Lustleigh is a small village and civil parish nestled in the Wrey Valley, inside the Dartmoor National Park in Devon, England. It is between the towns of Bovey Moretonhampstead; the village is focused around the parish church of St John the Baptist. Surrounding this are old buildings, many of which are thatched. There is a village shop, tea room and a pub. There was a Post Office until closed in 2009; the village is served by an outreach Post Office inside the shop. The area where Lustleigh now stands has been inhabited since before records began as shown by the remains of stone hut circles, which can still be seen in the'Cleave' and the presence of an ancient burial monument "Datuidoc's Stone" which dates from before 600 AD. In the 899 will of King Alfred the Great, a copy of, in the British Library, Lustleigh was left to his youngest son Aethelweard. Whilst the name Lustleigh is not found in the Domesday Book, it is believed that the village was recorded under the name of Sutreworde, Anglo-Saxon for'south of the wood'.
At that time, the Lord of the Manor was Ansgar, who controlled 12 farms of around 1,200 acres plus a large area of forest. Unusually for the Domesday Book, beekeeping was mentioned as a key activity of the parish. At the time of the Domesday Survey, there were around 155 people living in the village; the manor of Lustleigh was bought by Sir John Wadham Justice of the Common Pleas in 1403 and stayed in the Wadham family for eight generations, when it formed part of the estate of Nicholas Wadham, co-founder of Wadham College, Oxford. It continued as an estate manor in the hands of heirs of the Wadhams, the Earls of Ilchester, until the beginning of the 19th century, when it was broken up and sold off. Over time, the village expanded from its original boundaries, to encompass the area beyond the Wrey brook, a separate village – although its residents attended Lustleigh's parish church – and out to Brookfield; the village has a population of between 600 and 700, who are served by a number of public amenities, which include: The Village Hall – reopened in February 2005.
The Dairy – the village shop, with everyday grocery items and locally produced specialities. The building is owned by the village, leased to a shopkeeper. Limited Post-office facilities are now available in The Dairy; the Cleave Public House – the local pub, converted from a farmhouse into'The Cleave Hotel' with the coming of the railway to the village. Celtic Cross – a granite monument in front of the church on the village green, next to the Primrose Cottage tea rooms, up the hill from the Gospel Hall on Wreyland path. Wreyland – This area of Lustleigh is considered picturesque, due to the large number of thatched houses, including Wreyland Manor, Souther Wreyland, Yonder Wreyland and the Tallet House. Wreyland was not a part of Lustleigh, but was incorporated into the village in the 19th century; the track that leads from Knowle Road into the village centre is called the Wreyland Path although residents along the path refer to it as dog-muck alley. The Orchard – common land donated to the village some years ago, with a children's playground.
A large granite boulder, topped by a granite throne, is used for the annual coronation of the May Queen. Kelly Mine – old mine workings opened to the public. Opened for tours at other times by appointment; the Cleave – Lustleigh Cleave, meaning "cliff" or "cleft", is the large geological feature from which the village pub derives its name. Paths criss-cross the Cleave and surrounding fields and woods. Walkers may enjoy the views to the moor from the ridge or the lazy bubble of the River Bovey as it flows along the wooded valley bottom. Wildlife to be seen includes deer, rare butterflies and the pretty river bird, the dipper. In early June the slopes are covered in masses of foxgloves. Pullabrook Woods – These woods are managed in parts by the Woodland Trust, English Nature and Dartmoor National park, nestle at the foot of the moors, are a destination for walkers and riders, they are accessible from the village, either along Knowle Road, to where the twin bridges over the Wrey run, or from Rudge down either the Heaven's Gate or Hisley paths.
The Bishop's Stone – Commemorating the visit of a Bishop of Exeter,although it is not know which bishop. This stone, at the bottom of Caseley Hill and the top of the station approach road can still be seen, although worn by years of neglect. Datuidoc's Stone – Lustleigh's most ancient monument, dating from around 550–600 AD is now in the church, marked a burial site in a graveyard on the site of the present church. Lustleigh has three places of worship: The church of St John the Baptist is the village's Church of England parish church, it is at the centre of the village. The oval shape of the churchyard suggests that a Romano-British burial ground may have first occupied this site; this conjecture is supported by the presence of Datuidoc's Stone in the north aisle, dating from around 550–600 AD. The first part of the church, including the basic rectangle and the south porch, was built around 1250; the south chapel was added in the early 14th century by the Lord of the Manor, Sir William le Prouse.
The church tower was built in the late 14th century. In the 15th century the north aisle was built, including removal of the north wall and
The A30 is a major road in England, running WSW from London to Land's End. It is 284 miles long; the length of the road was a principal axis in Britain from the 17th century to early 19th century, when it was a major coaching route. It used to provide the fastest route from London to the South West by land until a century before roads were numbered; the road has kept its principal status in the west from Honiton, Devon to Land's End where it is dual carriageway and retains trunk road status. The A30 begins at Henlys Roundabout, it runs south of the Southern Perimeter Road, Heathrow Airport and north of Ashford and Staines-upon-Thames, before reaching the M25 motorway orbital motorway. This first section is dual carriageway. Taken with the A4, its natural continuation which nearby becomes non-dualled towards the M25, the section constitutes one of five routes into the southern half of London which reach Inner London with at least a dual-carriageway, the others being the A3, the M3, the M20 and A2, however one mile before reaching Inner London it is combined with the London variants of the M3 and M4 approaches.
After running astride the M25 to cross the Thames on a bridge designed by Lutyens, the Runnymede Bridge, the A30 runs parallel to but distant from the M3 until southwest of Basingstoke, bypassing Egham and passing through heathland and Sunningdale, Bagshot bypass, Camberley where the route mirrors the Devil's Highway, a stone street to Calleva Atrebatum, believed to be older still passes close to Hook town centre and in the surrounding country the soil is arable. After the 1930's Basingstoke bypass, the M3 changes direction the A303 takes over for 2 miles the A30 losing continuity. From Sutton Scotney village the A30 runs parallel to the latter road as-the-crow-flies 85 miles to north-east of Honiton, Devon passing through towns Stockbridge and its trout fishing centres, Sherborne, Yeovil and Chard. Between Stockbridge and Shaftesbury it enters the cathedral city of Salisbury. Between the M25 and Honiton, the A30 is single carriageway, carrying local traffic with short stretches of dual carriageway from Camberley to Basingstoke, which has a dualled inner ring road, two between Stockbridge and Salisbury, between Sherborne and Yeovil.
This section is a trunk road as far as Penzance. It is dual carriageway, but there are some short sections of single carriageway. To pass Exeter, through traffic can join the M5 motorway for three miles. West of Exeter, the A30 is dual carriageway through Devon and into Cornwall, bypassing Whiddon Down and Launceston; the dual carriageway continues through Cornwall to Carland Cross, after which there is a single carriageway stretch to Chiverton Cross. Highways England are progressing plans to dual this section of carriageway. A Preferred Route Announcement was made July 2017 and an application for a Development Consent Order was accepted for examination in September 2018. Construction is due to start in 2020. From Chiverton Cross, the dual carriageway bypasses Camborne; the A30 returns to single carriageway west of Camborne, a mid-1980s bypass takes the road around Hayle. Between Hayle and Penzance, the A30 returns to the original route and it passes through several villages. Approaching Penzance, the A30 becomes a dual carriageway once again.
Once west of Penzance, the A30 becomes a more rural road running through or past several villages, before terminating at Land's End. The bulk of the A30 follows the historic London – Land's End coaching road; the road appeared on John Ogilby's map of Britain in 1675, was covered by Ogilby's strip-maps showing "The Road from London to The Land's End in Cornwall". The coaching route started at Hyde Park Corner, closer to the centre of London than the modern A30 mirroring the modern route as far as Exeter, except for three sections, the longest being the westernmost. Knightsbridge to Bedfont, the intermittent A315 in today's numbering. Basingstoke to Salisbury via Andover Exeter to Penzance via Ashburton and following the Cornish south coast via St Austell. Ogilby described it as "The Post-Office making this one of their Principal Roads" and thought the section through Surrey and Hampshire was "in general a good Road with suitable Entertainment", it is described as the "Great Road to Land's End" in the Magna Britannia, published in the early 19th century.
As the coaching road to Land's End was a major route, it was a popular place for highwaymen. William Davies known as the Golden Farmer, robbed several coaches travelling across Bagshot Heath, he was hanged in 1689 at a gallows at the local gibbet hill between Camberley. The Jolly Farmer pub was built near the site of a junction. At the turn of the 19th century, William Hanning created the "New Direct Road", a fast coaching route between London and Exeter; the road deviated from Ogilby's route running via Amesbury and Ilminster, rejoining the older road at Honiton. It became popular with postal services such as The Subscription. In 1831, a race was held between London and Exeter via the New Direct Road, which resulted in a dead heat. 170 miles were covered compared to a typical early 18th century time of four days. In response to the competition of routes, a new turnpike road was built west of Chard, avoiding the historic route to Honiton via Stockland, with several steep
Okehampton Hamlets is a civil parish in the Borough of West Devon and the English county of Devon. It has a population of 400
North Bovey is a village and civil parish situated on the south-eastern side of Dartmoor National Park, England, about 11 miles WSW of the city of Exeter and 1.5 miles SSW of Moretonhampstead. The village lies above the eastern bank of the River Bovey. In 2001 the population of the parish was 274, compared to 418 in 1901 and 519 in 1801; the parish church is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, it dates from the 14th century, was restored early in the 20th century by Sir Charles Nicholson. It is one of the several churches around Dartmoor that has a representation of the tinners rabbits on one of its roof bosses. On the village green is an ancient stone cross, thrown down during the Civil War and spent some time afterwards as a bridge over a local stream. In 1829 it was retrieved and installed into a socket-stone which had remained in situ on the village green, though it is not considered that it is the original cross, mounted here as it appears to be older than the base; the parish encompasses part of the eastern side of Dartmoor, an area rich in Bronze Age remains such as Grimspound, right on its boundary.
The medieval Bennett's Cross, on the road between Moretonhampstead and Two Bridges is one of the markers of the parish boundary, the Birch Tor and Vitifer tin mining area is nearby. In the north of the parish, the small settlements of Beeson and Shapley were mentioned in the Domesday Book. There are several preserved Dartmoor longhouses in the parish, notably at Westcombe. Within the parish is Bovey Castle, designed by Detmar Blow and built in 1905–7 for Viscount Hambledon, son of W. H. Smith, the newsagent, it is now a grade a hotel with an 18-hole championship golf course. The Rev. William Henry Thornton was rector of North Bovey for fifty years, he was the author of Reflections of an Old West-country Clergyman. Author:William Henry Thornton.
Nine Maidens stone circle
The Nine Maidens known as the Seventeen Brothers, is a Bronze Age stone circle located near the village of Belstone on Dartmoor in Devon, England. The stone circle functioned as a burial chamber, although the cairn has since been robbed and the cist, known locally as a kistvaen, destroyed; the Nine Maidens is an incomplete stone circle with sixteen still standing. The circle stands to the west of the village of Belstone in an area of clitter; this additional source of stone may have saved the destruction of the circle by local masons. None of the stones are much higher than three feet and the diameter of the circle is twenty-one feet. Samuel Rowe, a nineteenth-century rambler, provided a description of the stones in his 1848 book A Perambulation of the Ancient and Royal Forest of Dartmoor and the Venville Precincts: We shall mount the steep ascent towards Belstone Tor, within a quarter of a mile, on its western slope, we shall observe the circle called in the neighbourhood Nine Stones, but which in reality consists of seventeen stones, the highest of, not more than two feet and a half from the ground.
