Tadipatri or Tadpatri is a newly industrialized town and a Municipality in Anantapur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the headquarters of Tadipatri mandal in Anantapur revenue division. It is located at the border of Kurnool district and Kadapa district, the ancient world-famous Chintala Venkataramana Temple sprawling over five acre area is located in Tadipatri. Tadipatri is located at 14. 92°N78. 02°E /14.92,78.02 and its average elevation is 223 metres or 731 feet. Tadipatri lies on the bank of Pennar River. Due to Mid Pennar Dam constructed upstream, the section of river in Tadipatri is usually dry throughout the year, Tadipatri is rich in cement grade limestone deposits. The lime stone reserves are extending in a triangle from Tadipatri in Anantapur district to Kamalapuram in Kadapa district, the rocks in Tadipatri area are part of the Lower Cuddapah Supergroup. It consists of dolomite and shale, as of 2011 Census of India, Tadpatri had a population of 108,171. Tadipatri municipality is the body of the city.
It is a First grade municipality, constituted in the year 1920 and is spread over an area of 7.46 km2 and has 34 election wards, the municipality of the town oversees the civic needs like, water supply, garbage collection etc. It implements strict ban on the use of plastic, in 2015, S. Shiva Ram Krishna was awarded Green Leaf Awards 2015 in the category of Best Municipal Commissioner, which was organised by NGO Sukuki Exnora. As of the 2001 India census, Tadipatri had a population of 86,641, males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Tadipatri has an literacy rate of 56%, lower than the national average of 59. 5%, male literacy is 67%. In Tadipatri, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age, on 10 September 1976, an industrial estate was established under APIIC in 9.09 acres. The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Tadipatri bus station, State Highway 30 passes through Tadipatri, which connects Anantapur and Bugga. Tadipatri railway station is classified as a D–category station in the Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone and architecture Some of the finest carvings of the early Vijayanagara period are from Tadipatri, a treasure-house of fine Vijayanagara sculpture.
The primary and secondary education is imparted by government and private schools. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, moola Narayana Swamy – He founded Vauhini Studios, which was supposed to be the largest cine studio in Asia during 1940s
Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west. Politically, the Indian subcontinent usually includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal, sometimes, the term South Asia is used interchangeably with Indian subcontinent. There is no consensus about which countries should be included in each and it is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the twentieth century. It was especially convenient for referring to the region comprising both the British India and the states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent has a geological significance and it was, like the various continents, a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of basins, each drifting in various directions.
The geological region called the Greater India once included the Madagascar, Antartica, as a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene. The Indian subcontinent has been a particularly common in the British Empire. The region, state Mittal and Thursby, has labelled as India, Greater India. The BBC and some sources refer to the region as the Asian Subcontinent. Some academics refer to it as South Asian Subcontinent, the terms Indian subcontinent and South Asia are sometimes used interchangeably. There is no accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or Indian subcontinent. In dictionary entries, the term subcontinent signifies a large, distinguishable subdivision of a continent, the region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Antartica and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago and this geological region largely includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka.
The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the active areas. The English term mainly continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent, physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India and the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world, Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named a world city. It is the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and millionaires among all cities in India. The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies, during the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development, during the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon Indias independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State, in 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.
Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India and it is home to some of Indias premier scientific and nuclear institutes like BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses Indias Hindi and Marathi film and television industry, Mumbais business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures. The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja, in 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name Bombaim, in his Lendas da Índia. This name possibly originated as the Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning good little bay, in 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu, Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include, Bombay, Bombaym, Mombaim, Bambaye, Bombeye, Boon Bay, and Bon Bahia.
After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial diwan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai. By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in the Indian statewise official languages of Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, the Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995. According to Slate magazine, they argued that Bombay was a corrupted English version of Mumbai, Slate said The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region. A resident of Mumbai is called mumbaikar in the Marathi language, the term has been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai. Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands, Bombay Island, Mazagaon, Colaba, Worli and it is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited
Pit caves typically form in limestone as a result of long-term erosion by water. They can be open to the surface or found deep within horizontal caves, among cavers, a pit is generally defined as a vertical drop of any depth that cannot be negotiated safely without the use of ropes or ladders. Exploration into pit caves requires the use of equipment such as nylon kernmantle rope or cable ladders, more specialized caving techniques such as the single rope technique are common practice and the preferred method of pit exploration for cavers worldwide. The SRT involves the use of 9–11 mm nylon static rope, Vertical caving is a specialized sport that should be undertaken only after acquiring knowledge of, and expertise in, proper vertical caving equipment and its use. For obvious reasons, vertical caving is more dangerous than horizontal caving, Vertical caving requires the intimate understanding of ropes, anchors, rappelling devices and ascending systems. Veteran cavers typically are knowledgeable in self rescue techniques including change-overs, Pit caving was pioneered by the British geologist John Beaumont who gave an account of his descent into Lamb Leer Cavern to the Royal Society in 1681.
He developed his own techniques using ropes and metallic ladders, in the 1930s, as caving became increasingly popular in France, several clubs in the Alps developed vertical cave exploration into a recognized outdoor sport. The lack of technical equipment during the war forced Chevalier and his team to innovate. The scaling-pole, nylon ropes, use of explosives in caves, in the late 1950s, American caver Bill Cuddington, known as Vertical Bill, developed the single rope technique in the US. In 1958, two Swiss alpinists and Marti teamed up, creating the first rope ascender known as the Jumar. The development of the rack and the evolution of mechanical ascension systems, notably helped extend the practice. The deepest individual pitch within a cave is 603 m in Vrtoglavica Cave in Slovenia, the second deepest pitch is Patkov Gušt at 553 m in the Velebit mountain, Croatia. Lamb Leer, England, was entered by a 25 m pitch as early as the 17th century. Hranice Abyss, Czech Republic, is the deepest underwater cave in the world, the lowest confirmed depth is 473 m, pozzo del Merro, Italy, is the worlds second deepest underwater pit cave, the deepest part reached is 392 m.
El Capitan Pit, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, USA, fantastic Pit, Ellisons Cave System, Georgia, USA, at 586 ft is the deepest freefall pit in the lower 48 United States. Stupendous Pit, Rumbling Falls Cave, Tennessee, USA, is a 202 ft pit that drops into a 26 acres chamber. Hellhole, West Virginia, USA, has a 154 ft entrance drop and was the site of development of the single rope technique in the 1950s and 60s. Natural Trap Cave, located in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming, is 85 ft deep, sótano de Las Golondrinas, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, at 1,094 ft, is the deepest known freefall drop in the western hemisphere
A speleothem, commonly known as a cave formation, is a secondary mineral deposit formed in a cave. Speleothems typically form in limestone or dolostone solutional caves, the term speleothem as first introduced by Moore, is derived from the Greek words spēlaion cave + théma deposit. The definition of speleothem in most publications, specifically excludes secondary mineral deposits in mines, the cave environment has influenced the minerals deposition. More than 250 cave mineral deposits exist, the vast majority of speleothems are calcareous, composed of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite, or calcium sulfate in the form of gypsum. Calcareous speleothems form via carbonate dissolution reactions, calthemites which occur on concrete structures, are created by completely different chemistry to speleothems. Speleothems take various forms, depending on whether the water drips, condenses, many speleothems are named for their resemblance to man-made or natural objects. Speleogens are formations within caves that are created by the removal of bedrock, although sometimes similar in appearance to speleothems in caves formed by dissolution, these are formed by the cooling of residual lava within the lava tube.
Speleothems formed from salt and other minerals are known, most cave chemistry revolves around calcium carbonate, the primary mineral in limestone and dolomite. It is a slightly soluble mineral whose solubility increases with the introduction of carbon dioxide and it is paradoxical in that its solubility decreases as the temperature increases, unlike the vast majority of dissolved solids. This decrease is due to interactions with the carbon dioxide, whose solubility is diminished by elevated temperatures, as the dioxide is released. Most other solution caves that are not composed of limestone or dolostone are composed of gypsum, samples can be taken from speleothems to be used like ice cores as a proxy record of past climate changes. A particular strength of speleothems in this regard is their ability to be accurately dated over much of the late Quaternary period using the uranium-thorium dating technique. These can provide clues to past precipitation and vegetation changes over the last ~500,000 years, the radiation centers must be stable on geologic time, i. e. to have a very large lifetime, to make dating possible.
Many other artifacts, such as, e. g. surface defects induced by the grinding of the sample can preclude a correct dating, only a few percents of the samples tested are in fact suitable for dating. This makes the often disappointing for the experimentalists. ESR dating can be tricky and must be applied with discernment and it can never be used alone, One date only is No date, or in other words, multiple lines of evidence and multiple lines of reasoning are necessary in absolute dating. However, good samples might be if all the selection criteria are met. The occurrence of calthemites is often associated with degradation, but could be linked to leaching of lime
The city of Kurnool is the headquarters of the district. It has a population of 4,053,463 of which 28. 35% were urban as of 2011. It occupies 10th and 2nd place in terms of area in Largest Districts of India and Andhra Pradesh respectively, accounting for 17,658 square kilometres, the Ketavaram rock paintings are dated back to the Paleolithic era. Also the Jurreru Valley, Katavani Kunta and Yaganti in Kurnool District have some important rock arts and paintings in their vicinity, belum Caves are geologically and historically important caves in the district. There are indications that Jains and Buddhist monks were occupying these caves centuries ago, many Buddhists relics were found inside the caves. These relics are now housed in Museum at Ananthapur, archaeological survey of India found remnants of vessels, etc. of pre-Buddhist era and has dated the remnants of vessels found in the caves to 4500 BC. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was elected from the Dhone assembly constituency in 1962 general elections, again in 1977 general elections to the Lok Sabha, he won from the Nandyal Parliamentary constituency and became the speaker of the Lok Sabha.
However he resigned and became the 6th President of the Republic of India, in 1970, part of Kurnool district was split off to become part of Prakasam district. Kurnool District is currently a part of the Red Corridor, Kurnool district occupies an area of approximately 17,658 square kilometres, comparatively equivalent to New Caledonia. The village of Ternekal lies within this region, Kurnool is surrounded by districts of Mahbubnagar district of Telangana to the north, Anantapur sitrict, Kadapa district to south, Praksam district to east and Bellary of Karnataka to the west. According to the 2011 census Kurnool district has a population of 4,046,601 and this gives it a ranking of 54th in India. The district has a density of 229 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 14. 65%, Kurnool has a sex ratio of 984 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 61. 13%. In 2007–2008 the International Institute for Population Sciences interviewed 1247 households in 38 villages across the district and they found that 94% had access to electricity,89. 7% had drinking water,34. 6% toilet facilities, and 51. 6% lived in a pucca home. 30. 6% of girls wed before the age of 18 and 85. 1% of interviewees carried a BPL card.
Kurnool District has 3 Revenue Divisions viz. Kurnool, the district has 54 mandals and 53 Panchayat Samitis under these revenue divisions. It has a Municipal Corporation of Kurnool and 4 municipalities namely, Adoni, there are 899 gram panchayats that include 7 notified and 862 non-notified, alongside 920 revenue villages and 615 hamlets. The mandals are listed with respect to their divisions in the following table, Kurnool District has 3 Revenue Divisions viz. Kurnool, Nandyal
Anantapur is a city in Anantapur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the headquarters of Anantapur mandal and the divisional headquarters of Anantapur revenue division. The city is located on National Highway 44 and it was the headquarters of the Datta Mandalam in 1799. It was a position of importance for the British Indian Army during the Second World War. Anantapur is located at 14. 68°N77. 6°E /14.68,77.6 and it has an average elevation of 335 m. It is located at a distance of 356 km from Hyderabad and 484 km from Vijayawada, Anantapur has a semi-arid climate, with hot and dry conditions for most of the year. Summers start in late February and peak in May with average temperatures around the 37 °C range. Anantapur gets pre-monsoon showers starting as early as March, mainly through north-easterly winds blowing in from Kerala, monsoon arrives in September and lasts until early November with about 250 mm of precipitation. A dry and mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February, with little humidity, total annual rainfall is about 22 in.
As of 2011 census, Anantapur has a population of 262,340, the sex ratio was 995 females per 1000 males and 9% of the population was under six years old. Effective literacy is 82%, male literacy is 89% and female literacy is 75%, Telugu is the official and widely spoken language. Whereas Urdu and English are the minority languages spoken in the city, civic administration Anantapur Municipal Corporation is the civic body of Anantapur. Public utilities Anantapur Drinking Water Supply Project and Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust have step forward in supplying clean water, the corporation supplies chlorinated water to the city from the summer storage tank located in the town. Anantapur is well connected to the major cities with National Highway 7. The NH–7 connects it to Bangalore and NH–205 connects it to Chennai via Renigunta, the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Anantapur bus station. The city has a road length of 298.12 km. Anantapur provides rail connectivity for the city and is classified as an A–category station in Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone, there are a few notable people from the town with their contributions to various fields such as politics, film industry and other areas.
Millets such as, Bajra, Ragi are the food grains which are used in food items
Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in Earths continental crust, behind feldspar. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones, since antiquity, varieties of quartz have been the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings, especially in Eurasia. The word quartz is derived from the German word Quarz and its Middle High German ancestor twarc, the Ancient Greeks referred to quartz as κρύσταλλος derived from the Ancient Greek κρύος meaning icy cold, because some philosophers apparently believed the mineral to be a form of supercooled ice. Today, the rock crystal is sometimes used as an alternative name for the purest form of quartz. Quartz belongs to the crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end, well-formed crystals typically form in a bed that has unconstrained growth into a void, usually the crystals are attached at the other end to a matrix and only one termination pyramid is present.
However, doubly terminated crystals do occur where they develop freely without attachment, a quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape, lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. α-quartz crystallizes in the crystal system, space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. β-quartz belongs to the system, space group P6222 and P6422. These space groups are truly chiral, both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks. The transformation between α- and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another, although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral, current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. Color is an identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals, although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. Pure quartz, traditionally called rock crystal or clear quartz, is colorless and transparent or translucent, common colored varieties include citrine, rose quartz, smoky quartz, milky quartz, and others.
The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline and the microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties, the cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque, while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. Chalcedony is a form of silica consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz, and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz, or mixed rocks including quartz, often including contrasting bands or patterns of color, are agate, carnelian or sard, heliotrope, amethyst is a form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. The worlds largest deposits of amethysts can be found in Brazil, Uruguay, France, sometimes amethyst and citrine are found growing in the same crystal. It is referred to as ametrine, an amethyst is formed when there is iron in the area where it was formed
Thiruvananthapuram, formerly known as Trivandrum, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala. It is located on the west coast of India near the south of the mainland. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the Evergreen city of India, Thiruvananthapuram was a trading post for spices and ivory. The city was ruled by the Ays and was captured by the rulers of Venad in tenth century A. D, in 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and made Thiruvananthapuram the capital in 1745. It remained as a state ruled by Travancore under the loose governance of the British before joining the Indian Union in 1948. With nearly 80% of the software exports, Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT hub with the Technopark. Indias first and only magic academy, Magic Academy Research Centre run by Merlin award-winning magician Gopinath Muthukad is situated in Thiruvananthapuram, the city is home to animation companies like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd. The Kinfra Film and Video Park is one of the most advanced film and it is consistently ranked among the best cities to live in Kerala as well as India.
The city was referred to as Trivandrum until 1991, when the government decided to reinstate the citys original name Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE, the city was a trading post for spices and ivory. The early rulers of the city were the Ays and after their fall in the 10th century, in 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Tamil Nadu. In the mid-19th century, the city was under the reign of Swathi Thirunal, an observatory was established in 1837 with the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College established in 1873. Several colleges were established by Moolam Thirunal, sree Moolam Assembly, established in 1904, was the first democratically elected legislative council in any Indian state. After Indian Independence in 1947, Travancore chose to join the Indian union, in 1949, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore-Cochin, the state formed by the integration of Travancore with the Kingdom of Cochin.
The king of Travancore, Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma, became the Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from 1 July 1949 until 31 October 1956, when the state of Kerala was formed on 1 November 1956, Thiruvananthapuram became its capital. The city has a population of 752,490 according to the 2011 census, the sex ratio is 1,032 females for every 1,000 males. In October 2010, the number of wards was increased from 86 to 100 post expansion of city limits by adding Sreekaryam, Kudappanakunnu, hindus comprise 68. 5% of the population, Christians about 16. 7% and Muslims form 13. 7%. The major languages spoken are Malayalam and English, in Palayam in the city centre, there is a mosque, a temple and a Christian church next to each other as neighbours, establishing the communal harmony of Keralites
Speleology and caving are often connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same. In Romania, the term speology is used, this is derived from a Greek word for cave, rather than the Latin, spelaeum. Speleology is a field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, geology, physics and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex. In 1895 Martel founded the Société de Spéléologie, the first organization devoted to science in the world. The creation of an accurate, detailed map is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave, caves provide a home for many unique biota. Cave ecologies are diverse, and not sharply distinct from surface habitats. Generally however, the deeper the cave becomes, the more rarefied the ecology, cave environments fall into three general categories, Endogean the parts of caves that are in communication with surface soils through cracks and rock seams, groundwater seepage, and root protrusion. Parahypogean the threshold regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight and these can be in regular contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals, or can be almost entirely isolated.
Deep hypogean environments can host autonomous ecologies whose primary source of energy is not sunlight, cave organisms fall into three basic classes, There are so-called accidental trogloxenes which are surface organisms that enter caves for no survival reason. Some may even be troglophobes, which survive in caves for any extended period. Examples include deer which fell through a sinkhole, frogs swept into a cave by a flash flood, the two factors that limit cave ecologies are generally energy and nutrients. To some degree moisture is available in actively forming Karst caves. Cut off from the sunlight and steady deposition of plant detritus, the majority of energy in cave environments comes from the surplus of the ecosystems outside. One major source of energy and nutrients in caves is dung from trogloxenes, because of their rarity and position in the ecosystem they are threatened by a large number of human activities. Dam construction, limestone quarrying, water pollution and logging are just some of the disasters that can devastate or destroy underground biological communities.
Speleologists work with archaeologists in studying underground ruins, tunnels and aqueducts, such as the various inlets and outlets of the Cloaca Maxima in Rome
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble