Bentor, sometimes called Ventor, Benytomo, or Bentorey, was the last mencey or king of Taoro from November 1494 until his suicide in February 1495. A native Guanche prince in the Canary Islands during the second half of the 15th century, Bentor was the eldest grandson of Bencomo, the penultimate mencey of Taoro. Taoro was one of nine menceyatos, or kingdoms, on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands before the Spanish conquest of the islands. Bentor's mother was named Hañagua, although this is unclear, he succeeded his grandfather as mencey upon his father's death in November 1494, led the kingdom until his own death by suicide four months in February 1495. Bentor had five siblings: four brothers. Bentor was born in about 1463 in Tenerife to Adjona. Bentor the Crown Prince, participated in many battles against the invading Spanish in 1495 alongside his grandfather Bencomo, mencey of Taoro. Bencomo was killed during the Battle of Aguere in November 1495 and Bentor, being the eldest son, was chosen as his successor.
His uncles Tinguaro and Adjona may have participated in the battle, however Adjona did not perish like Tinguaro and lived on until 1507. Shortly after the Battle of Aguere, Alonso Fernandez de Lugo sent Fernando Guanarteme to negotiate with Bentor, but he refused to hand over the territory. Following the disastrous Second Battle of Acentejo which occurred in December 1494 the Guanche forces were decimated; the forces took refuge on the slope of the Tigaiga mountain after the battle, where Bentor committed suicide in February 1495 by jumping off of the hill and tumbling down the mountainside. As a consequence, the Guanche resistance collapsed and the remaining menceys surrendered in the Peace of Los Realejos; the Canary Islands are now a Spanish autonomous community. The Hotel Rural Bentor on the island of Tenerife is named after him. Conquest of the Canary Islands Bencomo Guanche language Canary Islands Macaronesia
Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands. In 2017, the first genome-wide data from the Guanches confirmed a North African origin and that they were genetically most similar to modern North African Berber peoples of the nearby North African mainland, it is believed that they migrated to the archipelago around 1000 BCE or earlier. The Guanches were the only native people known to have lived in the Macaronesian region before the arrival of Europeans, as there is no evidence that the other Macaronesian archipelagos were inhabited before Europeans arrived. After the Spanish conquest of the Canaries they were ethnically and culturally absorbed by Spanish settlers, although elements of their culture survive to this day, intermixed within Canarian customs and traditions such as Silbo; the native term guanchinet translated means "person of Tenerife". It was modified, according to Juan Núñez de la Peña, by the Castilians into "Guanchos". Though etymologically being an ancient, Tenerife-specific, the word Guanche is now used to refer to the pre-Hispanic aboriginal inhabitants of the entire archipelago.
Roman author and military officer Pliny the Elder, drawing upon the accounts of Juba II, king of Mauretania, stated that a Mauretanian expedition to the islands around 50 BCE found the ruins of great buildings, but otherwise no population to speak of. If this account is accurate, it may suggest that the Guanches were not the only inhabitants, or the first ones. Tenerife the archaeological site of the Cave of the Guanches in Icod de los Vinos, has provided habitation dates dating back to the 6th century BCE, according to analysis carried out on ceramics that were found inside the cave. Speaking, the Guanches were the indigenous peoples of Tenerife; the population seems to have lived in relative isolation up to the time of the Castilian conquest, around the 14th century. The name came to be applied to the indigenous populations of all the seven Canary Islands, those of Tenerife being the most important or powerful. What remains of their language, Guanche – a few expressions, vocabulary words and the proper names of ancient chieftains still borne by certain families – exhibits positive similarities with the Berber languages.
The first reliable account of the Guanche language was provided by the Genoese explorer Nicoloso da Recco in 1341, with a translation of numbers used by the islanders. According to European chroniclers, the Guanches did not possess a system of writing at the time of conquest. Inscriptions and rock paintings and carvings are quite abundant throughout the islands. Petroglyphs attributed to various Mediterranean civilizations have been found on some of the islands. In 1752, Domingo Vandewalle, a military governor of Las Palmas, attempted to investigate them, Aquilino Padron, a priest at Las Palmas, catalogued inscriptions at El Julan, La Candía and La Caleta on El Hierro. In 1878 Dr. René Verneau discovered rock carvings in the ravines of Las Balos that resemble Libyan or Numidian writing dating from the time of Roman occupation or earlier. In other locations, Libyco-Berber script has been identified; the geographic accounts of Pliny the Elder and of Strabo mention the Fortunate Isles but do not report anything about their populations.
An account of the Guanche population may have been made around AD 1150 by the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi in the Nuzhatul Mushtaq, a book he wrote for King Roger II of Sicily, in which al-Idrisi reports a journey in the Atlantic Ocean made by the Mugharrarin, a family of Andalusian seafarers from Lisbon. The only surviving version of this book, kept at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, first translated by Pierre Amédée Jaubert, reports that, after having reached an area of "sticky and stinking waters", the Mugharrarin moved back and first reached an uninhabited Island, where they found "a huge quantity of sheep, which its meat was bitter and inedible" and "continued southward" and reached another island where they were soon surrounded by barks and brought to "a village whose inhabitants were fair haired with long and flaxen hair and the women of a rare beauty". Among the villagers, one asked them where they came from; the king of the village ordered them to bring them back to the continent where they were surprised to be welcomed by Berbers.
Apart from the marvelous and fanciful content of this history, this account would suggest that Guanches had sporadic contacts with populations from the mainland. Al-Idrisi described the Guanche men as tall and of a reddish-brown complexion. During the 14th century, the Guanches are presumed to have had other contacts with Balearic seafarers from Spain, suggested by the presence of Balearic artifacts found on several of the Canary Islands; the Castilian conquest of the Canary Islands began in 1402, with the expedition of Jean de Béthencourt and Gadifer de la Salle to the island of Lanzarote. Gadifer would invade Lanzarote and Fuerteventura with ease since many of the aboriginals, faced with issues of starvation and poor agriculture, would surrender to Spanish rule; the other five islands fought back. El Hierro and the Bimbache population were the next to fall La Gomera, Gran Canaria, La Palma and in 1496, Tenerife. In the First Battle of Acentejo, called La Matanza, Guanches ambushed the Castilians
Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands. It is the most populated island of Spain, with a land area of 2,034.38 square kilometres and 904,713 inhabitants, 43 percent of the total population of the Canary Islands. Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of Macaronesia. Five million tourists visit Tenerife each year, the most visited island of the archipelago, it is one of the most important tourist destinations in the world. Tenerife hosts one of the world's largest carnivals and the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is working to be designated UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of the World. Tenerife is served by Tenerife-North Airport and Tenerife-South Airport. Tenerife is the economic capital of the Canary Islands; the capital of the island, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, is the seat of the island council. The city is capital of the autonomous community of Canary Islands, sharing governmental institutions such as presidency and ministries. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927, Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands.
In 1927 the Crown ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, as it remains at present. Santa Cruz contains the modern Auditorio de Tenerife, the architectural symbol of the Canary Islands; the island is home to the University of La Laguna. The city of La Laguna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is the second city most populated on the third in the archipelago. It was capital of the Canary Islands before Santa Cruz replaced it in 1833. Teide National Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is located in the center of the island. In it, the Mount Teide rises as the highest elevation of Spain, the highest of the islands of the Atlantic Ocean, the third-largest volcano in the world from its base. On the island, the Macizo de Anaga has been a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve since 2015, it has the largest number of endemic species in Europe. The island's indigenous people, the Guanche Berbers, referred to the island as Achinet or Chenet in their language. According to Pliny the Younger, Berber king Juba II sent an expedition to the Canary Islands and Madeira.
Juba II and Ancient Romans referred to the island of Tenerife as Nivaria, derived from the Latin word nix, meaning snow, referring to the snow-covered peak of the Teide volcano. Maps dating to the 14th and 15th century, by mapmakers such as Bontier and Le Verrier, refer to the island as Isla del Infierno meaning "Island of Hell," referring to the volcanic activity and eruptions of Mount Teide; the Benahoaritas are said to have named the island, deriving it from the words ife. After colonisation, the Hispanisation of the name resulted in adding the letter "r" to unite both words, producing Tenerife. However, throughout history there have been other explanations to reveal the origin of the name of the island. For example, the 18th-century historians Juan Núñez de la Peña and Tomás Arias Marín de Cubas, among others, state that the island was named by natives for the legendary Guanche king, nicknamed "the Great." He ruled the entire island in the days before the conquest of the Canary Islands by Castilla.
The formal demonym used to refer to the people of Tenerife is Tinerfeño/a. In modern society, the latter term is applied only to inhabitants of the capital, Santa Cruz; the term "chicharrero" was once a derogatory term used by the people of La Laguna when it was the capital, to refer to the poorer inhabitants and fishermen of Santa Cruz. The fishermen caught mackerel and other residents ate potatoes, assumed to be of low quality by the elite of La Laguna; as Santa Cruz grew in commerce and status, it replaced La Laguna as capital of Tenerife in 1833 during the reign of Fernando VII. The inhabitants of Santa Cruz used the former insult to identify as residents of the new capital, at La Laguna's expense; the earliest known human settlement in the islands date to around 200 BC, by Berbers known as the Guanches. However, the Cave of the Guanches in the municipality of Icod de los Vinos in the north of Tenerife, has provided the oldest chronologies of the Canary Islands, with dates around the sixth century BC.
Regarding the technological level, the Guanches can be framed among the peoples of the Stone Age, although this terminology is rejected due to the ambiguity that it presents. The Guanche culture is characterized by an advanced cultural development related to the Berber cultural features imported from North Africa and a poor technological development, determined by the scarcity of raw materials minerals that allow the extraction of metals; the main activity was grazing, although the population were engaged in agriculture, as well as fishing and the collection of shellfish from the shore or using fishing craft. As for beliefs, the Guanche religion was polytheistic. Beside him there was an animistic religiosity that sacralized certain places rocks and mountains. Among the main Guanche gods could be highlighted. Singular was the cult to the dead, practi
Tinguaro was a Guanche sigoñe of Tenerife known as Achimenchia Tinguaro. He was in charge of the area known as Acentejo. Half-brother of the mencey Bencomo, Tinguaro led the Guanche forces to victory against the invading Castilians in the First Battle of Acentejo, he fell at the Battle of Aguere, a crushing defeat for the original population of the island, resulting in the conquest of the island by the Castilians. José Juan Acosta. Batalla de Acentejo 510 Aniversario de la Batalla de Acentejo: La Derrota de un Imperio
Candelaria Villa Mariana de Candelaria, is a municipality and city in the eastern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the Canary Islands, Spain. The city is located on 17 km southwest of Santa Cruz de Tenerife; the population is 25,140, the area is 49.18 km². The town is noted by Catholics in Spain and Latin America as a place of veneration of the Virgin of Candelaria, the patron of the Canary Islands; the most prominent building is the Basilica of Candelaria, which includes the sculpture of the Virgin Mary and mural paintings. Highlighted in the square, statues of the nine aboriginal kings of Tenerife. In the times of the Guanches, the region was part of the kingdom, of Güímar. A cave is situated around Candelaria; the famous Festival de la Canción de Candelaria is one of the most important festivities on the island. It celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2005. In pre-Hispanic epochs this zone pertained to Güímar's aboriginal Menceyato, it was accepted that the aboriginal name of the zone was "Güímar" as the whole menceyato.
After the conquest, this zone was called "Candelaria", in honor to the virgin patron of the archipelago, the Virgin of Candelaria. The town of Candelaria is surrounded by several prehistoric caves, where burials have been found containing mummies of the Guanches, whose burial process is similar to the treatment of the pharaohs in Egypt. In 1390, the current Candelaria was a solitary and deserted place where the shepherds would frenguent the Guanches of Güimar's menceyato. One evening, two natives who were leading his cattle, saw some goats come to the mouth of the ravine; the natives found, on a rock, the Holy Image of the Virgin of Candelaria. The image was found in a beach near to Candelaria the image was moved to the Cave of Chinguaro, the palace of the King of Güímar, but the same guanches moved her to Cueva de Achbinico in Candelaria, there it has been venerated since then. The aboriginals identified her with the appearance of their goddess Chaxiraxi, but the Christian conquerors insisted that the image was the Virgin Mary.
A hermitage was constructed and the Basilica was constructed to Santa Maria. Nowadays Candelaria is the principal Catholic center of pilgrimage of the Canaries and one of the principal ones of Spain; the current image of the Virgin of Candelaria is to dress. The image always turns out to be covered by mantles and jeweler's shop she is curiously venerated by the Hindu community of the Canaries, they refer to her as the black virgin; the image goes out in procession every February 2 and August 15. The latter date is linked to a former aboriginal celebration, it is believed. Nowadays, the municipality is visited by thousands of people, not only devout to the Virgin of Candelaria, but tourists exploring the Canary culture; the municipality is famous for tourism. Candelaria's municipality receives the annual peregrination of Candelaria, as well as to the pilgrims who visit the municipality in all other epochs of the year; the principal stops of any visit are the Basilica of Candelaria and Cueva de Achbinico, but there are other places of interest in the village: The current basilica dates back of 1959, it was constructed on a former hermitage.
When you leave the basilica you stand out on the belfry coast, to your feet one finds the Plaza de la Patrona de Canarias. Since the image of the Virgin was appearing on the beach of Chimisay, around 1392, the first great Sanctuary to the Virgin of Candelaria was constructed in 1668. With the increase of the peregrinations of the devout ones, there was created the need to construct a bigger temple, which has capacity for 5,000 persons; the basilica is in the south part of the city, adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. Close to the Plaza de la Patrona de Canarias they find the bronze statues of 9 aboriginal kings. Next to the basilica is the Dominican convent religious order in charge of the sanctuary; the basilic has a large collection of wall paintings. The temple and Royal Basilica Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Candelaria, is considered the main temple dedicated to the Virgin Mary in the Canary Islands. So called Cave of San Blas, it was the first Christian temple of Canary Islands, in this place the original inhabitants of the Canary Islands produced worship to the Virgin of Candelaria.
According to recent archaeological layers of ash found and submitted for consideration are carbon-14 dating back over three thousand years. In this cave a fire was kept on permanently, something like the temple of the Vestal Virgins of ancient Rome; the Plaza de la Patrona de Canarias his a large square in Candelaria. It is next to the Basilica of Candelaria, a meeting place of pilgrims and festivities celebrating the most important of the municipality. In this square there are various bars and cafes. On one side of the square are statues of the nine kings who ruled the nine aboriginal guanches menceyatos of Tenerife, it is the shopping street of the town par excellence where you can find different souvenir stores, religious imagery and crafts. The street runs parallel to the coast and the promenade of the city to the Plaza de la Patrona de Canarias and the Basilica of Candelaria, it is a church dedicated to St. Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary and is the parish in the municipality of Candela
Princess Dácil was a Guanche princess of the kingdom of Taoro on the island Tenerife, best known for her marriage to a conqueror of the island. Dácil or Dácila was born in the ancient Menceyato of Taoro, during the early second half of the fifteenth century, she was granddaughter of Bencomo. She had five brothers: Bentor, Rosalva, Chachiñama, Tiñate. Dácil was admired throughout the island for her beauty, she was described as blonde and freckled, with green eyes, like many other aborigines of northern Tenerife. Her future was mapped out for her to marry Duriman el Montañes. However, with the arrival of the Spanish Captain Fernando García del Castillo, a Castilian officer of a Spanish Cavalry unit, Dácil gained another suitor. Captain Fernando García del Castillo was taken prisoner and placed under the care of Princess Dácil so that she could see to his wounds suffered in Battle of Aguere. According to several historians, Captain Fernando García del Castillo acted as a diplomat providing services between the Guanches and invading Spanish people, was honored with some estimates by the King of Taoro.
Rumors began to surface that Captain Fernando García del Princess Dácil were lovers. They were knowingly believed to have talked alone, a practice forbidden by Guanche law; the Guanche, Duriman El Montanez, promised Dácil in marriage felt spurned, further fed accusations her of being alone with a man, was, in addition, a Castilian, therefore, the enemy of the Guanche homeland. Duriman el Montañes asked Bencomo to arrest Princess Dácil. Bencomo complied with imprisoned Dácil for many months; when she was released, Dácil was able to convince Bencomo that she had never met Captain Fernando García del Castillo alone, in fact, she had many witnesses to attest that she was always accompanied when meeting with the Castillian captain. She married the captain in the Iglesia de la Concepción of Los Realejos, she was baptized as Mencías del Castillo. The date of Dácil's death or place of burial are not known; the marriage of Dácil and Castilian was considered as the bond of brotherhood between the Guanches people and the Spanish people, though, not real brotherhood in practice by part of the Spanish conquerors and settlers, who enslaved the Guanches and subjected them to their culture and language in the early sixteenth century.
The poet Antonio de Viana turned the story of Dácil into one of his best-known poems in the Canary Island, in his book La Conquista de Tenerife. Many people considered him a unique poet. However, as a historian, Bethencourt Alfonso, once said: "this princess plays an important role in Viana's poem, her name is one of the many Guanche names that for the Canary Island, have not been lost, since there are still people named Dácil throughout the archipelago. She is one of the better known historical figures in the archipelago. Http://elguanche.net/Ficheros/batallaacentejohupalupa.htm. La batalla de Acentejo. Http://es.globedia.com/batalla-acentejo-derrota-imperio-colonial. La batalla de Acentejo: la derrota de un imperio colonial
Menceyato of Taoro
Taoro was one of nine Guanche menceyatos in which the island of Tenerife was divided at the time of the arrival of the conquering Spaniards. Taoro was considered the most powerful aboriginal kingdom on the island, it spanned the existing municipalities of Puerto de la Cruz, La Orotava, La Victoria de Acentejo, La Matanza de Acentejo, Los Realejos and Santa Úrsula. Its mencey at the time of the Spanish arrival was Bencomo and the final mencey was Bentor, who ruled the kingdom from November 1495 until his suicide in February 1496. Menceyatos de Tenerife