Grand Saline, Texas
Grand Saline is a city in Van Zandt County, United States, located in East Texas. The population is 3,266. Grand Saline is the third largest city in Van Zandt County and is located 75 miles east of Dallas and 35 miles northwest of Tyler, the two nearest metropolitan areas, is part of the greater Tyler/Longview area; the town derives its name from the large salt deposits located southeast of the city, the majority of which are owned by Morton Salt. Grand Saline's first settlers were the ancient Caddo Indians and Cherokee Indians tribes who discovered and made use of a large salt prairie south of the town's present day location; the Native Americans used evaporated salt from the brine stream that flows over the flats as a commodity they traded for other needed goods. By the mid-nineteenth century, the tribes had been forced out of the area by Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the Republic of Texas and by general anti-Indian sentiment and moved further southeast. Only a few short years after the Indians left the salt prairie behind, a new group of settlers arrived.
A settler named John Jordan and other settlers brought their families and set up a primitive salt works. Just as the Caddo and Cherokee had done before, they used the brine stream they could see to boil and evaporate the water and harvest the salt left behind; the first community named Jordan’s Saline became the center of Van Zandt County and was, for a while the county seat. The salt produced here was used in the process of tanning leather and purifying and preserving food stuffs. Following the American Civil War the Texas and Pacific Railroad was extended from Marshall to Dallas. A parcel of land was donated to the railroad and a depot was built and the stop was named Grand Saline; the City of Grand Saline was incorporated in 1895 and the community of Jordan’s Saline faded into history as its residents moved north to the now bustling new city. At one time there were numerous salt companies in Grand Saline, including the Richardson Salt works, which had drilled the first salt well. Salt mining is not the only industry Grand Saline has known.
During the late 1920s, the discovery of the nearby Van, Texas oil field brought companies that provided needed supplies. In the 1930s Grand Saline had five lumber companies. In the Depression years, local sewing rooms made garments for the poor. During World War II, a worker’s strike at Morton Salt led the town to form the Grand Saline Industrial Foundation to attract new business to town, their efforts produced clothing manufacturers, sulfur meat packing companies. Grand Saline was known for its Lone Star Hotel which was, for a brief time, the home of Hollywood starlet Louise Fazenda, the wife of Warner Brothers executive Hal Wallis. Agriculture and ranching have long been a major part of the economic life in Grand Saline as well. Over the years Grand Saline has produced crops such as sweet potatoes and other “truck crops.” A cotton gin built south of town in 1890 marked the beginning of many years of cotton production. Poultry, dairy products, lumber and an Ice House all played a role in the formation and history of the town.
Grand Saline is located at 32°40′40″N 95°42′41″W, in the northeastern area of Van Zandt County, at the intersection of Texas State Highway 110 and U. S. Route 80 in western East Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, of which 2.0 square miles is land and 0.50% is water. Grand Saline is located in the East Central Texas forests ecoregion. Grand Saline's rural scenery is a mix of open pastures; the area around it is home to numerous creeks and areas of hardwood timber. The town is located in the Sabine River valley as the river flows just north of the city and bends south flowing under U. S. Highway 80 east of Grand Saline. Grand Saline is served by the following roadways- Texas State Highway 110- Grand Saline serves as the northern end to the highway, 110 is the main and preferred route from the Van/Grand Saline area into Tyler, Texas. U. S. Highway 80- Marked as Garland Street in the City, Runs east towards the Longview/Marshall area and to the Louisiana state line and West to the Dallas/Ft.
Worth Metroplex FM 17- Runs south to Canton and North to Lake Fork. FM 857-Grand Saline serves as the northern end, runs south into Smith County. Grand Saline is roughly 15 minutes north of Interstate 20. Grand Saline is served by the Grand Saline Independent School District. College students who reside in the Grand Saline ISD are served by Tyler Junior College, as Grand Saline ISD is in the TJC taxing and service district; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,028 people, 1,096 households, 723 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,522.2 people per square mile. There were 1,203 housing units at an average density of 604.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.94% White, 0.59% African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 5.55% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.13% of the population. There were 1,096 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families.
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Tyler is the county seat of Smith County, located in east-central Texas, United States. The city of Tyler has long been Smith County's major economic, financial and cultural hub; the city is named for the tenth President of the United States. Tyler had a population of 96,900 in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau, Tyler's 2017 estimated population was 104,991, it is 100 miles east-southeast of Dallas. Tyler is the principal city of the Tyler Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 209,714 in 2010, is the regional center of the Tyler-Jacksonville combined statistical area, which had a population of 260,559 in 2010. Tyler is known as the "Rose Capital of America", a nickname it earned from a long history of rose production and processing, it is home to the largest rose garden in the United States, a 14-acre public garden complex that has over 38,000 rose bushes of at least 500 different varieties. The Tyler Rose Garden is home to the annual Texas Rose Festival, attracting tourists by the thousands each year in mid-October.
Tyler is home to the Caldwell Zoo and Broadway Square Mall. As a regional educational and technology center, Tyler is the host for more than 20,000 higher-education students, a college of engineering, a university health science center, two regional hospital systems. In 1985, the international Adopt-a-Highway movement originated in Tyler. After appeals by local Texas Department of Transportation officials, the local Civitan chapter adopted a 2-mi stretch of U. S. Highway 69 to maintain. Drivers and other motorists traveling on this segment of US-69 will notice brown road signs that read, "First Adopt-A-Highway in the World." Tyler is located at 32°20′03″N 95°18′00″W at 544 feet above sea level. Tyler is surrounded by many smaller cities, including Whitehouse, New Chapel Hill, Edom, Kilgore and Chandler. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.4 square miles, of which 54.2 mi2 are land and 0.1 mi2 is covered by water. Tyler experiences weather typical of East Texas, unpredictable in the spring.
All of East Texas has the humid subtropical climate typical of the American South. The record high for Tyler is 115 °F, which occurred in 2011; the record low for Tyler is −3 °F, which occurred on January 18, 1930. As of the 2010 census, 96,900 people resided in the city of Texas; the population density was 1,782.0 people per square mile. The 41,742 housing units averaged a density of 716.7 per mi2. The racial makeup of the city was: 60.5% White, 24.8% Black, 0.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.3% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. About 21.2 % of the population were Latino of any race. The median income for the city was $42,752 and the poverty rate was 19.5%. Legal recognition of Tyler was initiated by an act of the state legislature on April 11, 1846. Texas authorized a county seat; the first plat designated a 28-block town site centered by a main square, located within a 100-acre tract acquired by Smith County on February 6, 1847. The new town was named for President John Tyler, who advocated for annexation of Texas by the United States.
A log building on the north side of the square functioned as courthouse and public meeting hall until it was displaced by a brick courthouse in 1852. On January 29, 1850, Tyler was incorporated. Early religious and social institutions included the First Baptist church and a Methodist church, a Masonic Lodge and an Odd Fellows Lodge, Tyler’s first newspaper. Though Tyler’s early economy was based on agriculture, it was well-diversified during this period. Logging was a second major industry, while complementary manufacturing included metal working, milling wood, leather tanning; as the seat of Smith County, the town benefited from government activity. The local agricultural economy relied on slave labor before the Civil War. By 1860, Tyler held over 1000 enslaved persons, which represented 35 percent of the town’s population. So there was strong support for secession and the Confederacy within Tyler, as a high percentage of its residents voted for secession and many of its men joined the Confederate Army.
The town was secure enough for the Confederacy to establish the largest ordnance plant in Texas. In 1870, the first bank in Tyler was established by Williams. Though both the Texas and Pacific Railroad and the International Railroad eschewed routes through Tyler, the town gained an important rail connection when the Houston and Great Northern built a branch line in 1874. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, fruit orchards emerged as an important new business in the regional economy. Eighty percent of the county agricultural revenue derived from cotton as it persisted as the dominant crop in the first decades of the twentieth century. Peaches were the principal fruit crop as the county fruit tree inventory surpassed one million by 1900. Disease struck the peach trees and local farmers moved toward growing roses by the 1920s. Twenty years most of the US rose supply originated in the Tyler area. According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $87.7 million in revenues, $101.7 million in expenditures, $49.2 million in total assets, $12.3 million in total liabilities, $17.6 million in cash in investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is: The Northeast Texas Public Health District is a political subdivision under the State
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Canton is a city in and the county seat of Van Zandt County in East Texas, United States. It is 60 miles east of Dallas, Texas; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 3,581. Canton was surveyed as early as 1840 by a company of men under Dr. W. P. King; the community stands on the original survey of an early settler in the area. No settlement was made until 1850, when the town was laid out and named by settlers moving from Old Canton in Smith County, Texas; the first district courthouse at Canton opened in 1850, a post office, the county's fourth, was established in that year. When the Texas and Pacific Railway was built across the county in 1872, it missed Canton by ten miles, the citizens of Wills Point persuaded county officials to move the county seat there. In the resulting dispute, in 1877 armed residents of Canton went to Wills Point to recover the records, the county judge wired Governor Richard B. Hubbard for aid; the Texas Supreme Court decided in favor of Canton. Unwilling to use the railroad at Wills Point, Canton businessmen established Edgewood, ten miles to the northwest of town, built an extension to the railroad at a siding called Stevenson.
Property for the town's first school, the Canton Academy, was acquired in 1853. Sid S. Johnson began publication of the Canton Weekly Times, the county's first newspaper, in 1860. A Grange was founded in 1876. By 1890 Canton had a population of 421, flour mills, cotton gins, a bank. Brick buildings were under construction by 1892 and a new brick courthouse was completed in 1894. Iron ore and anthracite coal were discovered in 1887 and 1891. By 1896, the town reached a population high of 800 and had several churches, a steam gristmill and gin, two weekly newspapers, three general stores and two hotels, but the population had fallen back to 421 by 1904. Canton was incorporated in 1919, elected a mayor and aldermen. Despite the Great Depression, development of the Van oilfield after 1929 brought further expansion. A Public Works Administration project in the 1930s saw the completion of a new courthouse. In 1933 area schools registered 500 twenty-eight black students; the population reached 715 in 1940, but dwindled again after 1949.
In the 1950s, local business included a sweet-potato curing plant, an ice factory, a concrete-tile factory, a cotton gin. Expansion of the Canton city limits doubled its territory in the 1960s. In 1970 the community had a municipal lake with recreational facilities, seven churches, a school, a bank, a library, a newspaper, eighty-six businesses; the population doubled between 1960 and 1970 from 1,000 to 2,000, reached nearly 3,000 by 1990. The population was 3,292 in 2000. However, when the city council decided to recount the population, they found that the town had 5100 residents instead of the previous census total of 3,292. Canton is known for its First Monday Trade Days. According to various sources, the tradition began with district court meetings held on the first Monday of each month, or with the monthly visit of neighbors during the days of the Confederate States of America; the custom began with the swapping of surplus stock by barter and grew to include casual bargaining for or swapping of dogs, antiques and donkeys on a 30-acre grounds.
It is so immensely popular that Canton goes from a town of 5,100 to a town of over 300,000 during each First Monday weekend, making it the largest flea market in the world. In the past, due to the success of First Monday, the city of Canton had no property tax. However, as of 2006, no longer the case. Canton holds The Van Zandt County Fair and Rodeo and an Annual Bluegrass Festival, which takes place in August. Between 2003 and 2007, Canton was the host community for the United States Equestrian Drill Championship, which showcases top color guard and mounted drill teams from throughout the country. On April 29, 2017, the city and county sustained severe damage from four tornadoes. Reports of four fatalities and dozens of injured prompted opening of displacement shelters as a disaster declaration was made for Van Zandt County. Texas Governor Greg Abbott ordered state resources to the area to offer assistance to local officials. Canton is located at 32°33′13″N 95°52′00″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.6 square miles, of which, 5.2 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water.
The total area is 7.80% water. As of the census of 2003, there are 3,292 people, 1,296 households, 848 families residing in the city; the population density is 633.8 people per square mile. There are 1,486 housing units at an average density of 286.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city is 94.14% White, 2.73% African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 3.49 % of the population are Latino of any race. There are 1,296 households out of which 27.0% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% are married couples living together, 10.9% have a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% are non-families. 31.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 19.2% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.30 and the average family size is 2.87. In the city, the population is spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 25.9% who are 65 years of age or older.
The median age is 42 years. For every 100 females, there are 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 83.5 m
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Van Zandt County, Texas
Van Zandt County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas, in the northeastern part of the state. As of the 2010 census, its population was 52,579, its county seat is Canton. The county is named for a member of the Congress of the Republic of Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 860 square miles, of which 843 square miles is land and 17 square miles is covered by water. Van Zandt County is unique in topography; the western and northwestern parts of the county are in the eastern edge of the Texas Blackland Prairies, the central part of the county is located in the post oak belt of Northeast Texas, the eastern part of the county stretches into the East Texas Piney Woods. Two major rivers, the Neches and the Sabine, flow through Van Zandt County. Van Zandt County is referred to as the "Gateway to East Texas" due to its diverse topography. Van Zandt County is known as the Free State of Van Zandt; the title was prevalent through the Reconstruction Era, but is still in use today.
Many versions of the county's history may account for this moniker, historians within the county and throughout its existence, do not agree how it became known as the Free State. One story of how the Free State of Van Zandt came to be originates with the county's formation. In 1848, Henderson County was split into three counties: Kaufman, Van Zandt, what remained as Henderson County. Henderson County had been in debt, yet the new Van Zandt County was founded without any obligations. Many believed that this was a mistake on the state's part, bitter citizens and politicians from Henderson County referred to the new county as the Free State. Van Zandt County tried on two distinct occasions to separate itself from Texas; the first was in 1861. About 350 citizens of Van Zandt County met to protest the secession; the practice of slavery was infrequent in the county. Slave-owners, worried about losing their slaves in the Civil War, refused to bring their slaves to Van Zandt, because slavery was so uncommon there.
The majority of Van Zandt wanted to stay with the Union, reasoned that if Texas could secede from the United States, they could secede from Texas, began organizing a government until they were threatened with military intervention. Although the secession was unsuccessful, the title of "Free State" stuck. After Texas reentered the Union after the Civil War, Van Zandt County again tried to secede from Texas, the Confederate States of America, the United States. A convention was held in 1867 in which the citizens elected delegates, the delegates voted for secession, penned a Declaration of Independence modeled after the United States Declaration of Independence; the event was seen as a rebellion by the nation, when word reached General Sheridan, he dispatched a cavalry unit to quell it. The citizens of Van Zandt called an emergency meeting which ended with the delegates declaring war on the United States; the wooded landscape at the time made it difficult for horses to move through, so the citizens of Van Zandt, familiar with the area, were able to ambush the unit, until they retreated.
The citizens, elated with their victory, celebrated with an excess of alcohol. During their celebration, they were surrounded by Sheridan's troops, were put in anklets and in a rough prison of wooden posts. Two ex-Confederate soldiers, W. A. Allen and Hardy Allen, were in the group, W. A. Allen used a hidden knife to wear down the anklets. A combination of the beginning of the rainy season and a decreasing of the guard to one man allowed the prisoners to escape. After that, not much action on the part of Van Zandt or the United States was taken in the issue. Arrest warrants were sent, but none was carried out, none of the prisoners went to trial; as of the census of 2000, there were 48,140 people, 18,195 households, 13,664 families residing in the county. The population density was 57 people per square mile. There were 20,896 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.96% White, 2.94% Black or African American, 0.62% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.71% from other races, 1.56% from two or more races.
6.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,195 households out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.60% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.90% were non-families. 22.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,029, the median income for a family was $41,175. Males had a median income of $31,887 versus $21,344 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,930.
About 10.30% of families and 13.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.90% of those under age 18 and 12.10% of those age 65 or over. Van Zandt County Regional Airport Canton-Hackney Airport Interstate 20 U. S. Highway 80 State Highway 19 State Highway 64 State Highway 110 State Highway 198 Rains County Wood County Smith County Henderson County Kaufman County Hunt C