A monopteros is a circular colonnade supporting a roof but without any walls. Unlike a tholos, it does not have walls making a room inside. In Greek and Roman antiquity the term could be used for a tholos. In ancient times monopteroi served inter alia as a form of baldachin for a cult image. An example of this is the Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, albeit the spaces between the columns were walled in in ancient times; the Temple of Rome and Augustus on the Athenian Acropolis is a monopteros from Roman times with open spaces between the columns. Cyriacus von Ancona, a 15th-century traveller, handed down his architrave inscription: Ad praefatae Palladis Templi vestibulum. In baroque and classicist architecture, a monopteros as a pavilion given a classical name such as a "muses' temple" is a popular motif in English and French gardens; the monopteros occurs in German parks, as in the English Garden in Munich and in Hayns Park in Hamburg-Eppendorf. Many wells in parks and spa centres have the appearance of a monopteros.
Many monopteroi have staffage structures like a porticus, placed in front of the monopteros. These have only a decorative function, because they are not needed in order to provide an entrance to a temple, open on all sides. Many monopteroi are described as rotundas due to their circular floor plan; the tholos goes by that name. However, many monopteroi have polygonal plans, that would not be described as rotundas. An example is the Muses' Temple with the muse, Polyhymnia, in the grounds of Tiefurt House, that has a hexagonal floor plan. Belvedere Gazebo Wolfgang Binder: Der Roma-Augustus Monopteros auf der Akropolis in Athen und sein typologischer Ort. Karlsruhe 1969. Ingrid Weibezahn: Geschichte und Funktion des Monopteros. Untersuchungen zu einem Gebäudetyp des Spätbarock und des Klassizismus. Hildesheim 1975, ISBN 3-487-05764-6. Online: Wiesbaden monopteros - 360° panorama Photographs and historical background to the Leibniz Temple in Hanover
Antonio del Pollaiolo
Antonio del Pollaiuolo known as Antonio di Jacopo Pollaiuolo or Antonio Pollaiuolo, was an Italian painter, sculptor and goldsmith during the Italian Renaissance. He was born in Florence, his brother, was an artist, the two worked together. Their work shows an interest in human anatomy, they took their nickname from the trade of their father. Antonio's first studies of goldsmithing and metalworking were under either his father or Andrea del Castagno: the latter taught him in painting. Other sources relate that he worked in the Florence workshop of Bartoluccio di Michele, where Lorenzo Ghiberti received his training. During this time, he took an interest in engraving; some of Pollaiuolo's painting exhibits strong brutality, of which the characteristics can be studied in his portrayal of Saint Sebastian, painted in 1473–1475 for the Pucci Chapel of the SS. Annunziata of Florence. However, in contrast, his female portraits exhibit a calmness and a meticulous attention to detail of fashion, as was the norm in late 15th century portraiture.
He achieved his greatest successes as a metal-worker. The exact ascription of his works is doubtful, as his brother Piero did much in collaboration with him; the fifteenth-century addition of the infant twins Romulus and Remus to an existing bronze sculpture of the Ancient Roman mythological she-wolf who nursed them has been attributed by some to him. He only produced one surviving engraving, the Battle of the Nude Men, but both in its size and sophistication this took the Italian print to new levels, remains one of the most famous prints of the Renaissance. In 1484 Antonio took up his residence in Rome, where he executed the tomb of Pope Sixtus IV, now in the Museum of St. Peter's, a composition in which he again manifested the quality of exaggeration in the anatomical features of the figures. In 1496 he went to Florence in order to put the finishing touches to the work begun in the sacristy of Santo Spirito, he died in Rome as a rich man, having just finished his mausoleum of Pope Innocent VIII in St. Peter's, was buried in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli, where a monument was raised to him near that of his brother.\ His main contribution to Florentine painting lay in his analysis of the human body in movement or under conditions of strain, but he is important for his pioneering interest in landscape.
His students included Sandro Botticelli. The above "Profile of a Woman" is a work of Piero del Pollaiolo, the brother of Antonio del Pollaiolo. Altarpiece for the Chapel of the Cardinal of Portugal - Fresco, San Miniato al Monte, Florence Portrait of a Young Woman - Poplar panel, 52,5 x 36,2 cm, Staatliche Museen, Berlin The Saints Vincent and Eustace - Tempera on wood, 172 x 179 cm, Florence Apollo and Daphne - Tempera on wood, 30 x 20 cm, National Gallery, London Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian - Panel, 292 x 223 cm, National Gallery, London Portrait of a Young Woman - Tempera on wood,la sdfb 55 x 34 cm, Florence Hercules and the Hydra - Tempera on wood, 17 x 12 cm, Florence Hercules and Antaeus - Tempera on wood, 16 x 9 cm, Florence Portrait of a Girl - Panel, Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan Hercules and Deianira - Oil on Canvas, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven St Christopher and the Infant Christ - Metropolitan Museum, New York Hercules - Bode Museum, Berlin Tomb of Pope Sixtus IV – Saint Peter's Basilica Giorgio Vasari includes a biography of Pollaiuolo in his Lives of the Artists.
Leonardo da Vinci, Master Draftsman, exhibition catalog online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Antonio del Pollaiolo The Gubbio Studiolo and its conservation, volumes 1 & 2, from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Antonio del Pollaiolo
A garden pond is a water feature constructed in a garden or designed landscape for aesthetic purposes, to provide wildlife habitat, or for swimming. Garden ponds can be excellent wildlife habitats, can make a contribution to the protection of freshwater wildlife. Invertebrate animals such as dragonflies and water beetles, amphibians can colonise new ponds quickly. Garden pond owners have the potential to make many original and valuable observations about the ecology of small waterbodies, which garden ponds replicate. Garden ponds cause problems. In particular, garden ponds can be pathways for the spread of invasive non-native plants. In the UK the non-native species Crassula helmsii and Myriophyllum aquaticum, which cause considerable practical problems in protecting freshwaters, are both escaped invasive species from garden ponds. Ponds may be created by people. Much more important is whether the pond is polluted or clean, how close it is to other wetlands and its depth whether it dries out from time to time and how many fish there are.
Ponds vary more in their physical and chemical conditions from day to day, during the day, than other freshwaters, like rivers. People install pumps in garden ponds to counter these natural tendencies to maintain higher levels of dissolved oxygen: although this is not necessary for wildlife it may be essential to keep fish in a small pond. For ponds with polluted nutrient-rich tapwater added to them, filters can be used to reduce the abundance of algae. Ponds outside of gardens are fed by four main water sources: rain, surface runoff, groundwater; the wildlife value of ponds is affected by the extent to which these water sources are unpolluted. Garden ponds are not fed by inflows or groundwater, except in the larger and rural gardens; the pond will be filled by a combination of tap water and surface runoff – and lost to evaporation. In soils which lack natural clay, additional water loss to drainage and permeation is prevented by a liner. Pond liners are EPDM foils that are placed between the soil of the pond bed and the water.
Liners can be made from puddled clay, ponds on free-draining soils can be self-sealing with fine sediments washed into the pond. Seasonal pondsOne can make a garden pond/ koi pond that ranges in size from 150 gallons to around 10,000 gallons. However, if evaporation exceeds the amount of water added, the pond may dry out during summer; this is not harmful biologically because many freshwater plants and animals are well adapted to periods of drought, worldwide so-called'temporary ponds' are an important natural habitat type. However, in a garden, a pond which dries out in summer may be a bit disappointing for the owner since this is the time when most people will be spending time enjoying their pond, and of course some animals fish, cannot survive periods of drought. Amphibians, on the other hand benefit from ponds which dry out because this removes the major predators of tadpoles and newtpoles and, provided the larvae emerge before the pond dries out, the drought presents no problems for the amphibians.
Ponds or swimming pools can be constructed and maintained on an organic model, sometimes called natural pools, where the water is contained by an isolating membrane or membranes, in which no chemicals or devices that disinfect or sterilize water are used, the water is instead cleared through use of biological filters, other organisms used in water purification, plants rooted hydroponically in the system. The first such pools were built in the early 1980s in Austria, where they are known as Schwimmteiche; the first was built by Werner Gamerith in his private garden in the 1980s. The market grew, by 2016 there were around 20,000 such pools in Europe; the first public swimming pool in North America built and maintained in this way, was finished at Webber Park in Minneapolis in 2015. An organization called Die Internationale Organisation für naturnahe Badegewässer sets standards for such pools. Biotope Koi pond Water garden Shilton, Andrew, ed.. Pond treatment technology. IWA Pub. ISBN 9781843390206
Donato Bramante, born as Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio and known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect. He introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo, his Tempietto marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome when Pope Julius II appointed him to build a sanctuary over the spot where Peter was crucified. Bramante was born under the name Donato d'Augnolo, Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio, or Donato Pascuccio d'Antonio in Fermignano near Urbino. Here, in 1467, Luciano Laurana was adding to the Palazzo Ducale an arcaded courtyard and other Renaissance features to Federico da Montefeltro's ducal palace. Bramante's architecture has eclipsed his painting skills: he knew the painters Melozzo da Forlì and Piero della Francesca well, who were interested in the rules of perspective and illusionistic features in Mantegna's painting. Around 1474, Bramante moved to Milan, a city with a deep Gothic architectural tradition, built several churches in the new Antique style.
The Duke, Ludovico Sforza, made him his court architect, beginning in 1476, with commissions that culminated in the famous trompe-l'oeil choir of the church of Santa Maria presso San Satiro. Space was limited, Bramante made a theatrical apse in bas-relief, combining the painterly arts of perspective with Roman details. There is an octagonal sacristy, surmounted by a dome. In Milan, Bramante built the tribune of Santa Maria delle Grazie. However, in 1499, with his Sforza patron driven from Milan by an invading French army, Bramante made his way to Rome, where he was known to the powerful Cardinal Riario. In Rome, he was soon recognized by Cardinal Della Rovere, shortly to become Pope Julius II. For Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile or Julius II, Bramante designed one of the most harmonious buildings of the Renaissance: the Tempietto of San Pietro in Montorio on the Janiculum. Despite its small scale, the construction has all the rigorous proportions and symmetry of Classical structures, surrounded by slender Doric columns, surmounted by a dome.
According to a engraving by Sebastiano Serlio, Bramante planned to set it within a colonnaded courtyard. In November 1503, Julius engaged Bramante for the construction of the grandest European architectural commission of the 16th century, the complete rebuilding of St Peter's Basilica; the cornerstone of the first of the great piers of the crossing was laid with ceremony on 17 April 1506. Few drawings by Bramante survive, though some by his assistants do, demonstrating the extent of the team, assembled. Bramante's vision for St Peter's, a centralized Greek cross plan that symbolized sublime perfection for him and his generation was fundamentally altered by the extension of the nave after his death in 1514. Bramante's plan envisaged four great chapels filling the corner spaces between the equal transepts, each one capped with a smaller dome surrounding the great dome over the crossing. So Bramante's original plan was much more Romano-Byzantine in its forms than the basilica, built. Bramante worked on several other commissions.
Among his earliest works in Rome, before the Basilica's construction was under way, is the cloister of Santa Maria della Pace near Piazza Navona. Santa Maria presso San Satiro, Milan, ca. 1482–1486 Palazzo della Cancelleria, Rome, ca. 1489-1513 Santa Maria delle Grazie. Palazzo Caprini, started around 1510 Leon Battista Alberti Giorgio Vasari Sauer, Joseph. "Donato Bramante". Catholic Encyclopedia. 2. Donato Bramante Source Information, Pictures & Documentaries about Donato
An orangery or orangerie was a room or a dedicated building on the grounds of fashionable residences from the 17th to the 19th centuries where orange and other fruit trees were protected during the winter, as a large form of greenhouse or conservatory. The orangery provided a luxurious extension of the normal range and season of woody plants, extending the protection which had long been afforded by the warmth offered from a masonry fruit wall. A century after the use for orange and lime trees had been established, other varieties of tender plants and exotic plants came to be housed in the orangery, which gained a stove for the upkeep of these delicate plants in the cold winters of northern Europe; as imported citrus fruit and other tender fruit became available and much cheaper, orangeries were used more for tender ornamental plants. The orangery originated from the Renaissance gardens of Italy, when glass-making technology enabled sufficient expanses of clear glass to be produced. In the north, the Dutch led the way in developing expanses of window glass in orangeries, although the engravings illustrating Dutch manuals showed solid roofs, whether beamed or vaulted, in providing stove heat rather than open fires.
This soon created a situation. The glazed roof, which afforded sunlight to plants that were not dormant, was a development of the early 19th century; the orangery at Dyrham Park, provided with a slate roof as built about 1702, was given a glazed one about a hundred years after Humphrey Repton remarked that it was dark. The 1617 Orangerie at the Palace of the Louvre inspired imitations that culminated in Europe's largest orangery, the Versailles Orangerie. Designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart for Louis XIV's 3,000 orange trees at Versailles, its dimensions of 508 by 42 feet were not eclipsed until the development of the modern greenhouse in the 1840s, were overshadowed by the glass architecture of Joseph Paxton. Notable for his 1851 design of the Crystal Palace, his "great conservatory" at Chatsworth House was an orangery and glass house of monumental proportions; the orangery, was not just a greenhouse but a symbol of prestige and wealth and a feature of gardens, in the same way as a summerhouse, folly, or "Grecian temple".
Owners would conduct their guests there on tours of the garden to admire not only the fruits within but the architecture without. The orangery would contain fountains, an area in which to entertain in inclement weather; as early as 1545, an orangery was built in Italy. The first orangeries were practical and not as ornamental as they became. Most had no heating other than open fires. In England, John Parkinson introduced the orangery to the readers of his Paradisus in Sole, under the heading "Oranges"; the trees might be planted against a brick wall and enclosed in winter with a plank shed covered with "cerecloth", a waxed precursor of tarpaulin, which must have been thought handsomer than the alternative: "For that purpose, some keepe them in great square boxes, lift them to and fro by iron hooks on the sides, or cause them to be rowled by trundels, or small wheeles under them, to place them in a house or close gallery." The building of orangeries became most fashionable after the end of the Eighty Years' War in 1648.
The countries that started this trend were France and the Netherlands, these countries being the ones that saw merchants begin importing large numbers of orange trees, banana plants, pomegranates to cultivate for their beauty and scent. Orangeries were built facing south to take advantage of the maximum possible light, were constructed using brick or stone bases, brick or stone pillars, a corbel gutter, they featured large, tall windows to maximise available sunlight in the afternoons, with the north facing walls built without windows in a heavy solid brick, or with much smaller windows to be able to keep the rooms warm. Insulation at these times was one of the biggest concerns for the building of these orangeries, straw became the main material used, many had wooden shutters fitted to keep in the warmth. An early example of the type of construction can be seen at Kensington Palace, which featured underfloor heating. Contemporary domestic orangeries are typically built using stone and hardwood, but developments in glass, other materials, insulation technologies have produced viable alternatives to traditional construction.
The main difference with a conservatory is in the construction of its roof - a conservatory will have more than 75 per cent of its roof glazed, while an orangery will have less than 75 per cent glazed. Domestic orangeries typically feature a roof lantern. Improved design and insulation has lead to an increasing number of orangeries that are not built facing south, instead using light maximising techniques to make the most of available natural sunlight; the first examples could be removed during summer. Notably not only noblemen but wealthy merchants, e.g. those of Nuremberg, used to cultivate citrus plants in orangeries. Some orangeries were built using the garden wall as the main wall of the new orangery, but as orangeries became more and more popular they started to become more and more influenced by garden designers and architects, which led to the connection between the house and architectural orangery design; this became further influenced by the increased demand for beautiful exotic plants in the garden, which could be gr
In the French formal garden, a bosquet is a formal plantation of trees, at least five of identical species planted as a quincunx, or set in strict regularity as to rank and file, so that the trunks line up as one passes along either face. Symbolic of order in a humanized and tamed Gardens of the French Renaissance and Baroque Garden à la française landscape, the bosquet is an analogue of the orderly orchard, an amenity, intimately associated with pleasure gardening from the earliest Persian gardens of the Achaemenids. Bosquets are traditionally paved with gravel, as the feature predates Budding's invention of the lawnmower, since the maintenance of turf under trees is demanding; the shade of paired bosquets flanking a parterre affords both relief from the sunny glare and the pleasure of surveying sunlit space from shade, another Achemenid invention. As they mature, the trees of the bosquet form an interlacing canopy overhead, they are limbed-up to reveal the pattern of identical trunks. Lower trunks may be given a lime wash to a selected height.
Clipped outer faces of the trees may be pleached. Within a large wood a bosquet in another related sense can be set out as a formal "room", a cabinet de verdure cut into the formal woodland, a major ingredient of André Le Nôtre's Versailles; these intimate areas defined by clipped walls of shrubs and trees offered privacy and relief from the grand scale and public formality of the terraces and allées. A single path with a discreet curve or dogleg provided the only access. Inside the bosquet, privacy was assured; the bosquets were altered during the years Le Nôtre worked at Versailles. The bosquets of Versailles were examples of a matured tradition, they were preceded by simple squares of planted bosquet alternating checkerboard fashion with open squares centering statues, outlined by linking allées in an illustration of an ideal grand garden plan in André Mollet's Le jardin de plaisir, 1651. In Alexandre Francini's engravings of the royal gardens at Fontainebleau and Saint Germain-en-Laye, compartments of bosquets are in evidence.
In Jacques Boyceau's posthumous Traité du iardinage selon les raisons de la nature et de l'art, designs for bosquets alternate with patterns for parterres. In the eighteenth-century, bosquets flanked Paris. In Paris, bosquets set in gravel may still be enjoyed in the Jardin des Tuileries and the Jardin du Luxembourg. After a century of naturalistic landscape gardening and two generations of revived pattern planting some bosquets re-entered garden design at the turn of the twentieth century; the garden at Easton Lodge, designed by Harold Peto inherited what was now called a bosquet but was a seventeenth-century garden wilderness, the "curious" English variant of the bosquet: "This ornamental grove or thicket was planted with native tree species 400 years ago and included a path network of concentric circles and radiating lines." Bosquets, unfamiliar in American gardens, but introduced in the Beaux-Arts gardens of Charles A. Platt, were planted along the Fifth Avenue front of the Metropolitan Museum in 1969-70.
Typical trees employed for bosquets are fine-scaled in leaf, such as hornbeam or hazelnut. Gardens of the French Renaissance Garden à la française Stand level modelling Lisa L. Moore, "What gardens mean: Some Eighteenth Century Background" Easton Lodge Mark Laird, 1992; the Formal Garden: Traditions of Art and Nature Chapter 2: "Baroque Gardens: The Age of Parterre and Bosquet" "The Salle des Antiques at Versailles"
The Apostolic Palace is the official residence of the pope, the head of the Catholic Church, located in Vatican City. It is known as the Papal Palace, the Palace of the Vatican and the Vatican Palace; the Vatican itself refers to the building as the Palace of Sixtus V, in honor of Pope Sixtus V, who built most of the present form of the palace. The building contains the Papal Apartments, various offices of the Catholic Church and the Holy See and public chapels, Vatican Museums, the Vatican Library, including the Sistine Chapel, Raphael Rooms, Borgia Apartment; the modern tourist can see these last and other parts of the palace, but other parts, such as the Sala Regia and Cappella Paolina, are closed to tourists. The Scala Regia can be not entered. In the fifth century, Pope Symmachus built a papal palace close to the Old St. Peter's Basilica which served an alternative residence to the Lateran Palace; the construction of a second fortified palace was sponsored by Pope Eugene III and extensively modified under Pope Innocent III in the twelfth century.
Upon returning to Rome in 1377 after the interlude of the Avignon Papacy, which saw Rome subject to civil unrest and the abandonment of several Christian monuments, the popes chose to reside first at Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere and at Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. The Vatican Palace had fallen into disrepair from lack of upkeep and the Lateran Palace underwent two destructive fires, in 1307 and 1361, which did irreparable harm. In 1447, Pope Nicholas V razed the ancient fortified palace of Eugene III to erect a new building, the current Apostolic Palace. In the 15th century, the Palace was placed under the authority of a prefect; this position of Apostolic Prefect lasted from the 15th century till the 1800s, when the Papal States fell into economic difficulties. In 1884, when this post was reviewed in light of saving money, Pope Leo XIII created a committee to administer the palace; the major additions and decorations of the palace are the work of the following popes for 150 years.
Construction of the current version of the palace began on 30 April 1589 under Pope Sixtus V and its various intrinsic parts were completed by successors, Pope Urban VII, Pope Innocent XI and Pope Clement VIII. In the 20th century, Pope Pius XI built a monumental art museum entrance. Construction of the Papal Palace at the Vatican in Vatican City, took place between 1471 and 1605. Covering 162,000m squared, it contains the Papal Apartments, offices of the Roman Catholic Church and Holy See, Vatican Library and art galleries; the Apostolic Palace is run by the Prefecture of the Pontifical Household. The palace is more a series of self-contained buildings within the well-recognized outer structure, arranged around the Courtyard of Sixtus V, it is located northeast of St Peter's Basilica and adjacent to the Bastion of Nicholas V and Palace of Gregory XIII. The Apostolic Palace houses both residential and support offices of various functions as well as administrative offices not focused on the life and functions of the Pope himself.
The best known of the Palace chapels is the Sistine Chapel named in honor of Sixtus IV. It is famous for its decoration, frescoed throughout by Renaissance artists including Michelangelo, Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio, others. One of the primary functions of the chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive Pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. In this closed-door election, the cardinals choose a successor to the traditionally first pope, St. Peter, traditionally buried in the crypts of nearby St. Peter's Church; this suite of rooms is famous for its frescos by a large team of artists working under Raphael. They were intended as a suite of apartments for Pope Julius II, he commissioned Raphael a young artist from Urbino, his studio in 1508 or 1509 to redecorate the existing interiors of the rooms entirely. It was Julius' intent to outshine the apartments of his predecessor Pope Alexander VI, as the Stanze are directly above Alexander's Borgia Apartments.
They are on the third floor. Running from east to west, as a visitor would have entered the apartment, but reversing the sequence in which the Stanze were frescoed, the route of the modern visitor, the rooms are the Sala di Constantino, the Stanza di Eliodoro, the Stanza della Segnatura and the Stanza dell'Incendio del Borgo. After the death of Julius in 1513, with two rooms frescoed, Pope Leo X continued the program. Following Raphael's death in 1520, his assistants Gianfrancesco Penni, Giulio Romano and Raffaellino del Colle finished the project with the frescoes in the Sala di Costantino; the Borgia Apartments is a suite of rooms in the Palace adapted for personal use by Pope Alexander VI. He commissioned the Italian painter Pinturicchio to lavishly decorate the apartments with frescoes; the paintings and frescoes, which were executed between 1492 and 1494, drew on a complex iconographic program that used themes from medieval encyclopedias, adding an eschatological layer of meaning and celebrating the divine origins of the Borgias.
The rooms are variously considered a part of the Vatican Vatican Museums. Some of the rooms are now used for the Vatican Collection of Modern Religious Art, inaugur