Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota
Lake of the Woods County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,045, making it the second-least populous county in Minnesota, its county seat is Baudette. The county was organized on November 28, 1922, though county functions did not begin until 1923; the county contains the Northwest Angle, the northernmost point of the Lower 48 States, the U. S. portion of Lake of the Woods, shared with Canada. The county includes the exclave of Elm Point. Since Alaska has no counties, Lake of the Woods is the northernmost county in the United States, it is the only county in the United States with four words in its name, although there is a parish in Louisiana called St. John the Baptist Parish, the U. S. Census Bureau treats parishes as county equivalents for census purposes. Lake of the Woods County was named after the lake. Jacques de Noyon, a Frenchman who came from Trois Rivières, explored this area in 1688 and became the first European to see the lake, he named it Lac aux Îles.
In 1885 the region of Lake of the Woods got its first settler, Wilhelm Zippel, a German immigrant and fisherman. He settled on the lake's south shore in a place now called Zippel Bay. Shortly after, Alonzo Wheeler settled on the lake's southwest side at a place now called Wheeler's Point. A wildfire known as the Baudette Fire of 1910, broke out in October of that year, burning 300,000 acres and destroying the towns of Spooner, Graceton, Pitt and Cedar Spur. Lake of the Woods County was founded on January 1923, with Baudette as the original county seat, it is known as Minnesota's youngest county, having been organized on November 28, 1922, when residents voted to separate the northern Townships. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,775 square miles, of which 1,298 square miles is land and 477 square miles is water. Minnesota State Highway 11 Minnesota State Highway 72 Minnesota State Highway 172 As of the 2000 census, there were 4,522 people, 1,903 households, 1,267 families residing in the county.
The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 3,238 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.21% White/Caucasian, 0.29% Black/African American, 1.13% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.11% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. 0.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 26.2 % were of 5.8 % American and 5.0 % English ancestry. There were 1,903 households, out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 5.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 29.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 5.70% from 18 to 24, 25.10% from 25 to 44, 27.20% from 45 to 64, 17.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 101.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,861, the median income for a family was $38,936. Males had a median income of $30,469 versus $24,813 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,976. About 6.70% of families and 9.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.30% of those under age 18 and 10.60% of those age 65 or over. Baudette Roosevelt Williams Although all the townships are named, as of 2001, there are no township governments. All the townships are part of unorganized territory. Angle Inlet National Register of Historic Places listings in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota Zippel Bay State Park Lake of the Woods County government’s website Local tourist bureau’s website Link to Woods Square woodlands
Koochiching County, Minnesota
Koochiching County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,311, its county seat is International Falls. A portion of the Bois Forte Indian Reservation is in the county. A small part of Voyageurs National Park extends into its boundary, with Lake of the Woods County to its northwest. Historymakers of Koochiching County were of many occupations, they were explorers, traders and lumberjacks. They were teachers, merchants and builders of industry. Settlers came at the beginning of the 1900s and suffered through isolation, harsh weather, poverty, they built schools and good roads. Koochiching County is the second largest county in area next to Saint Louis County, it is one of the youngest counties in the state having been created in 1906 after it was separated from Itasca County. The name "Koochiching" comes from either the Ojibwe word Gojijiing or Cree Kocicīhk, both meaning "at the place of inlets," referring to the neighboring Rainy Lake and River. Reverend J.
A. Gilfillan recorded their meaning, "according to some, Neighbor lake, according to others a lake somewhere," referring to the neighbouring Rainy Lake and to Lake Couchiching located in southern Ontario. Early European inhabitants gave the names Lac à la Pluie and Rivière à la Pluie to the nearby bodies of water because of the mist-like rain present at the falls of Rainy River and to the settlement that became known as International Falls. About 10,000 years ago 90% of Koochiching County was covered by Lake Agassiz; when it receded it left low areas of decayed vegetation. Koochiching County lies on the north edge of Minnesota, its northern border abuts the south border of Canada. The Rainy River flows west-northwestward along its north border, being fed by several rivers which drain from the county into the Rainy: Rat Root River drains the east central part of the county; the county terrain consists of low rolling hills, with swampy areas where Lake Agassiz basin was deepest. There are deposits of peat from 1½ to 50 feet in the low areas.
