Historically black colleges and universities
Black colleges and universities are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of serving the African-American community. This was because the overwhelming majority of predominantly white institutions of higher-learning disqualified African Americans from enrollment during segregation. From the time of slavery in the 19th century through to the second half of the 20th century, majority schools in the Southern United States prohibited all African Americans from attending, while historic schools in other parts of the country employed quotas to limit admissions of blacks. There are 101 HBCUs including public and private institutions; this figure is down from the 121 institutions. Of these remaining HBCU institutions in the United States, 27 offer doctoral programs, 52 schools offer master's programs, 83 colleges offer bachelor's degree programs and 38 schools offer associate degrees. Most HBCUs were established in the Southern United States after the American Civil War with the assistance of northern United States religious missionary organizations.
However, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania and Lincoln University, were established for blacks before the American Civil War. In 1856 the African Methodist Episcopal Church of Ohio collaborated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, a predominantly white denomination, in sponsoring Wilberforce University, the third college in Ohio. Established in 1865, Shaw University was the first HBCU in the South to be established after the American Civil War; the year 1865 saw the foundation of Storer College at Harper's Ferry, WV. Storer has now been incorporated into Harper's Ferry National Park. In 1862, the federal government's Morrill Act provided for land grant colleges in each state; some educational institutions in the North or West were open to blacks. But 17 states in the South, required their systems to be segregated and excluded black students from their land grant colleges. In response, Congress passed the second Morrill Act of 1890 known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890, requiring states to establish a separate land grant college for blacks if blacks were being excluded from the existing land grant college.
Many of the HBCUs were founded by states to satisfy the Second Morrill Act. These land grant schools continue to receive annual federal funding for their research and outreach activities. In the 1920s and 1930s the black colleges developed a strong interest in athletics. Sports were expanding at state universities, but few black stars were recruited there. Race newspapers hailed athletic success as a demonstration of racial progress. Black schools hired coaches and featured stellar athletes, set up their own leagues. Many Jewish intellectuals fleeing Germany in the 1930s after the rise of Hitler to power in Nazi Germany immigrated to the United States and found work teaching in black colleges. HBCUs made great contributions to the war effort, including those of the Tuskegee Airmen, who trained and attended classes at Tuskegee University in Alabama. After the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, the legislature of Florida, with support from various counties, started a series of eleven junior colleges serving the African-American population.
The purpose was to show that equal education was working in Florida. Prior to this, there had been only one junior college in Florida serving African Americans, Booker T. Washington Junior College, in Pensacola; the new ones, with their year of founding, are: Gibbs Junior College Roosevelt Junior College Volusia County Junior College Hampton Junior College Rosenwald Junior College Suwannee River Junior College Carver Junior College Collier-Blocker Junior College Lincoln Junior College Johnson Junior College Jackson Junior College The new junior colleges began as extensions of black high schools, using the same facilities and the same faculty. Some, over the next few years, did build their own buildings. After passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandating an end to school segregation, the colleges were all abruptly closed. Only a fraction of the students and faculty were able to transfer to the all-white junior colleges, where they found, at best, an indifferent reception; the Higher Education Act of 1965 established a program for direct federal grants to HBCUs, including federal matching of private endowment contributions.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines a "part B institution" as: "...any black college or university, established before 1964, whose principal mission was, is, the education of black Americans, and, accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation." Part B of the 1965 Act provides for direct federal aid to Part B institutions. Some colleges with a predominantly black student body are not classified as a HBCU because they were founded after the implementation of the Sweatt v. Painter and Brown v. Board of Education rulings by the U. S. Supreme Court and the Higher Education Act of 1965. In 1980, Jimmy Carter signed an executive order to distribute adequate resources and funds to strengthen the nation's public and private HB
UPI College Basketball Player of the Year
The UPI College Basketball Player of the Year was an annual basketball award given to the best men's basketball player in NCAA Division I competition. The award was first given following the 1954–55 season and was discontinued following the 1995–96 season, it was given by United Press International, a news agency in the United States that rivaled the Associated Press but began to decline with the advent of television news. Five players—Oscar Robertson, Jerry Lucas, Lew Alcindor, Bill Walton and Ralph Sampson—won the award multiple times. Of these five, only Robertson and Sampson were three-time UPI Players of the Year. UCLA had the most all-time winners with six. Ohio State was second with four winners, while Cincinnati and Virginia were tied for third with three winners apiece. Five other schools had two winners and sixteen schools had only one UPI Player of the Year. Eight of the winners were sophomores, seven were juniors, the remaining 27 were seniors. No freshman was presented the award. A Lew Alcindor changed his name to Kareem Abdul-Jabbar in 1971 after converting to Islam.
General"United Press International Player of the Year". AmericasBestOnline.com. Retrieved 12 April 2010. "Men's College Basketball: Player of the Year Awards → United Press International". HickokSports.com. 2006. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2010. Specific
Mount St. Mary's Mountaineers men's basketball
The Mount St. Mary's Mountaineers men's basketball team represents Mount St. Mary's University in Emmitsburg, United States; the team's current head coach is Dan Engelstad, competes in the Northeast Conference, plays their home games at Knott Arena. The team has played in five NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournaments by virtue of winning the NEC tournament, they were NCAA Division II National Champions in 1962 and NCAA Division II runner-up in 1981. Mount Saint Mary's basketball program is best known for the career of legendary head coach Jim Phelan, who coached at Mount St. Mary's for 49 years, compiling 830 wins in 1,354 games, he was inducted into the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame in 2008. The Mountaineers have played five previous NCAA Division I Tournaments, their combined record is 2–5. The Mountaineers have appeared in the NCAA Division II Tournament 14 times, their combined record is 25–17. The Mountaineers have appeared in the National Invitation Tournament one time, their record is 0–1.
The Mountaineers have appeared in the CollegeInsider.com Postseason Tournament one time. Their record is 0–1; the following Mountaineer players have played in the NBA: Fred Carter Bob RileyThe following Mountaineer players have played in other professional leagues: John F. Sullivan, American Basketball League Euro league Jim Phelan Award Official website
2009–10 NCAA Division I men's basketball season
The 2009–10 NCAA Division I men's basketball season began on November 9, 2009, ended with the 2010 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament's championship game on April 5, 2010, on the Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis. The opening round occurred on Tuesday, March 16, 2010, followed by first and second rounds on Thursday through Sunday, March 18–21, 2010. Regional games were played on Thursday through Sunday, March 25–28, 2010, with the Final Four played on Saturday and Monday, April 3 and 5, 2010; the Duke Blue Devils and head coach Mike Krzyzewski won their fourth national championship, defeating upstart Butler 61–59 behind their "big three" of Jon Scheyer, Kyle Singler and Nolan Smith. The game was played in Butler's home town of Indianapolis. Krzyzewski became the third coach in NCAA history to win four championships, joining John Wooden and Adolph Rupp. Kentucky became the first college team to reach the 2000 win mark by defeating Drexel 88–44 on December 21. North Carolina became the second with a win over Miami on March 2.
Kansas became the third with a win over Texas Tech on March 11. Arkansas sophomore guard Rotnei Clarke set an SEC record by hitting 13 three-pointers in a game in the Razorbacks' November 13 season opener against Alcorn State. Clarke finished the game with 51 points. Clarke's 51 points was an Arkansas school record, while his 13 threes was good for fifth in NCAA history. Prior to the season the NCAA announced that Memphis would serve three years' probation and would vacate their record-setting 38-win 2007–08 season due to a fraudulent SAT score by star Derrick Rose and extra benefits given to Rose's brother under then-coach John Calipari. Memphis appealed the decision; the NCAA rejected the appeal during the NCAA Tournament. Binghamton University dismissed six players on September 25, following the arraignment of Emanuel "Tiki" Mayben on charges of cocaine distribution; the move left Binghamton with only seven scholarship players for the 2009–10 season and included the dismissal of star guard D.
J. Rivera. Coach Kevin Broadus was placed on administrative leave and assistant Mark Macon served as interim coach; the preseason AP All-American team was named on November 2. Luke Harangody of Notre Dame, Cole Aldrich and Sherron Collins of Kansas, Patrick Patterson of Kentucky and Kyle Singler of Duke were tabbed. Utah Valley gained full Division I status after a seven-year provisional period where they played a D1 schedule; this move was the first time that a school had moved to D1 directly from the NJCAA. Other schools to gain Division I status include Kennesaw State, NJIT and North Florida; the Great West Conference began league play in 2009–10 as the 32nd Division I conference. Notre Dame forward Luke Harangody surpassed both the 2000-point and 1000-rebound marks during the season, becoming the first Fighting Irish player to do so. Mercer guard James Florence, South Carolina guard Devan Downey, Maryland guard Greivis Vásquez, San Francisco forward Dior Lowhorn, Morgan State guard Reggie Holmes, Western Michigan guard David Kool, West Virginia forward Da'Sean Butler, Villanova guard Scottie Reynolds, Cornell forward Ryan Wittman and Duke guard Jon Scheyer surpassed the 2,000 point mark during the season.
Syracuse coach Jim Boeheim became the eighth Division I coach to win 800 games when the Orange defeated Albany 75–43 on November 9. Tom Penders became the eighth head coach in NCAA history to lead four different schools to the NCAA Tournament when he coached the Houston Cougars to the Conference USA tournament title. Penders had led Rhode Island and George Washington to NCAA tournament berths. In November, Evan Turner became the 34th player to record multiple triple doubles in a season. Over the course of the 2009–10 Big Ten season, he became the first player to finish in the top two in average points and assists in Big Ten Conference history. Along the way, he broke and rebroke Big Ten records for single-season and career Player of the week awards. On February 22, Cole Aldrich was named the men's college basketball Academic All-American of the year. On February 24, Mississippi State's Jarvis Varnado became the NCAA's all-time leading shot-blocker. On February 27, a contest between then-no. 4 Syracuse and then-no.
8 Villanova set the NCAA on-campus basketball attendance record, with 34,616 spectators packing the Carrier Dome. The Wildcats fell to the Orange, 95–77; the rise and fall of Texas. Ranked in the top three from the beginning of the season until mid-January, including two weeks at #1, they were considered national title contenders, but they fell out of the top 25 less than two months lost two starters to season-ending injuries, lost in the opening round of the NCAA tournament. On April 1, Deon Thompson of North Carolina appeared in the NIT Championship game, giving him 152 career game appearances; this set the NCAA all-time career games played mark held by Wayne Turner of Kentucky and Walter Hodge of Florida. Third-year coach Tommy Amaker leads Harvard to its most wins in school history behind the play of rare Harvard NBA player Jeremy Lin. Beginning in 2009–10, the following rules changes were implemented: The NCAA reduced the amount of time that college underclassmen can test the waters for the NBA Draft and still retain their college eligibility.
As of this season, players have until early May to decide to return. Secondary defenders must now establish their position outside of the zone between the backboard and the front of the rim to draw a charge. If a player is injured and unable to shoot his own foul shots, the replacement shooter must be chosen from the players on the court. Instant r
Oscar Robertson Trophy
The Oscar Robertson Trophy is given out annually to the outstanding men's college basketball player by the United States Basketball Writers Association. The trophy is considered to be the oldest of its kind and has been given out since 1959. USBWA College Player of the Year was started in 1959, which makes it the oldest running trophy for the college player of the year; the USBWA annually selects a player of the year and All-America teams for both men and women in college basketball. The USBWA men's player of the year award is now called the Oscar Robertson Trophy; the USBWA selects a national coach of the year for men and women, with the men's award named after legendary coach Henry Iba. It was renamed after the college and professional legend Oscar Robertson in 1998. Five nominees are presented and the individual with the most votes receives the award during the NCAA Final Four; the Oscar Robertson Trophy known as the Player of the Year Award, was renamed in 1998 because of Robertson’s outstanding career and his continuing efforts to promote the game of basketball.
He averaged 32.6 points per game in his sophomore year at Cincinnati. List of U. S. men's college basketball national player of the year awards "Oscar Robertson Trophy". Sportswriters.net. United States Basketball Writers Association. Retrieved March 12, 2011
Maryland Eastern Shore Hawks men's basketball
The Maryland Eastern Shore Hawks men's basketball team is the basketball team that represents University of Maryland Eastern Shore in Princess Anne, United States. The school's team competes in the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference, they have never played in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. The Hawks are led by interim head coach Clifford Reed; the Hawks have appeared in the NAIA Tournament seven times. Their combined record is 10–7; the Hawks have appeared in the National Invitation Tournament one time. Their record is 1–1; the Hawks have appeared in the CollegeInsider.com Postseason Tournament one time. Their record is 0–1. Team website
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel