United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Brenham is a city in east-central Texas in Washington County, United States, with a population of 15,716 according to the 2010 U. S. census. It is the county seat of Washington County. Brenham is south of College Station, about halfway between Houston and Austin 70 miles northwest of Houston, about 90 miles east of Austin. Brenham is renowned as the heart of the bluebonnet region in Central Texas; the local chamber of commerce promotes the Bluebonnet Trails and offers free maps to guide visitors along the most scenic wildflower routes, which pass historic sites and attractions. Washington County is known as the "Birthplace of Texas," as it contains the site of the signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence on March 2, 1836 in the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos; this is now a state historic site. Brenham is known for its annual German heritage festival that takes place each May called Maifest, similar to Volksfest. Numerous German immigrants settled here in the mid-nineteenth century, following the Revolutions in German states in 1848.
Brenham is the Home of "The World's Largest BBQ Pit" on 290 West. Brenham is located at 30°9′43″N 96°23′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.8 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,507 people, 4,907 households, 3,115 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,541.5 people per square mile. There were 5,317 housing units at an average density of 606.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.99% White, 21.91% African American, 0.25% Native American, 1.86% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 4.75% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.25% of the population. There were 4,907 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 15.9% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, 18.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,198, the median income for a family was $41,486. Males had a median income of $31,133 versus $22,152 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,351. About 12.8% of families and 17.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.9% of those under age 18 and 20.7% of those age 65 or over. Bluebonnet Cabs offers taxi service around the Brenham area; until 2009 Greyhound Lines offered bus services from the Stop N'Save at 601 East Main Street, but as of 2015 Brenham is not served by intercity bus. The population has increased but people have preferred to rely on their owned automobiles for transportation.
Brenham is the home of and headquarters for Blue Bell Creameries, an ice cream brand, popular in the state of Texas and the southeastern United States. Blue Bell is the 4th best-selling ice cream brand in the United States, is sold in 16 states. Brenham is home to a large plant of Valmont Industries, manufacturing metal poles; the city is the site of the Brenham State Supported Living Center, the largest of such facilities in the state. This facility provides care for intellectually disabled persons; the City of Brenham is served by the Brenham Independent School District and Brenham Christian Academy. Schools in BISD include Brenham Elementary, Krause Elementary, Alton Elementary, Brenham Middle School, Brenham Junior High, Brenham High School; the mascot for Brenham high school is the lion cub. Brenham is the home of Blinn College, the oldest county-owned junior college in Texas. Blinn has campuses in Bryan and Sealy. Malcom Brown, professional football player Timothy Brian Cole, The first person in Texas to receive a posthumous pardon and the first posthumous DNA Exonerated person in the United States Cecil Cooper, professional baseball player Hosea Garrett, cofounder of Baylor University Jack Heidemann, professional baseball player Don Imus, radio and TV personality Blind Willie Johnson, songwriter, guitarist Lois Kolkhorst, state politician, state representative from Brenham from 2001-2015, state senator since 2015 Roosevelt Leaks, professional football player Chuck Machemehl, professional baseball player Frank Malina, aeronautical engineer and director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, rocket researcher, artist Paul Pressler, retired judge from Houston.
Mayors of the City of Brenham, Texas: The Texas Department of Aging and Disability Services operates the Brenham State Supported Living Center. The United States Postal Service operates the Brenham Post Offi
Thomas B. Bell
Thomas Bell was one of Stephen F. Austin's colonists, having moved to Texas in 1824 although one record has him entering the colony as early as 1822, he was a soldier during the Texas Revolution and received bounty land for participating in the Siege of Bexar. He and his brother James Bell donated the land upon which the town of Bellville, Texas was built, his will was probated in Texas. He formally adopted a grown man, living in Hamilton County Florida in 1855; this man John G. Slade turned out to be his illegitimate son by a Nancy Slade. Most of Thomas Bell's estate was left to this son, married to Penelope Green and had children when he came to Texas to receive his inheritance. In 1822, Thomas Bell moved to Texas from Florida with his brother James Bell. A different Thomas Bell is recorded on 16 August 1824, Felipe Enrique Neri, Baron de Bastrop granted Bell title to a league of land in what is now Brazoria County; this Thomas Bell can be traced until his death living on the grant of land in Brazoria, Texas until his death in 1849.
His estate partition lists his surviving widow as Nancy M. Bell; the remainder was divided in 1/10 increments to: Toila Bell, Laura D. Hinkle, Willis C. Bell, Emily A Bell and Christopher E. Bell; as head of a committee in Cedar Lake, a Thomas Bell corresponded with Austin on how to deal with the Karankawa Indians in October 1825. The census of 1825 recorded that a Thomas Bell was married with three children and made a living farming and raising livestock. A legal document from 1829 noted that his wife's name was Prudencio and his place of habitation as Austin Municipality. Noah Smithwick was a guest at Bell's pole cabin on the San Bernard River in 1835. A Thomas Bell served in Captain John York's volunteer company from September to December 1835, including the Siege of Béxar. Thomas Bell of Bellville is noted in his obituary as having been with Ben Milam in the Siege of Bexar. A Thomas Bell was the flag bearer at the Battle of Concepción in October 1835. Thomas Bell was on a committee that helped write the Goliad Declaration of Independence in December 1835.
Thomas Bell received 2,000 acres of land from the Republic of Texas in 1837. It is known that a Thomas Bell was living with his family in Austin County in 1844. Since a new county seat to replace San Felipe was desired, he along with his brother James Bell donated the land on which Bellville was founded in 1846; the town grew rapidly. A courthouse and jail were constructed in a hotel the following year. Bell obtained a certificate for 640 acres in Archer County in north Texas. In 1857 he received an additional 320 acres in the same county. There is much confusion between these two Thomas Bells as they both arrived in Austin's Colony in the early years. Both Thomas Bells received leagues of land. Both Thomas Bells are recorded in Austin's earliest accounting; the Thomas Bell of Bellville along with his brother-in-law Benjamin Granville donated land to the Methodist Church on Piney Creek. It is apparent that the younger Thomas lived in Bellville most of his life while the other Thomas Bell lived in Columbia in Brazoria County until his death in 1849
Interstate 10 is the southernmost cross-country Interstate Highway in the American Interstate Highway System. It stretches from the Pacific Ocean at California State Route 1 in Santa Monica, California, to I-95 in Jacksonville, Florida. Major cities connected by I-10 include Los Angeles, Tucson, El Paso, San Antonio, Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Mobile and Jacksonville; this freeway is part of the planned Interstate Highway network, laid out in 1956, its last section was completed in 1990. I-10 is the fourth-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, following I-90, I-80, I-40. About one-third of its length is within the state of Texas, where the freeway spans the state at its widest breadth. Between its west terminus in Santa Monica and the major East Los Angeles Interchange, I-10 is known as the Santa Monica Freeway; the Santa Monica Freeway is called the Rosa Parks Freeway for the segment beginning at I-405, ending at I-110/SR 110. The segment between the East Los Angeles Interchange and the city of San Bernardino, 63 miles long, is called the San Bernardino Freeway.
Other names exist for I-10. For example, a sign near the western terminus of the highway in Santa Monica proclaims this highway the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway. I-10 is known to a lesser degree as the Veterans Memorial Highway, it is listed as a Blue Star Memorial Highway. In Palm Springs, I-10 is named the Sonny Bono Memorial Freeway as a tribute to the late entertainer who served both as the mayor and as a U. S. Congressman. Another stretch a short distance east in Indio is proclaimed the Doctor June McCarroll Memorial Freeway. In Arizona, the highway is designated the Pearl Harbor Memorial Highway; the portion through Phoenix is named the Papago Freeway, it is a vital piece of the metropolitan Phoenix freeway system. This designation starts at Loop 101, near 99th Avenue, it continues eastward to the interchange southeast of downtown, the terminus of I-17. Near Buckeye, the freeway has mile markers posted every 0.2 miles from 112.2 to 110.8 with the interstate shield and direction of travel posted on the westbound lanes.
On the eastbound lanes, mile markers from 110.8 to 112.2 do not include the I‑10 shield and direction of travel. From the southern terminus of I-17 to the southernmost junction with Loop 202, the highway is signed as the Maricopa Freeway; this name holds true as well for I-17 from its southern terminus to the Durango Curve south of Buckeye Road. From Loop 202 south to the eastern terminus of I-8 just southeast of Casa Grande, the highway is declared the Pearl Harbor Memorial Highway; the Arizona Department of Transportation has maps that show it as the Maricopa Freeway, while the American Automobile Association and other sources show it as the Pima Freeway. The latter's name is used on a stretch of Loop 101 from Loop 202 to I-17. Between I-17 in Phoenix and the I-19 interchanges in Tucson, I-10 is included in the federally designated CANAMEX Corridor, extending from Mexico City to Edmonton, Alberta. In Tucson, between I-10 mileposts 259 and 260 are interchange ramps connecting I-10 with the northern terminus of I-19.
The highest elevation along I-10 occurs just east of Tucson, 20 miles west of Willcox, at the mile marker 320 exit for the Amerind Foundation and Museum. The westbound lanes of I-10 cross above 5,000 feet above sea level. In New Mexico, I-10 more or less follows the former path of U. S. Route 80 across the state, although major portions of old US 80 were bypassed in Western New Mexico's Bootheel and in Doña Ana County. I-10 passes through three Southern New Mexico municipalities of regional significance before the junction with I-25: Lordsburg and Las Cruces. Most of I-10 in New Mexico, between Exit 24 and Exit 135, is concurrent with US 70. At Lordsburg is the western junction of US 70 and a concurrency. Several exits between Lordsburg and Deming lack any town at all. At Deming is the western junction of US 180, which forms a concurrency with I-10 all the way to El Paso. One mile north of Deming on US 180 is New Mexico State Road 26 which serves as a short cut to north I-25 and Albuquerque. I-10/US 70/US 180 continue east to Las Cruces, the southern end of I-25.
US 70 leaves I-10, passing through the north side of Las Cruces. The junction with I-25 occurs just south of the New Mexico State University campus, on the southern end of Las Cruces. I-10/US 180 becomes concurrent with US 85 at the junction with I-25. I-10/US 85/US 180 turns south to the Texas state line, crossing it at Anthony. From the state line with New Mexico to State Highway 20 in west El Paso, I-10 is bordered by frontage roads South Desert for lanes along I-10 East and North Desert for lanes along I-10 West; the interstate has no frontage roads for nine miles but regains them east of downtown and retains them to Clint. In this stretch, the frontage roads are Gateway East for the eastbound lanes and Gateway West for the westbound lanes. All four frontage roads are one-way streets. Gateway East and Gateway West are notable, in particular, for TxDOT's liberal usage of the Texas U-turn at most underpasses of I-10 on this stretch. I-10 is the western terminus for Interstate 20, the two highways intersect at Scroggins Draw, about 41 miles Southwest of Pecos, at mile marker 186.
A small portion of I-10 from Loop 1604 to Downtown San Antonio is known as