleet to pass between the two groups, minimising the fire they could put into him, while letting him fire in both directions Culloden tacked to reverse her course and take after the Spanish column. Blenheim and Prince George did the same in succession; the Spanish lee divis
Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1 depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403. From the start, it has been an popular play both with the public and critics. Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign, his personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland and Wales prevent that. Moreover, he is at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions.
This calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince; the play features three groups of characters that interact at first, come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is his immediate council, he is the engine of the play, but in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester; the Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower join. At the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal and his companions Falstaff, Poins and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy; as the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon.
Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke." By Act II, rebellion is brewing. Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking and thieving with Falstaff and his associates, he makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of hearing Falstaff lie about it after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some noble exploits.
Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys quickly gives him his chance to do just that; the high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, orders Falstaff to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury; the battle is crucial because if the rebels achieve a standoff their cause gains as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here, he outnumbers the rebels. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet, they will fight – for glory, for their lives, for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails killing Hotspur in single combat.
On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably", not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle. Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill. Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do"; the play ends after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels, the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies.
Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour.
Alvise Tagliapietra was an Venetian baroque sculptor. Tagliapietra was born in Venice in 1670 and died there in 1747. Between 1705 and 1711, he and his studio carved several standing marble figures for the high altar of the Church of Saint Chrysogonus in Zadar. John Julius Norwich writes of the statue of St. Simeon: "This figure's exaggerated contrapposto and exotic vestments make it a memorable statue." Shortly thereafter, Tagliapietra was one of several Italians commissioned to contribute sculptures to the Catherine Park at Tsarskoye Selo outside of St. Petersburg. Another work attributed to Tagliapietra, but questioned by Norwich, is a Madonna of the Rosary in the Church of Saint Dominic in Split, Croatia, he worked with his sons Ambrogio and Giuseppe on the Church of St. George and St. Euphemia in Rovinj, now in Croatia. In his native Venice, his works include the statue of Temperance on the facade of the Gesuati, the baptistry and pulpit sculpted in 1732 for the Church of San Moisè, the baptistry of the Oratorio of St. Martin in Chioggia.
He produced reliefs of the Visitation and the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple in the Chapel of the Rosary in the Basilica of Santi Giovanni e Paolo there. Baptistry in Chioggia
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars was the god of war and an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him, in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming. Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares, whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars, but the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature. Mars was a part of the Archaic Triad along with Jupiter and Quirinus, the latter of whom, as a guardian of the Roman people, had no Greek equivalent. Mars' altar in the Campus Martius, the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa, the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome.
Although the center of Mars' worship was located outside the sacred boundary of Rome, Augustus made the god a renewed focus of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum. Although Ares was viewed as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, was a father of the Roman people. In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome, Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia, his love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome's founding. The importance of Mars in establishing religious and cultural identity within the Roman Empire is indicated by the vast number of inscriptions identifying him with a local deity in the Western provinces. Mars may be a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European god Perkwunos, having a thunderer character. At least etymological Etruscan predecessors are present in Maris, though this is not universally agreed upon. Like Ares, the son of Zeus and Hera, Mars is considered to be the son of Jupiter and Juno.
However, in a version of his birth given by Ovid, he was the son of Juno alone. Jupiter had usurped the mother's function. Flora tested it on a heifer who became fecund at once, she plucked a flower ritually using her thumb, touched Juno's belly, impregnated her. Juno withdrew to the shore of Marmara for the birth. Ovid tells this story in his long-form poetic work on the Roman calendar, it may explain why the Matronalia, a festival celebrated by married women in honor of Juno as a goddess of childbirth, occurred on the first day of Mars' month, marked on a calendar from late antiquity as the birthday of Mars. In the earliest Roman calendar, March was the first month, the god would have been born with the new year. Ovid is the only source for the story, he may be presenting a literary myth of his own invention, or an otherwise unknown archaic Italic tradition. The consort of Mars was Nerio or Neriene, "Valor." She represents the vital force and majesty of Mars. Her name was regarded as Sabine in origin and is equivalent to Latin virtus, "manly virtue".
In the early 3rd century BC, the comic playwright Plautus has a reference to Mars greeting Nerio, his wife. A source from late antiquity says that Mars and Neriene were celebrated together at a festival held on March 23. In the Roman Empire, Neriene came to be identified with Minerva. Nerio originates as a divine personification of Mars' power, as such abstractions in Latin are feminine, her name appears with that of Mars in an archaic prayer invoking a series of abstract qualities, each paired with the name of a deity. The influence of Greek mythology and its anthropomorphic gods may have caused Roman writers to treat these pairs as "marriages." The union of Venus and Mars held greater appeal for poets and philosophers, the couple were a frequent subject of art. In Greek myth, the adultery of Ares and Aphrodite had been exposed to ridicule when her husband Hephaestus caught them in the act by means of a magical snare. Although not part of the Roman tradition, in 217 BC Venus and Mars were presented as a complementary pair in the lectisternium, a public banquet at which images of twelve major gods of the Roman state were presented on couches as if present and participating.
