Thomas Gregory "Tom" Toles is an American political cartoonist. He is the winner of the 1990 Pulitzer Prize for editorial cartooning, his cartoons present progressive viewpoints. Similar to Oliphant's use of his character Punk, Toles tends to include a small doodle a small caricature of himself at his desk, in the margin of his strip. Toles wrote for The Buffalo News and The Washington Post, he left The Buffalo News in 2002, accepting an offer from The Washington Post to replace their cartoonist Herblock, is under contract by Universal Press Syndicate. Part of his acceptance of his new job required him to give up his United Feature-distributed daily and Sunday cartoon panel Randolph Itch 2 AM, a cartoon based on Toles' thoughts while battling insomnia. Toles was replaced at the Buffalo News by Adam Zyglis. In addition to Randolph Itch 2 AM, Toles created a daily and Sunday comic strip about small children called Curious Avenue, it ran 1992-1994 through Universal Press Syndicate. A collection of the strip was published in 1993 through the publisher Andrews McMeel Publishing.
Toles' cartoons appear in more than 200 newspapers throughout the country. He received the National Cartoonist Society Editorial Cartoon Award for 2003 and the Herblock Prize for 2011. In 2016, he co-authored with Michael E. Mann The Madhouse Effect, describing the global warming controversy. Toles graduated magna cum laude from the University at The State University of New York, he married Gretchen Saarnijoki in 1973. In 2008, Toles began performing with the rock band Suspicious Package at venues around Washington, D. C; the band consists of Toles on drums, HUD senior official Bryan Greene on guitar, Josh Meyer of the L. A. Times on lead guitar, Tim Burger of Bloomberg News on bass, Office of the U. S. Trade Representative senior official Christina Sevilla on keyboard; the band debuted May 30, 2008 at The Red and the Black in Northeast D. C. Toles endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U. S. presidential election. Toles was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in editorial cartooning in 1990.
He was one of two finalists for the prize in 1985, was one of three finalists for the prize in 1996. A cartoon published January 29, 2006 attracted the ire of the Pentagon in the form of a protest letter signed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. With regard to some recent assessments of the United States Army, the cartoon depicted the Army as a quadruple amputee soldier with a doctor resembling Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, declaring the Army "battle hardened"; the Joint Chiefs of Staff stated, "Using the likeness of a service member who has lost his arms and legs in war as the central theme of a cartoon beyond tasteless." Toles was quoted responding, "I think it's a little bit unfair in their reading of the cartoon to imply, what it's about." On February 7, 2006 Tom Tomorrow published a cartoon comparing the reactions to the Muhammad cartoons to the Tom Toles cartoons, alleging a double standard. In March 2010, Toles appeared in the twelfth episode of The Real World: Washington, DC, in which cast member Andrew Woods, an aspiring cartoonist, met with him at the Washington Post to seek career advice.
Http://www.villagevoice.com/2006-02-07/news/cartoonists-gone-wild/ Mann, Michael. The Madhouse Effect: How Climate Change Denial Is Threatening Our Planet, Destroying Our Politics, Driving Us Crazy. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-17786-3. Tom Toles at The Washington Post NCS Awards Tom Toles comics site The editorial cartoon about the quadruple amputee Tom Toles Interview
Paul Francis Conrad was an American political cartoonist and winner of three Pulitzer Prizes for editorial cartooning. In the span of a career lasting five decades, Conrad provided a critical perspective on eleven presidential administrations in the United States, he is best known for his work as the chief editorial cartoonist for the Los Angeles Times during a time when the newspaper was in transition under the direction of publisher Otis Chandler, who recruited Conrad from the Denver Post. At the conservative Times, Conrad brought a more liberal editorial perspective that readers both celebrated and criticized, he was respected for his talent and courage to speak truth to power. On a weekly basis, Conrad addressed the social justice issues of the day: poverty in America, movements for civil rights, the Vietnam War, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and corporate/political corruption were leading topics, his criticism of president Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal landed Conrad on Nixon's Enemies List, which Conrad regarded as a badge of honor.
Conrad was born to Florence Conrad. He was raised in a conservative, Catholic family with his identical twin brother James and older brother Bob in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, he attended St. Augustin Elementary School in Des Moines, where he first began to show interest in art by writing on the bathroom wall, he was forced by teachers to favor his right hand. Up until the age of 12, Conrad stuttered. At an early age, Conrad was exposed to the work of Jay Norwood Darling, more popularly known as "Ding Darling", whose conservative cartoons were featured in local newspapers and who became a "childhood role model" for Conrad. After graduating Roosevelt High School, he and his brother spent time working construction jobs in Valdez, Alaska. Conrad honed his talent as a musician while playing piano in a bordello. With World War II raging and his brother enlisted; because of his poor eyesight, Conrad was found to be unfit for military service, but he served as a truck driver with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Pacific Theater of Operations at Guam and Okinawa, where he was given the nickname of "Con".
He planned to attend Iowa State University after the war in 1945, but instead taught himself to play bass and joined a big band. When the band did not work out, Conrad enrolled at the University of Iowa in 1946, where he studied art, he first got the idea to become a cartoonist while hanging out at a local bar in Iowa City. At the bar, his friend Charlie Carroll the editor for the school's newspaper, the Daily Iowan, told Conrad that they needed a cartoonist, he invited Conrad to give it a try. One of his first cartoons for the Daily Iowan depicted Herbert Hoover, the 31st President of the United States. Conrad was soon creating six cartoons a week. Impressed with Conrad's cartoons, his professors sent the Denver Post copies of his work. After graduating from the University of Iowa with a degree in art in 1950, Conrad joined the Denver Post, where he drew cartoons for the next 14 years. Early in his career, Conrad sought out the retired Ding Darling in Florida for advice, showed him copies of his work from the Daily Iowan.
Unimpressed, Ding told Conrad to "get into another line of work". This discouragement from his childhood role model pushed Conrad to work harder at the Post. At the newspaper he received support and encouragement from his editor, Palmer Hoyt, although he ran into trouble when he attracted attention for creating critical, unflattering cartoons of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th President of the United States. In 1960, Time magazine recognized Conrad's talent, saying that he was "probably the nation's hottest new cartooning property". Conrad received the Pulitzer Prize for editorial cartooning in 1964, his cartoons for the Post were distributed through the Register and Tribune Syndicate in 81 newspapers. In December 1963, lead cartoonist Bruce Russell of the Los Angeles Times died of a heart attack. Russell had worked for the conservative paper since 1927. Publisher Otis Chandler, in an attempt to replace Russell and to improve the reputation of the Times, recruited Paul Conrad with the help of editor Nick Boddie Williams.
Conrad took the offer of an initial three-year contract and was replaced at the Post in August 1964 by Australian cartoonist Pat Oliphant from the Adelaide Advertiser. Conrad lectured at the Denver Art Museum in 1964 under a sponsorship from the Cooke-Daniels Lecture Fund. Conrad moved his family to southern California, for three decades, from 1964 to 1993, he worked as the chief editorial cartoonist for the Los Angeles Times, his cartoons were now syndicated to hundreds of newspapers worldwide. In April 1967, Conrad drew the cover for Time magazine in an issue about the potential candidates for the 1968 United States presidential election; the cover art depicts the upcoming election as a horse race with the candidates as jockey's weighing-in. Caricatures of Lyndon B. Johnson, Bobby Kennedy, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, George Romney, Nelson Rockefeller, Charles Percy grace the cover. During the Watergate scandal, Conrad drew numerous cartoons about Richard Nixon's downfall. One cartoon showed Nixon, during his last days as president.
Conrad described the cartoon as one of his all-time favorites. In 1973, the Associated Press contacted Conrad to inform him that he had been added to Nixon's Enemies List. Unperturbed, Conrad considered his place on this list as a badge of honor, but members of the list were exposed to greater scrutiny by the government and subject to investigation, his tax returns were subsequently audited by the IRS several times. Conrad a
Jeffrey Kenneth "Jeff" MacNelly was an American editorial cartoonist and the creator of the comic strip Shoe. After Shoe had been established in papers, MacNelly created the single-panel strip Pluggers. MacNelly grew up on Long Island. MacNelly's mother was a retired journalist, his father, C. L. MacNelly, ran an advertising firm, was the publisher of the Saturday Evening Post from 1964 to 1968. MacNelly was educated in his teens at Phillips Academy in Massachusetts, where he was a class clown and decided to be an illustrator, he went to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He joined the literary society St. Anthony Hall and worked as a sports journalist and illustrator for The Daily Tar Heel, he considered himself to be a horrible sportswriter, but his illustrations for the paper were well beyond the ability of an average art student. His work for the college's newspaper led to work at the Chapel Hill Weekly. In 1969, MacNelly was commissioned to paint a representation of the Carolina Inn, which became an "iconic" image representing the Chapel Hill campus hotel and appeared on promotional brochures and menus issued by the inn in the ensuing decades.
