The city of Székesfehérvár, known colloquially as Fehérvár (Hungarian pronunciation:, located in central Hungary, is the ninth largest city of the country. The area is an important road junction between Lake Balaton and Lake Velence. Székesfehérvár, a royal residence, as capital of the Kingdom of Hungary, held a central role in the Middle Ages; as required by the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, the first kings of Hungary were crowned and buried here. Significant trade routes led to the Balkans and Italy, to Buda and Vienna; the city has come under Ottoman and Habsburg control, was known in many languages by translations of "white castle": The place has been inhabited since the 5th century BC. In Roman times the settlements were called Herculia. After the Migration Period Fejér County was the part of the Avar Khaganate, while the Slavic and Great Moravian presence is disputed. In the Middle Ages its Latin name was Alba Regalis/Alba Regia; the town was an important traffic junction between Lake Balaton and Lake Velence, several trade routes led from here to the Balkans and Italy, to Buda and Vienna.
Grand Prince Géza of the Árpád dynasty, was the nominal overlord of all seven Magyar tribes but in reality ruled only part of the united territory. He aimed to integrate Hungary into Christian Western Europe by rebuilding the state according to the Western political and social models. Géza founded the Hungarian town in 972 on four moorland islands between the Gaja stream and its tributariy, the Sárvíz, one of the most important Hungarian tributaries of the Danube, he had a small stone castle built. Székesfehérvár was first mentioned in a document by the Bishopric of Veszprém, 1009, as Alba Civitas. Stephen I of Hungary granted town rights to the settlement, surrounded the town with a plank wall, founded a school and a monastery. Under his rule the construction of the Romanesque Székesfehérvár Basilica began; the settlement had about 3,500 inhabitants at this time and was the royal seat for hundreds of years. 43 kings were crowned in Székesfehérvár and 15 kings were buried here. In the 12th century, the town prospered, churches and houses were built.
It was an important station on the pilgrim route to the Holy Land. András II issued the Golden Bull here in 1222; the Bull included the rights of nobles and the duties of the king, the Constitution of Hungary was based on it until 1848. It is compared to England's Magna Charta. During the Mongol Invasion of Hungary, the invaders could not get close to the castle: Kadan ruled Mongol warriors could not get through the surrounding marshes because of flooding caused by melting snow. In the 13th–15th centuries, the town prospered, several palaces were built. In the 14th century, Székesfehérvár was surrounded by city walls. After the death of King Mátyás, the German army of 20,000 men of Maximilian invaded Hungary, they advanced into the heart of Hungary and captured the city of Székesfehérvár, which he sacked, as well as the tomb of King Mátyás, kept there. His Landsknechts were still refused to go for taking Buda, he returned to the Empire in late December and the Hungarian troops liberated Székesfehérvár in the next year.
The Ottomans conquered the city after a long siege in 1543 and only after a sally ended in most of the defenders including the commander, György Varkoch, being locked out by wealthy citizens fearing they might incur the wrath of the Ottomans by a lengthy siege. They discovered after surrendering, that the Ottomans were not without a sense for chivalry and those responsible for shutting the defenders out were put to death. Except for a short period in 1601 when Székesfehérvár was reconquered by an army led by Lawrence of Brindisi, the city remained under Ottoman administration for 145 years, until 1688, with the Ottomans being preoccupied with the Morean War; the Ottomans destroyed most of the city, they demolished the cathedral and the royal palace, they pillaged the graves of kings in the cathedral. They built mosques. In the 16th–17th centuries it looked like a Muslim city. Most of the original population fled, it was a sanjak centre in Budin Province as "İstolni Belgrad" during Ottoman rule.
The city began to prosper again only in the 18th century. It had a mixed population: Hungarians, Serbs and Moravians. By 1702, the cathedral of Nagyboldogasszony was blown up, thus destroying the largest cathedral in Hungary at that time, the coronation temple. By the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, all kings of Hungary were obliged to be crowned in this cathedral, to take part in coronation ceremony in the surroundings of the cathedral; the coronations after that time were held in Pozsony. In 1703, Székesfehérvár regained the status of a free royal town. In the middle of the century, several new buildings were erected. Maria Theresa made the city an episcopal seat in 1777. By the early 19th century, the German population was assimilated. On 15 March 1848, the citizens joined the revolution. After the revolution and war for independence, Székesfehérvár lost its importance and became a agricultural city. In 1909 The Times Engineering
Church of Greece
The Church of Greece, part of the wider Greek Orthodox Church, is one of the autocephalous churches which make up the communion of Orthodox Christianity. Its canonical territory is confined to the borders of Greece prior to the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, with the rest of Greece being subject to the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. However, most of the dioceses of the Metropolises of the New Lands are de facto administered as part of the Church of Greece for practical reasons, under an agreement between the churches of Athens and Constantinople; the primate of the Church of Greece is the Archbishop of All Greece. Adherence to the Orthodox Church was established as a definitive hallmark of Greek ethnic identity in the first modern Greek constitution, the "Epidaurus Law" of 1822, during the Greek War of Independence; the preamble of all successive Greek constitutions states "In the name of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity", the Orthodox Church of Christ is established as the "prevailing" religion of Greece.
Mainstream Orthodox clergy's salaries and pensions are paid for by the State at rates comparable to those of teachers. The Church had compensated the State by a tax of 35% on ordinary revenues of the Church, but Law 3220/2004 in 2004 abolished this tax. By virtue of its status as the prevailing religion, the canon law of the Church is recognized by the Greek government in matters pertaining to church administration; this is governed by the "Constitution of the Church of Greece", voted by Parliament into law. Religious marriages and baptisms are equivalent to their civil counterparts and the relevant certificates are issued by officiating clergy. All Greek Orthodox students in primary and secondary schools in Greece attend religious instruction. Liaisons between church and state are handled by the Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs. Supreme authority is vested in the synod of all the diocesan bishops who have metropolitan status under the de jure presidency of the Archbishop of Athens and all Greece.
This synod deals with general church questions. The Standing Synod is under the same presidency, consists of the Primate and 12 bishops, each serving for one term on a rotating basis and deals with details of administration; the church is organised into 81 dioceses. 36 of these, located in northern Greece and in the major islands in the north and northeast Aegean, are nominally and spiritually under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, which retains certain privileges over and in them—for example, their bishops have to acknowledge the Patriarch as their own primate during prayers. They are called the "New Lands" as they became part of the modern Greek state only after the Balkan Wars, are represented by 6 of the 12 bishops of the Standing Synod. A bishop elected to one of the Sees of the New Lands has to be confirmed by the Patriarch of Constantinople before assuming his duties; these dioceses are administered by the Church of Greece "in stewardship" and their bishops retain their right of appeal to the Patriarch.
The dioceses of Crete and the Dodecanese, the Monastic Republic of Holy Mount Athos remain under the direct jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The Archdiocese of Crete in particular enjoys semiautonomous status: new bishops are elected by the local Synod of incumbents, the Archbishop is appointed by the Ecumenical Patriarchate from a three-person list drawn by the Greek Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs from among the incumbent Metropolitans of Crete; as in other Orthodox Churches, male graduates of seminaries run by the church, may be ordained as deacons and priests. They are allowed to marry before their ordination as deacons, but not afterwards; the vast majority of parish clergy in Greece are married. Alternatively, they take monastic vows. Monastics who are ordained as priests, possess a university degree in theology, are eligible as candidates for the episcopate. Women may take monastic vows and become nuns, but they are not ordained. Monasteries are either affiliated to their local diocese, or directly to one of the Orthodox Patriarchates.
A split occurred within the Church in 1924 when the Holy Synod decided to replace the Old Calendar with a hybrid calendar—the so-called "Revised Julian Calendar"—which maintained a modified Julian dating method for Easter while adopting the Gregorian Calendar date for fixed feasts. Those who refused to adopt this change are known as Old Calendarists and still follow the old Julian Calendar, they themselves have suffered several schisms, not all Old Calendarists comprise one Church. They refer to themselves as "Genuine Orthodox Christians", the largest group associating itself with the Old Calendarists is the Synod of Archbishop Chrysostomos II Kioussis; this Synod has obtained government recognition as a valid Orthodox Church, although this is not in communion with the Church of Greece or the other Orthodox Churches. Greece was an early center of Christianity. Upon formation of the Patriarchate, the Church was a part of the Ecumenical Patriarch
Gárdony is a town in Fejér county, Hungary. This town is a popular summer destination; the town is divided into three parts: Gárdony, Agárd and Dinnyés and lies on the south shore of the lake. The name Gárdony is believed to have originated in the early 13th century. There is at least one known writing dating back to 1260 that referred to King of Zsigmond. On 31 March 1989 Gárdony changed its status from village to town. In the summertime thousands of tourists visit the lake. In fact, several new resorts have opened on the shore of the lake; the lake is known as a great destination to bring the family. Tourists, who like water sports such as boating, swimming and fishing enjoy the lake. On the shore, there are facilities for volleyball, basketball and football. Additionally, there is live entertainment planned throughout the summer months. Géza Gárdonyi was born in Gárdony, he was born in Agárdpuszta and a statue of him is located centre park of Agárd. Agárd has a reformed church, Saint Ann Chapel, a Catholic church of Dinnyés and was built in a Baroque style.
Budapest, the capital of Hungary is only fifty-five kilometres from Gárdony. Gárdony is twinned with: Gieboldehausen, Germany Halikko, Finland Kirchbach, Austria Mörlenbach, Germany Postbauer-Heng, Germany Stroud, United Kingdom Żary, Poland Csiribpuszta Agárd Official website in Hungarian Gárdony.lap.hu - Link directory – Startlap Gárdony at funiq.hu
Besnyő is a village in Fejér county, Hungary. Street map
Adony is a town in Fejér county, Hungary. Adony is twinned with: Oberweser, Germany Szczekociny, Poland Cehu Silvaniei, Romania Teréz Csillag, actress Official website in Hungarian Aerialphotgraphs of Adony
Hungarians known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture and language. Hungarians belong to the Uralic-speaking peoples. There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungarians and their descendants worldwide, of whom 9.6 million live in today's Hungary. About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries Slovakia, Romania, Croatia and Austria. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; the Hungarians' own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from Oghur-Turkic On-Ogur. Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian "Yugra".
It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Prior to the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895/6 and while they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe east of the Carpathian Mountains, written sources called the Magyars "Hungarians", specifically: "Ungri" by Georgius Monachus in 837, "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani in 862, "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus in 881; the Magyars/Hungarians belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, it is possible that they became its ethnic majority. In the Early Middle Ages, the Hungarians had many names, including "Węgrzy", "Ungherese", "Ungar", "Hungarus"; the "H-" prefix is a addition of Medieval Latin. The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than "Hungarian". "Magyar" is Finno-Ugric from the Old Hungarian "mogyër". "Magyar" derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the "Megyer".
The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole. "Magyar" may derive from the Hunnic "Muageris" or "Mugel". The Greek cognate of "Tourkia" was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII "Porphyrogenitus" in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD 950, though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars; this was a misnomer, as while the Magyars had adopted some Turkic cultural traits, they are not a Turkic people. The historical Latin phrase "Natio Hungarica" had a wider and political meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity or mother tongue. During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up; some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, of which the ancestors of the Magyars, being located farther south, were the most numerous.
Judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved from the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria and Perm Krai. In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga and the Seversky Donets rivers. Meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241; the Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds; the names of the seven tribes were: Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, Tarján. Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate; as a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River.
The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854, though other sources state that an attack by Pechenegs was the reason for their departure to Etelköz. The new neighbours of the Hungarians were the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Hungarians along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz into the Carpathian Basin against the Eastern Frankish Empire and Great Moravia, but against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria. In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin; the tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. At the same time, due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Hungarians in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and by their old enemies the Pechenegs; the Bulgarians won the decisive b
Dunaújváros is an industrial city in Fejér County, Central Hungary. The city is best known for its steelworks, the largest in the country. Dunaújváros is located in the Transdanubian part of the Great Hungarian Plain, 70 kilometres south of Budapest on the Danube, Highway 6, Motorways M6, M8 and the electrified Budapest-Pusztaszabolcs-Dunaújváros-Paks railway; the city replaced the village of Dunapentele, named after Saint Pantaleon. The construction of this new industrial city started in 1949 and the original village was renamed Sztálinváros in 1951. After the Hungarian revolution of 1956 the new government renamed the city the neutral Dunaújváros in 1961, which means "Danube New City". Dunaújváros is one of the newest cities in the country, it was built in the 1950s during the industrialization of the country under Socialist rule, as a new city next to an existing village, Dunapentele. Dunapentele was not built on until the 1950s; the construction started on the Danube's right side. The area has been inhabited since ancient times.
When Western Hungary was a Roman province under the name Pannonia, a military camp and a town called Intercisa stood in this place, at the border of the province. The Hungarians conquered the area in the early 10th century; the village of Pentele, named after the medieval Greek saint, was founded shortly after. Between 1541 and 1688 the village was under Ottoman rule, during the 150-year war it was destroyed. During the freedom fight led by Prince Ferenc II Rákóczi of Transylvania, the place was deserted again. In the 18th century the village began to prosper. In 1830 the village was given the right to hold markets days twice a week. In 1831 there was a cholera epidemic. In 1833 Pentele was granted town status by Ferdinand V; the citizens took part in the freedom fight in 1848-49. After the Second World War the new, Communist government started a major industrialisation programme, in support of its rearmament efforts. In 1949 Dunaújváros was chosen as the site of the largest steel works in the country.
They were to be built close to Mohács, but the Hungarian-Yugoslavian relations worsened, this new site was chosen, farther away from the Yugoslav border. The city was designed to have 25,000 residents; the construction of the city began on May 1950 near Dunapentele. Within one year more than 1,000 housing units were built and construction on the factory complex began; the city took the name of Joseph Stalin on April 4, 1952. The metal works were opened in 1954; the city had a population of 27,772 at this time. In the middle of the 1950s, public transport was organized, with buses carrying 24,000 passengers each day. During the 1950s many cultural and sports facilities were built, the Endre Ságvári Primary School being the largest school in Central Europe in the 1960s; the official and obligatory architectural style and art movement of the communist system was socialist realism. Per definition the style’s meaning was communist, its form was national, its preferred mode of representation was the allegory.
There are several public statues and reliefs in the town, which represent the allegoric union of workers and intellectuals, surrounded by traditional folk motifs. Thanks to the inspiration of Bauhaus the buildings and monuments of this era, like the forge, the cinema, the theatre, the hospital and the city’s schools where characterized by a structural functionalism, but the ideological function resulted in classicist decorations, like columns and arcades, because of which the informal name of the style became ‘Stalin’s Baroque’. In 1956, the construction was hindered by an earthquake and a flood, in October by the start of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. During the revolution the city used its historical name Dunapentele again; the Rákóczi radio station, created by the revolutionaries, broadcast from Dunapentele Even though the citizens of Dunapentele tried to defend their city, the Soviet army occupied the city on November 7th, 1956. The city came under martial law and soviet tanks were stationed throughout the city.
After the revolution the city was still the "trademark city" of socialism in Hungary, was presented as such to foreign visitors. Among the visitors were Yuri Gagarin and the Indonesian president Sukarno; the city provided a scenic backdrop to popular movies. In 1960, the ten-year-old city had 31,000 residents who celebrated its anniversary. On November 26, 1961 the city's name was changed to Dunaújváros as a consequence of Stalin's death and the Hungarian Revolution. In 1990 it became a city with county rights—as one of the four, cities in the country that have this status but are not county capitals—in accordance with a new law that granted this status to all cities with a population over 50,000. Though the population of Dunaújváros has been under 50,000 since 2008, it has kept its status as a city with county rights; the DUNAFERR factory complex is still is an important enterpris