The missing seventeenth stone may have since fallen down to join several other stones that are no longer upright. The Book of Belstone says the tally of stones can be increased to twenty should'small stones and five toppled or insecure temporary ones' be included. Dora James wrote in 1930 that four stones had been'wantonly defaced and broken' in 1929. Despite the fallen stones, locals are said to be apprehensive of restoration work, believing that tamperers will be cursed. Locals cite a film crew which added a stone to the circle in 1985 - the'curse' was the unfortunate loss of the only copy of the film, The Circle of Doom, in the post. St Michael's ley-line, which runs 350 miles from Land's End to Hopton-on-Sea, runs through the Nine Maidens; this ley-line goes through many sites dedicated to St Michael, such as St Michael's Tower on Glastonbury Tor, with the line matching the sunrise on 8 May when the Catholic Church celebrated the apparition of St Michael. Local folklore suggests that the stones dance: The stone circles on Dartmoor, are said to have been made "when there were wolves on the hills, winged serpents in the low lands."
On the side of Belstone Tor, near Oakhampton, is a small grave circle called "Nine Stones." It is said to dance every day at noon. The stones are said to have been nine maidens who were cast into stone and damned to dancing every noon for eternity as a punishment for dancing on the Sabbath; the story has involved seventeen brothers. It is said that the ringing of the nearby church bells brings them to life; the differing number of stones cited in the name is explained in folklore through the fact that the stones are not still enough whilst dancing to count their number accurately. John Chudleigh noted in 1892 that heated air which rises from the ground gives the appearance of movement, which may give an origin to the legends of dancing maidens. Another etymological explanation is based on Phoenician tin traders; the Phoenicians worshipped the god of life and fertility Baal with Belstone representing a corruption of'Baal's ton', that is'Baal's settlement'. The stone circle could be related to this interpretation, with a reference to the Phoenicians dragging a stone in the shape of a sacred bull to the summit of the tor and worshipping it.
It has been suggested. Other explanations for the name Belstone have been given including the Old English'belle' and'stan', which Sabine Baring-Gould suggests could be in reference to a logan stone. A poem illustrating the folklore surrounding the stones is recorded in The Witchcraft and Folklore of Dartmoor by Ruth St Leger-Gordon written by Eden Phillpotts in the Book of Avis trilogy: And now at every Hunter's Moon That haggard cirque of stones so still Awakens to immortal thrill And seven small maidens in silver shoon Twixt dark of night and white of day Twinkle upon the sere old heath Like living blossoms in a wreath Then shrink again to granite grey. So blue-eyed Dian shall dance With Linnette, Jennifer, Arisa and Nance. St Leger-Gordon suggests Phillpotts could be referring to another stone circle due to certain inaccuracies in the poem, although these inaccuracies could be a generous usage of artistic licence. Hunter's moon refers to the first full moon following the harvest moon and occurs in October.
Victorian archaeologists interpreted the stone circle as representing full moon. Walpole, Chris & Marion; the Book of Belstone. Butler, J. Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities: Volume 2. 1991: Devon Books. Crossing, William. Guide to Dartmoor. Peninsula Press. Hemery, E. High Dartmoor. London: Hale. St. Leger-Gordon, R; the Witchcraft and Folklore of Dartmoor. Wakefield: E. P. Publishing. Rowe, Samuel. A Perambulation of the Ancient and Royal Forest of Dartmoor, the Venville Precincts: or a Topographical Survey of the Antiquities and Scenery. Hamilton, Adams & Co
Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, was an English writer. She is known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections those revolving around her fictional detectives Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple. Christie wrote the world's longest-running play, a murder mystery, The Mousetrap, under the pen name Mary Westmacott, six romances. In 1971 she was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire for her contribution to literature. Christie was born into a wealthy upper-middle-class family in Devon. Before marrying and starting a family in London, she had served in a Devon hospital during the First World War, tending to troops coming back from the trenches, she was an unsuccessful writer with six consecutive rejections, but this changed when The Mysterious Affair at Styles, featuring Hercule Poirot, was published in 1920. During the Second World War, she worked as a pharmacy assistant at University College Hospital, acquiring a good knowledge of poisons which feature in many of her novels.
Guinness World Records lists Christie as the best-selling novelist of all time. Her novels have sold 2 billion copies, her estate claims that her works come third in the rankings of the world's most-widely published books, behind only Shakespeare's works and the Bible. According to Index Translationum, she remains the most-translated individual author, having been translated into at least 103 languages, and Then There Were None is Christie's best-selling novel, with 100 million sales to date, making it the world's best-selling mystery and one of the best-selling books of all time. Christie's stage play, it opened at the Ambassadors Theatre in the West End on 25 November 1952, as of September 2018 is still running after more than 27,000 performances. In 1955, Christie was the first recipient of the Mystery Writers of America's highest honour, the Grand Master Award; the same year, Witness for the Prosecution received an Edgar Award by the MWA for Best Play. In 2013, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd was voted the best crime novel by 600 fellow writers of the Crime Writers' Association.
On 15 September 2015, coinciding with her 125th birthday, And Then There Were None was named the "World's Favourite Christie" in a vote sponsored by the author's estate. Most of her books and short stories have been adapted for television, video games and comics, more than thirty feature films have been based on her work. Agatha Mary Clarissa Miller was born on 15 September 1890 into a wealthy upper-middle-class family in Torquay, Devon, she was the youngest of three children born to Frederick Alvah Miller, an affluent American stockbroker, his British-born wife Clara Miller née Boehmer. Agatha's mother Clara had been born in Belfast in 1854 to Captain Frederick Boehmer and Mary Ann West as the couple's only daughter. Boehmer was killed in a riding accident while stationed on Jersey in April 1863, leaving his widow to raise the children alone on a meagre income. In that same year, 1863, Mary Ann's sister Margaret married a wealthy American, Nathaniel Frary Miller, the couple settled in Southbourne, West Sussex.
Their marriage was childless, but Nathaniel had a son, from a previous marriage. Frederick had been sent to Switzerland for his education. Since Mary Ann was penniless and her sister Margaret was wealthy but childless, they arranged that Clara should be raised by her aunt and uncle, it was at the Miller's residence that Clara met her maternal aunt's step-son. She and Frederick soon developed a romantic relationship and were married in April 1878; the couple's first child, Margaret Frary Miller, was born in Torquay, where the couple were renting lodgings. Their second child, Louis Montant, was born in the U. S. state of New York. When Frederick's father Nathaniel died, he left his daughter-in-law Clara £2000, it was here that her third and final child, was born. Christie described her childhood as "very happy", she was surrounded by a series of independent women from an early age. Her time was spent alternating between her home in Devon, her step-grandmother and aunt's house in Ealing, West London, parts of Southern Europe, where her family would holiday during the winter.
Agatha was raised in a household with various esoteric beliefs and, like her siblings, believed that her mother Clara was a psychic with the ability of second sight. Agatha's sister Margaret had been sent to Roedean in Sussex for her education, but their mother insisted that Agatha receive a home education; as a result, her parents were responsible for teaching her to read and write and to master basic arithmetic, a subject she enjoyed. They taught her music, she learned to play both the piano and the mandolin. According to biographer Laura Thomson, Clara believed that Agatha should not learn to read until she was eight. However, thanks to her own curiosity, Agatha taught herself to read much earlier. One of the earliest known photographs of Christie depicts her as a little girl with her first dog, whom she called George Washington. Christie was a voracious reader from an early age. Among her earliest memories were those of reading the children's books written by Mrs Molesworth, including The Adventures of Herr Baby, Christmas Tree Land, The Magic Nuts.
She read the work of Edith Nesbit, including The Story of the Treasure Seekers, The Phoenix and the Carpet, The Railway Children. When a little older, she moved on to re