Scenes of Venus and Mars in Roman art ignore the adulterous implications of their union, take pleasure in the good-looking couple attended by Cupid or multiple Loves. Some scenes may imply marriage, the relationship was romanticized in funerary or domestic art in which husbands and wives had themselves portrayed as the passionate divine couple; the uniting of deities representing Love and War lent itself to allegory since the lovers were the parents of Concordia. The Renaissance philosopher Marsilio Ficino notes that "only Venus dominates Mars, he never dominates her". In ancient Roman and Renaissance art, Mars is shown disarmed and relaxed, or sleeping, but the extram
Cybele is an Anatolian mother goddess. She is Phrygia's only known goddess, was its national deity, her Phrygian cult was adopted and adapted by Greek colonists of Asia Minor and spread to mainland Greece and its more distant western colonies around the 6th century BC. In Greece, Cybele met with a mixed reception, she was assimilated to aspects of the Earth-goddess Gaia, her Minoan equivalent Rhea, the harvest–mother goddess Demeter. Some city-states, notably Athens, evoked her as a protector, but her most celebrated Greek rites and processions show her as an foreign, exotic mystery-goddess who arrives in a lion-drawn chariot to the accompaniment of wild music, a disorderly, ecstatic following. Uniquely in Greek religion, she had a eunuch mendicant priesthood. Many of her Greek cults included rites to a divine Phrygian castrate shepherd-consort Attis, a Greek invention. In Greece, Cybele is associated with mountains and city walls, fertile nature, wild animals lions. In Rome, Cybele was known as Magna Mater.
The Roman state adopted and developed a particular form of her cult after the Sibylline oracle recommended her conscription as a key religious ally in Rome's second war against Carthage. Roman mythographers reinvented her as a Trojan goddess, thus an ancestral goddess of the Roman people by way of the Trojan prince Aeneas. With Rome's eventual hegemony over the Mediterranean world, Romanized forms of Cybele's cults spread throughout the Roman Empire; the meaning and morality of her cults and priesthoods were topics of debate and dispute in Greek and Roman literature, remain so in modern scholarship. No contemporary text or myth survives to attest the original character and nature of Cybele's Phrygian cult, she may have evolved from a statuary type found at Çatalhöyük in Anatolia, dated to the 6th millennium BC and identified by some as a mother goddess. In Phrygian art of the 8th century BC, the cult attributes of the Phrygian mother-goddess include attendant lions, a bird of prey, a small vase for her libations or other offerings.
The inscription Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya at a Phrygian rock-cut shrine, dated to the first half of the 6th century BC, is read as "Mother of the mountain", a reading supported by ancient classical sources, consistent with Cybele as any of several similar tutelary goddesses, each known as "mother" and associated with specific Anatolian mountains or other localities: a goddess thus "born from stone". She is ancient Phrygia's only known goddess, was the highest deity of the Phrygian state. In the 2nd century AD, the geographer Pausanias attests to a Magnesian cult to "the mother of the gods", whose image was carved into a rock-spur of Mount Sipylus; this was believed to be the oldest image of the goddess, was attributed to the legendary Broteas. At Pessinos in Phrygia, the mother goddess—identified by the Greeks as Cybele—took the form of an unshaped stone of black meteoric iron, may have been associated with or identical to Agdistis, Pessinos' mountain deity; this was the aniconic stone, removed to Rome in 204 BC.
Images and iconography in funerary contexts, the ubiquity of her Phrygian name Matar, suggest that she was a mediator between the "boundaries of the known and unknown": the civilized and the wild, the worlds of the living and the dead. Her association with hawks and the stone of the mountainous landscape of the Anatolian wilderness, seem to characterize her as mother of the land in its untrammeled natural state, with power to rule, moderate or soften its latent ferocity, to control its potential threats to a settled, civilized life. Anatolian elites sought to harness her protective power to forms of ruler-cult; as protector of cities, or city states, she was sometimes shown wearing a mural crown, representing the city walls. At the same time, her power "transcended any purely political usage and spoke directly to the goddess' followers from all walks of life"; some Phrygian shaft monuments are thought to have been used for libations and blood offerings to Cybele anticipating by several centuries the pit used in her taurobolium and criobolium sacrifices during the Roman imperial era.
Over time, her Phrygian cults and iconography were transformed, subsumed, by the influences and interpretations of her foreign devotees, at first Greek and Roman. From around the 6th century BC, cults to the Anatolian mother-goddess were introduced from Phrygia into the ethnically Greek colonies of western Anatolia, mainland Greece, the Aegean islands and the westerly colonies of Magna Graecia; the Greeks called her Mātēr or Mētēr, or from the early 5th century Kubelē. Walter Burkert places her among the "foreign gods" of Greek religion, a complex figure combining the Minoan-Mycenaean tradition with the Phrygian cult imported directly from Asia Minor. In Greece, as in Phrygia, she was a "Mistress of animals", with her mastery of the natural world expressed by the lions that flank her, sit in her lap or draw her chariot, she was assimilated to the Minoan-Greek earth-mother Rhea, "Mother of the gods", whose raucous, ecstatic rites she may have acquired. As an exemplar of devoted motherhood, she was assimilated to the grain-godd