The painting mysteriously disappeared in the 1980s and resurfaced in Massachusetts in 2008, when it was returned to the Carolina Inn and presented to the public for the first time at an official unveiling in January 2009, attended by MacNelly's son Danny. MacNelly dropped out just shy of getting his bachelor's degree and married his first wife, Rita MacNelly, in 1970, he married Scottie Perry in 1985, had a son Matt. MacNelly got a job at the Chapel Hill Weekly during his years at school in UNC, he worked there for the editor who became his mentor, Jim "Shu" Shumaker, a professor at UNC-Chapel Hill. Shumaker's impression on the cartoonist was so profound that MacNelly created the comic strip Shoe after "Shu," and the strip's lead character is based upon him. MacNelly considered his two years at the Chapel Hill newspaper to be what led to his "break". By 1970, MacNelly had become such an accomplished artist that he was hired by Ross Mackenzie at The Richmond News Leader in Richmond, Virginia to be their main illustrator and satirist.
In less than two years in 1972, MacNelly won his first Pulitzer Prize, helping to put the small paper on the map. MacNelly's first son Jake was born that same year. At this time, MacNelly was courted by various newspaper syndicates and journals to work for them, but he turned them down, preferring the slower pace of southern culture. In 1974, his second son Danny was born, MacNelly was settling into being syndicated through the Chicago Tribune, while making the South his home. In 1977, he launched his first comic strip, an immediate success. In 1981, he quit as editorial cartoonist at the News-Leader to focus on Shoe full-time, but found he needed to work in a newspaper office atmosphere to concentrate. In the 1980s, MacNelly moved to Chicago and back to Virginia. Shoe was syndicated in 950 newspapers with millions of readers. A line of stuffed animals based on the cartoon's characters was produced. MacNelly illustrated a book written by former Senator Eugene McCarthy and columnist James Kilpatrick, A Political Bestiary- Viable Alternatives, Impressive Mandates, Other Fables.
MacNelly's editorial cartoons appeared in book collections. When MacNelly represented the Irish Republican Army as a leprechaun, a rat in one of his Chicago Tribune syndicated editorial cartoons after the IRA blew up a bus filled with schoolchildren, protesters objecting to the cartoon's contents picketed outside the Boston Globe's offices for three weeks. One of his most reprinted cartoons featured Mikhail Gorbachev with a birthmark in the shape of Afghanistan. MacNelly believed that in order to draw and write editorial cartoons, an artist had to have an opinion on the news, so he watched television news to gauge what other Americans were seeing and read the columns of Hugh Sidey, George Will and Meg Greenfield. MacNelly said: "Cartoons are a negative art form. You never say anything nice. You're always criticizing and dumping on people." Some of his most frequent targets were Gorbachev. MacNelly was present when Gerald Ford fell and hit his head on a tarmac on an overseas trip in 1976: "I was the only cartoonist to see that, to see it.
And all I could think of was,'Gee, I hope he didn't hurt his head.' Meanwhile, back in the States, all my colleagues were doing Jerry Ford-falling-down jokes, Chevy Chase started an entire career on it. I never did one, and I was the only guy, right there. I missed the whole story, the entire point of it and everything."In 1988, the Dayton Daily News reported that a cartoonist for the Ohio Republican Party named Ed Wilson drew cartoons which were "strikingly similar" and "virtually the same" to MacNelly's. The party subsequently fired Wilson. In 1992, MacNelly met a computer expert and cartoonist who became his assistant. Cassatt helped him change the way. In 1992, MacNelly hired Cassatt full-time, they tele-commuted between Fishhawk Pass in Virginia and Cassatt's home in Aspen, Colorado. In 1993, on a suggestion from his wife Susie and long-time friend and Pulitzer Prize-winning photographer, David Kennerly, MacNelly launched his strip Pluggers. MacNelly won his second Pulitzer and a Reuben Award in 1978, a second Reuben in 1979.