The level soil is broken by ledges of precambrian rock. Bed rock in the area includes Ely greenstone and greenstone schists that are said to be among the oldest on the planet; the terrain slopes to the north, with its highest point on the western part of its southern border at 1,515' ASL. The county has a total area of 3,154 square miles, of which 3,104 square miles is land and 50 square miles is water, it third-largest by total area. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 14,355 people, 6,040 households, 3,962 families in the county; the population density was 4.62/sqmi. There were 7,719 housing units at an average density of 2.49/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.12% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 2.15% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 1.23% from two or more races. 0.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.2 % were of 7.0 % Irish ancestry. There were 6,040 households out of which 28.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.40% were non-families.
30.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.88. The county population contained 23.90% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 98.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,262, the median income for a family was $43,608. Males had a median income of $40,642 versus $22,261 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,167. About 8.40% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.10% of those under age 18 and 13.40% of those age 65 or over. Koochiching County voters have tended to vote Democratic for several decades. In 78% of national elections since 1980 the county selected the Democratic Party candidate.
Koochiching County is unique in Minnesota, in the sense that there are no organized civil township governments within the county, due to legislative action taken by the county to absorb existing township governments. Survey townships, as defined by the Public Land Survey System are not organized. Six city governments have been created, the rest of the county consists of unorganized territories and unincorporated communities. Nett Lake Koochiching County is the location of the fictional town of Frostbite Falls, the home of the animated characters Rocky and Bullwinkle. Frostbite Falls was named in honor of International Falls, since International Falls is of
Giacomo Costantino Beltrami was an Italian jurist and explorer, best known for claiming to have discovered the headwaters of the Mississippi River in 1823 while on a trip through much of the United States. Beltrami County in Minnesota is named for him, he had an extensive network of notable figures for friends and acquaintances, such as members of the powerful Medici family. Beltrami was the 16th of 17 children, born in the city of Bergamo in the northern Italian region of Lombardy, his exact birth date is unknown because a fire in the area destroyed baptismal records in 1793. He had a fair amount of schooling in literature and other subjects before leaving to become a soldier for the Cisalpine Republic in 1797; the republic was an extension of France at the time, Beltrami worked his way into the Napoleonic government after becoming a Mason. Years when the Marche region again came under purview of the papal government, he was questioned for his activities. Beltrami was married to the sister of a notable Italian railway financier.
In 1809, Beltrami became the friend of Giulia Spada dei Medici. When she died at the age of 39 in 1820, he put together a collection of different writings in her honor, he was distraught by her death, this, combined with pressures about his background during French occupation, led him to begin traveling. He visited a number of different cities in Europe, reaching Liverpool, England in 1822. From there, he set out to the United States on a voyage that proved to be treacherous, he arrived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania after more than two months on the ocean in December 1822 or January 1823. In the U. S. he began visiting a number of different cities. He began a voyage down the Ohio River with the intention of following it to the Mississippi and south to New Orleans, Louisiana. However, while onboard he met with the prominent United States Indian agent, Lawrence Taliaferro, planning to travel upriver on the Mississippi. Beltrami soon became obsessed with the idea of finding the river's source. In 1823, the two joined with Stephen H. Long as they traveled upriver to Fort St. Anthony.
Beltrami followed Long and Taliaferro as they went about exploring and mapping, interacting with the local Native American tribes. However, in July, after about three months of this, tension began to grow between Beltrami and the others, he split from their expedition in August, when the group had reached Pembina, instead set off with some Ojibwe Indian guides on his personal quest to find the source of the river. After only a week and a half, his guides abandoned him and he had to carry on alone, seeking help from other natives that he came across. At some point during this trip, Beltrami collected two indigenous flutes, which he sent back to Italy along with his collection of Native American artifacts. One of these flutes provides us with the oldest extant Native American flute, is now in the collection of the Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali in Bergamo, Italy. On August 28, he found what he believed was the source of the Mississippi, as well as the Red River of the North, he named the place Giulia after his departed friend, named eight other nearby lakes after her children.
He began the return trip downriver to Fort St. Anthony. Beltrami continued south to his original destination of New Orleans arriving in December. In the city, he began writing an account of his travels thus far. By late January, it was completed, it was published a few months later. Beltrami himself was away from the discussion for about a year, however, as he had gone on another voyage through Mexico, he collected Aztec objects, classified plants and animals, observed the area's political system. Because of his work with flora, he would be included in several scientific societies of France, he returned to New Orleans in 1825, but soon left to return to Philadelphia where many copies of his book were being stored. The Catholic church was displeased, condemned him and his work. By November, he was hob-nobbing with elites at festivities surrounding the opening of New York's Erie Canal. After some trips to Haiti, Santo Domingo, elsewhere, Beltrami made a return trip across the Atlantic in 1826, arriving in London in the late part of the year.
He moved to Paris two years and joined several scientific societies through the early 1830s. In 1834, Beltrami moved to Heidelberg and befriended Josef Anton Mittermaier, a notable jurist of the time. A few years he returned to his estate in Filottrano, he attempted to have his books published in Italy, but the church-led government denied his requests. In his final years, he patterned his life on that of Franciscan friars, called himself "Fra Giacomo." Most of his time was spent working in his garden. He died there in 1855. Ispettore dei Magazzini della Commissione Sotto-Ispettore degli Equipaggi Cancelliere di Giustizia nel Dipartamento del Taro Vice-Ispettore delle Armate Giudice della Corte del Dipartamento del Musone Medaglia d'Onore di Napoli Accademia dei Catenati di Macerata Societas Medico-Botanica Londinensis Société Géographie di Paris Ateneo di Bergamo Société Géologique de France Société Universelle de Civilization Société dell'Institut Historique de France Deux Mots sur les promenades de Paris a Liverpool etc.
Le découverte des sources du Mississippi A Pilgrimage in Europe and America – English translation of the first two books, plus some extra
Itasca County, Minnesota
Itasca County is a county located in the State of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 45,058, its county seat is Grand Rapids. The county is named after Lake Itasca, in turn a shortened version of the Latin words veritas caput, meaning'truth' and'head', a reference to the source of the Mississippi River. Portions of the Bois Forte and Leech Lake Indian reservations are in the county. Itasca County was first formed upon the creation of the Minnesota Territory, it was a much larger county, which covered many of today's northeastern Minnesota counties. The original Itasca County stretched over Cook, Saint Louis, eastern Lake of the Woods, eastern Beltrami, northern Aitkin, northern Carlton counties, today in Minnesota. Itasca County was named for Lake Itasca, determined to be the true source of the Mississippi River. After many disputes over finding the source of the Mississippi River, Henry Schoolcraft set out to find its true source in 1832. Once he came upon its true source, he decided to name this'Lake Itasca.'
The Mississippi River flows from its small beginnings at Lake Itasca, where it can be crossed on foot. It flows past Bemidji, through Itasca County, continues to the Gulf of Mexico; the terrain of Itasca County is hilly wooded, studded with lakes and ponds. It slopes to the east, with its highest areas on its upper west border, at 1,437' ASL; the county has a total area of 2,928 square miles, of which 2,668 square miles is land and 260 square miles is water. It is the third-largest county in Minnesota by land area; the landscape in Itasca County varies greatly. The low plains, rolling hills, wetlands occur where there was glacial activity in the past; this area is known for being forested, has been for centuries. The different forests are made up of trees such as pines, hardwoods and tamarack; the many large forests in the area make logging major sectors in the economy. In Itasca County there are many different bodies of water from big lakes, to small creeks, to major rivers. Over 1400 lakes are located within the county.
These bodies of water help support many different wildlife species such as different birds and small mammals. Major bodies of water in the county include Lake Winnibigoshish, Pokegama Lake, Deer Lake, the Mississippi River, Bowstring Lake, the Blandin Paper Mill Reservoir; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 43,992 people, 17,789 households, 12,381 families in the county. The population density was 16.5/sqmi. There were 24,528 housing units at an average density of 9.19/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 94.64% White, 0.16% Black or African American, 3.40% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 1.34% from two or more races. 0.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.6% were of German, 13.8% Norwegian, 7.7% Finnish, 7.2% Swedish, 6.2% Irish, 5.0% United States or American and 5.0% English ancestry. There were 17,789 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 7.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families.
26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.91. The county population contained 24.40% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,234, the median income for a family was $44,025. Males had a median income of $37,066 versus $22,327 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,717. About 7.70% of families and 10.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.60% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. Ball Club Inger Itasca County voters have tended to vote Democratic for several decades; the county selected the Democratic Party candidate in 89% of national elections since 1980.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Itasca County, Minnesota Itasca County government’s website Minnesota Department of Transportation map of Itasca County
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
Minnesota's 8th congressional district
Minnesota's 8th congressional district covers the northeastern part of Minnesota. It is anchored by the state's fifth-largest city, it includes most of the Mesabi and Vermilion iron ranges. The district is best known for its mining, agriculture and shipping industries. For many decades, the district reliably voted Democratic, but in 2016, Republicans made strong gains and Donald Trump carried the district by a 15-point margin. In the 2018 midterm election, it was one of only three US Congressional districts flipped to Republican. Only St. Louis, Lake and Carlton counties in the extreme northeast of the district had margins for the Democratic party candidate; the district is represented by Republican Pete Stauber. Minnesota's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf