Barrow County, Georgia
Barrow County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 69,367; the county seat is Winder. Barrow County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Georgia General Assembly approved a joint resolution on July 7, 1914, to place an amendment on the November 3, 1914, election ballot that proposed the creation of Barrow County. The approval of the amendment by Georgia voters created the new county; the land for the county came from parts of Jackson and Walton Counties. Barrow County is named after David Crenshaw Barrow Jr. alumnus and chancellor of the University of Georgia. Barrow County's county seat Winder, Georgia is home of Georgia Senator Richard B. Russell Barrow is home of the Bethlehem Christian Academy Knights, Winder-Barrow Bulldoggs, Apalachee Wildcats. Barrow county is home to four middle schools, built Bear Creek Middle School, a new middle school in the City of Statham. Barrow county and Gwinnett county are the homes of the Chateau Elan resort and estate, Georgia's largest winery.
It is located in Braselton. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 163 square miles, of which 160 square miles is land and 2.6 square miles is water. The entirety of Barrow County is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. Hall County – north Clarke County – east Jackson County – east Oconee County – southeast Walton County – south Gwinnett County – west There are limited walkability options available currently. However, neighboring Clarke and Hall counties have accessible trails available; as of the census of 2000, there were 46,144 people, 16,354 households, 12,543 families residing in the county. The population density was 284 people per square mile. There were 17,304 housing units at an average density of 107 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.84% White, 10.72% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 2.20% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.50% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. 3.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Barrow County is considered a part of the Atlanta, GA combined statistical area despite its comparatively small population. There were 16,354 households out of which 39.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 11.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.30% were non-families. 18.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.40% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 34.50% from 25 to 44, 19.50% from 45 to 64, 9.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $47,019, the median income for a family was $50,722. Males had a median income of $34,510 versus $23,369 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $18,350. About 6.20% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.10% of those under age 18 and 14.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 69,367 people, 23,971 households, 18,214 families residing in the county; the population density was 432.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 26,400 housing units at an average density of 164.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 78.8% white, 11.4% black or African American, 3.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 3.7% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.6% were American, 10.7% were Irish, 9.1% were German, 8.5% were English. Of the 23,971 households, 42.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.0% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.0% were non-families, 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.88 and the average family size was 3.28. The median age was 33.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,958 and the median income for a family was $55,415. Males had a median income of $42,869 versus $33,175 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,882. About 9.4% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.0% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over. Winder-Barrow Cluster: Winder-Barrow High School Richard B. Russell Middle School Winder-Barrow Middle School Bear Creek Middle School Holsenbeck Elementary School Bramlett Elementary School Statham Elementary School County Line ElementaryApalachee Cluster: Apalachee High School Westside Middle School Haymon-Morris Middle School Auburn Elementary School Kennedy Elementary School Bethlehem Elementary School Yargo Elementary School Auburn Statham Winder Bethlehem Braselton Carl Russell Barrow Heights Harbins National Register of Historic Places listings in Barrow County, Georgia Georgia Encyclopedia - Barrow County entry Barrow County Georgia website Barrow County Chamber of Commerce Barrow County News Barrow County historical marker Bethabra Baptist Church historical marker
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Ranch is a domestic architectural style originating in the United States. The ranch-style house is noted for its long, close-to-the-ground profile, wide open layout; the house style fused modernist ideas and styles with notions of the American Western period of wide open spaces to create a informal and casual living style. While the original style of the ranch was informal and basic in design, starting around the early 1960s, many ranch-style houses constructed in the United States were built with more dramatic features like varying roof lines, cathedral ceilings, sunken living rooms, extensive landscaping and grounds. First built in the 1920s, the ranch style was popular with the booming post-war middle class of the 1940s to the 1970s; the style is associated with tract housing built at this time in the southwest United States, which experienced a population explosion during this period, with a corresponding demand for housing. The style became popular worldwide. However, their popularity waned in the late 20th century as neo-eclectic house styles, a return to using historical and traditional decoration, became more popular.
Preservationist movements have begun in some ranch house neighborhoods, as well as renewed interest in the style from a younger generation who did not grow up in ranch-style houses. This renewed interest in the style has been compared to that which other house styles such as the bungalow and Queen Anne experienced in the 20th century, initial dominance of the market, replacement as the desired housing style and lack of interest coupled with many tear downs renewed interest and modernization of the surviving houses; the following features are considered key elements of the original ranch house style, although not all ranch houses contain all of them. Single story Long, low-pitch roofline Asymmetrical rectangular, L-shaped, or U-shaped design Simple, open floor plans Living areas separate from the bedroom area Attached garage Sliding glass doors opening onto a patio Windows with a large glass area, sometimes decorated with non-functional shutters Vaulted ceilings with exposed beams in combination with tongue and groove roof decking Mixed material exteriors of stucco and brick, wood or stone Deep overhanging eaves Cross-gabled, side-gabled or hip roof The raised ranch is a two-story house, in which a finished basement serves as an additional floor.
It may be built into a hill to some degree, such that the full size of the house is not evident from the curb. However, it does not become a raised ranch by having two floors. For a house to be classified as a raised ranch, there must be a flight of steps to get to the main living floor—if not, it is just a bi-level house. Among real estate agents, this term is misused; the ranch house style was adapted for commercial use during the time of the style's popularity. As the concept of a "drive in" shopping center was being created and popularized, the ranch style was a perfect style to fit into the large tracts of ranch homes being built. Commercial ranch buildings, such as supermarkets and strip malls follow the residential style with simple rustic trim, stucco or board and batten siding, exposed brick and shake roofs, large windows; the 20th century ranch house style has its roots in North American Spanish colonial architecture of the 17th to 19th century. These buildings used single story floor plans and native materials in a simple style to meet the needs of their inhabitants.
Walls were built of adobe brick and covered with plaster, or more used board and batten wood siding. Roofs were low and simple, had wide eaves to help shade the windows from the Southwestern heat. Buildings had interior courtyards which were surrounded by a U shaped floor plan. Large front porches were common; these low slung, thick-walled, rustic working ranches were common in the Southwestern states. By the 1950s, the California ranch house, by now called the ranch house or "rambler house", accounted for nine out of every ten new houses; the endless ability of the style to accommodate the individual needs of the owner/occupant, combined with the modern inclusion of the latest in building developments and simplicity of the design, satisfied the needs of the time. Ranch houses were built throughout America and were given regional facelifts to suit regional tastes; the "Colonial Ranch" of the Midwest and Northeast is one such noted variant, adding American Colonial features to the facade of the California ranch house.
Ranch houses of the 1940s and 1950s are more deliberately themed in nature than those of the 1960s and 1970s, with features such as dovecotes, Swiss board edging on trim, western and fantasy trim styling. From the mid-1960s onward, the ranch house echoed the national trend towards sleekness in design, with the homes becoming simpler and more generic as this trend continued. American tastes in architecture began to change in the late 1960s, a move away from Googie and Modernism and ranch houses towards more formal and traditional styles. Builders of ranch houses began to simplify and cheapen construction of the houses to cut costs reducing the style down to a bland and uninteresting house, with little of the charm and drama of the early versions. By the late 1970s, the ranch house was no longer the house of choice, had been eclipsed by the neo-eclectic styles of the late 20th century. Late custom ranch houses of the 1970s begin to exhibit features of the neo-eclectics, such as elevated rooflines, grand entryways, traditiona
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
DeKalb County, Georgia
DeKalb County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 691,893, its county seat is Decatur. DeKalb County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it contains 10% of the city of Atlanta. It is Georgia's most diverse county. DeKalb is a suburban county, is the second-most-affluent county with an African-American majority in the United States, behind Prince George's County, Maryland, in suburban Washington, D. C. In 2009, DeKalb earned the Atlanta Regional Commission's "Green Communities" designation for its efforts in conserving energy and fuel. In recent years, some communities in North DeKalb have incorporated, following a trend in other suburban areas around Metro Atlanta. Dunwoody and Brookhaven are now the largest cities within the county. DeKalb County, formed in 1822 from Henry and Fayette counties, took its name from Baron Johann de Kalb, a Bavarian-born former officer in the French Army, who fought for the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War.
The oldest existing house in the county is the 1831 Goodwin House along Peachtree Road in Brookhaven. In 1853, Fulton County formed from the western half of DeKalb, divided along a straight and due north/south line down the middle; until this time, the growing city of Atlanta had been inside DeKalb. Atlanta grew because the city of Decatur did not want to become the railroad terminus in the 1830s, thus a spot at the Thrasherville encampment in western DeKalb was picked to become Terminus and Marthasville, before becoming Atlanta a few years after its founding. North and southwest Fulton came from two other counties: Milton and southeast Campbell, respectively. DeKalb once extended further north to the Chattahoochee River, but this strip was given to Milton, is now the panhandle of Sandy Springs. During the Civil War, much of the Battle of Atlanta took place in DeKalb; until the 1960s, DeKalb was a agricultural county, but as the sprawl of the metropolitan Atlanta region expanded, DeKalb became urbanized.
Finished in 1969, the eastern half of the Interstate 285 beltway, called "the Perimeter", ringed the northeastern and southern edges of the county, placing most of it "inside the Perimeter" along with nearly all of Atlanta. Interstate 675 and Georgia 400 were planned to connect inside the Perimeter, along with the Stone Mountain Freeway connecting with the Downtown Connector near Moreland Avenue, destroying many neighborhoods in western DeKalb, but community opposition in the early 1970s spared them this fate of urbanization, although part of the proposed Stone Mountain Tollway became the Freedom Parkway. Only Interstate 20 and Interstate 85 were built through the county. DeKalb became one of only two counties to approve MARTA rapid transit in the 1970s. In April 2018, more than 350 bus drivers for DeKalb County School District went on strike over low pay and poor working conditions, resulting in seven bus drivers being fired. In recent years, along with many other counties in the Atlanta area, DeKalb County has voted Democratic in presidential elections, while in the past it was more of a swing county, voting Democratic and Republican an equal number of times from 1960 until 1988.
In the wake of the United States elections, 2018, it no longer has any Republican representatives in the state legislature or United States House of Representatives, for the first time since the breakdown of the old Solid South. The current Chief Executive Officer of DeKalb County is Michael Thurmond, he took office on January 1, 2017. Current County Commissioners as of January 2019: Unincorporated DeKalb County is policed by the DeKalb County Police Department, the DeKalb Sheriff's Office, responsible for serving criminal warrants and securing the courts and county jail, the DeKalb Marshal's Office, which serves civil processes issued through state court, such as evictions. Fire services are provided throughout the county by Rescue. DeKalb County Fire and Rescue provided emergency medical services throughout the county; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is based in the Druid Hills CDP in an unincorporated area in the county. The Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Field Office is located in Chamblee.
The Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice has its headquarters near Decatur. The Georgia Bureau of Investigation has its headquarters near Decatur, in an unincorporated area; the Metro State Prison of the Georgia Department of Corrections was located in an unincorporated area in DeKalb County. Female death row inmates resided in the Metro State Prison; the prison was closed in 2011. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 271 square miles, of which 268 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. The county is crossed by the South River and numerous creeks, including Nancy Creek, Snapfinger Creek and two forks of Peachtree Creek. Peachtree Creek and Nancy Creek drain into the Chattahoochee River and to the Gulf of Mexico. South River drains into the Ocmulgee River and into the Atl