MacNelly won the Thomas Nast Award and joined the select group of journalists who have won three Pulitzers in 1985. He won a George Polk Award, he w
Amarillo is the 14th-most populous city in the state of Texas, United States. It is the largest city in the Texas Panhandle, the seat of Potter County. A portion of the city extends into Randall County; the estimated population was 199,826 as of 2017. The Amarillo metropolitan area has an estimated population of 276,020 in four counties as of 2017; the metro population is projected to surpass 310,000 in 2020. Amarillo named Oneida, is situated in the Llano Estacado region; the availability of the railroad and freight service provided by the Fort Worth and Denver City Railroad contributed to the city's growth as a cattle-marketing center in the late 19th century. The city was once the self-proclaimed "Helium Capital of the World" for having one of the country's most productive helium fields; the city is known as "The Yellow Rose of Texas", most "Rotor City, USA" for its V-22 Osprey hybrid aircraft assembly plant, as well as "Bomb City". Amarillo operates one of the largest meat-packing areas in the United States.
Pantex, the only nuclear weapons assembly and disassembly facility in the country, is a major employer. The location of this facility gave rise to the nickname Bomb City; the attractions Cadillac Ranch and Big Texan Steak Ranch are located adjacent to Interstate 40. U. S. Highway 66 passed through the city. Large ranches exist in the Amarillo area: among others, the defunct XIT Ranch and the still functioning JA Ranch founded in 1877 by Charles Goodnight and John George Adair. Goodnight continued the partnership for a time after Adair's death with Adair's widow, Cornelia Wadsworth Ritchie Adair, the sole owner from 1887 until her death in 1921. During April 1887, J. I. Berry established a site for a town after he chose a well-watered section along the way of the Fort Worth and Denver City Railroad, which had begun building across the Texas Panhandle. Berry and Colorado City, merchants wanted to make their new town site the region's main trading center. On August 30, 1887, Berry's town site won the county seat election and was established in Potter County.
Availability of the railroad and freight service after the county seat election made the town a fast-growing cattle-marketing center. The settlement was called Oneida. Early residents pronounced the city's name more similar to the Spanish pronunciation ah-mə-REE-yoh, displaced by the current pronunciation. On June 19, 1888, Henry B. Sanborn, given credit as the "Father of Amarillo", his business partner Joseph F. Glidden began buying land to the east to move Amarillo after arguing that Berry's site was on low ground and would flood during rainstorms. Sanborn offered to trade lots in the new location to businesses in the original city's site and help with the expense of moving to new buildings, his incentives won over people, who moved their businesses to Polk Street in the new commercial district. Heavy rains flooded Berry's part of the town in 1889, prompting more people to move to Sanborn's location; this led to another county seat election making Sanborn's town the new county seat in 1893. By the late 1890s, Amarillo had emerged as one of the world's busiest cattle-shipping points, its population grew significantly.
The city became a grain elevator and feed-manufacturing center after an increase in production of wheat and small grains during the early 1900s. Discovery of natural gas in 1918 and oil three years brought oil and gas companies to the Amarillo area; the United States government bought the Cliffside Gas Field with high helium content in 1927 and the Federal Bureau of Mines began operating the Amarillo Helium plant two years later. The plant was the sole producer of commercial helium in the world for a number of years; the U. S. National Helium Reserve is stored in the Bush Dome Reservoir at the Cliffside facility. Following the lead of the Fort Worth and Denver City Railroad, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad established services to and from Amarillo; each of these three carriers maintained substantial freight and passenger depots and repair facilities in the city through most of the 20th century and were major employers within the community. In 1929, Ernest O. Thompson, a decorated World War I general and a major businessman in Amarillo, was elected mayor to succeed Lee Bivins.
Thompson worked to reduce utility rates. He joined the Texas Railroad Commission by appointment in 1933 and was elected to full terms in 1934, 1940, 1946, 1952, 1958, he became an international expert on conservation. The first Mrs. Thompson, May Peterson Thompson, a former Metropolitan Opera singer, was involved in the arts while in Amarillo and when the couple lived in Austin. Amarillo entered an economic depression. U. S. Routes 60, 87, 287, 66 intersected at Amarillo, making it a major tourist stop with numerous motels and curio shops. World War II led the establishment of Amarillo Army Air Field in east Amarillo and the nearby Pantex Army Ordnance Plant, which produced bombs and ammunition. After the end of the war, both of the facilities were closed; the Pantex Plant produced nuclear weapons throughout the Cold War. In 1949, a deadly F4 tornado devastated much of Amaril
Douglas Nigel "Doug" Marlette was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American editorial cartoonist who, at the time of his death, had published two novels and was "finding his voice in writing long-length fiction." His popular comic strip Kudzu, distributed by Universal Press Syndicate from 1981 to 2007, was adapted into a musical comedy. Born in Greensboro, North Carolina, Marlette was raised in North Carolina. Marlette began his cartooning career while a student at Seminole Community College where he worked on the student newspaper, he went on to Florida State University where he drew political cartoons for The Florida Flambeau, from 1969 to 1971. He illustrated Tally Ho, including a wraparound cover. Marlette was the cartoonist for The Charlotte Observer, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution for which he won a Pulitzer Prize in 1988, New York Newsday, The Tallahassee Democrat and The Tulsa World. In 2002, he drew criticism from Islamic groups for drawing a cartoon depicting Mohammed driving a Ryder van with missiles pointed out the back and the caption, "What would Mohammed drive?"
He wrote and drew the internationally syndicated comic strip Kudzu, which launched June 15, 1981. Marlette collaborated with Bland Simpson and Jack Herrick of the Red Clay Ramblers on a musical comedy adaptation of the strip, Kudzu, A Southern Musical, his work appeared in Time and Newsweek, along with newspapers such as The New York Times and The Washington Post. In 1981, Marlette became the first cartoonist awarded a Nieman Fellowship, he won every major award for editorial cartooning, including the 1988 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning, the National Headliner Award for Consistently Outstanding Editorial Cartoons and first prize in the John Fischetti Memorial Cartoon Competition. In 1997, he won his second Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award. Two days after Marlette's death, North Carolina Governor Michael F. Easley awarded him the honor of membership in the Order of the Long Leaf Pine, the highest civilian honor bestowed by the governor of North Carolina. Kudzu and his editorial cartoons are collected in 19 volumes, including Faux Bubba: Bill and Hillary Go to Washington, Gone with the Kudzu, I Feel Your Pain!, What Would Marlette Drive? and A Town So Backwards Even the Episcopalians Handle Snakes.
His 1991 book, In Your Face: A Cartoonist at Work, was his personal account of the cartooning process. In 2001, his first novel, The Bridge, was published by HarperCollins; the Bridge won the 2002 SIBA Book Award sponsored by the Southern Independent Booksellers Alliance. In 2006, his second novel, Magic Time, was published by Sarah Crichton Books/Farrar, Straus & Giroux and received critical praise, including a positive review in The New York Times Book Review. Marlette served as Distinguished Visiting Professor in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in the 2001-2002 academic year and was inducted into the UNC Journalism Hall of Fame in 2002. In 2006, he was appointed a Gaylord Distinguished Visiting Lecturer at the College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Oklahoma. Marlette and his wife, TV producer Melinda Hartley Marlette, split their time between residences in Tulsa and Hillsborough, North Carolina, their son, studied art in France.
Marlette had a brother, a sister, Marianne. His nephew, Andy Marlette, works as an editorial cartoonist for the Pensacola News Journal in Florida. Marlette was a close friend of author Pat Conroy, speaking to him daily. Marlette died in Marshall County, Mississippi, a passenger in a Toyota pickup truck that hydroplaned and struck a tree in heavy rain, he was traveling from Memphis International Airport to Oxford, Mississippi to help students at Oxford High School prepare for their performance of Kudzu, A Southern Musical at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival. Marlette died less than a week after he delivered the eulogy for his father, Elmer Monroe Marlette, in Charlotte, North Carolina, he was buried at Walnut Grove United Methodist Church near Hillsborough on July 14, 2007. Conroy and Joe Klein eulogized him before an overflow crowd. There were ten eulogists in all, Conroy called Marlette his best friend and said, "The first person to cry, when he heard about Doug's death, was God." Doug Marlette Papers Toonopedia: Kudzu Requiem for a Cartoonist Doug Marlette Memorial site Appearances on C-SPAN
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro