Malays (ethnic group)
Malays are an Austronesian ethnic group and nation native to the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra of Indonesia and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world. These locations are today part of the nations of Malaysia, Singapore and Southern Thailand. There is considerable genetic, linguistic and social diversity among the many Malay subgroups due to hundreds of years of immigration and assimilation of various regional ethnicity and tribes within Maritime Southeast Asia; the Malay population is descended from the earlier Malayic-speaking Austronesians and Austroasiatic tribes who founded several ancient maritime trading states and kingdoms, notably Brunei, Langkasuka, Gangga Negara, Chi Tu, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Pahang and Srivijaya. The advent of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century triggered a major revolution in Malay history, the significance of which lies in its far-reaching political and cultural legacy.
Common definitive markers of a Malayness – the religion of Islam, the Malay language and traditions – are thought to have been promulgated during this era, resulting in the ethnogenesis of the Malay as a major ethnoreligious group in the region. In literature, culinary traditions, traditional dress, performing arts, martial arts, royal court traditions, Malacca set a standard that Malay sultanates emulated; the golden age of the Malay sultanates in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo saw many of their inhabitants from various tribal communities like the Batak, Orang Asli and the Orang Laut become subject to Islamisation and Malayisation. Today, some Malays have recent forebears from other parts of Maritime Southeast Asia, termed as anak dagang and who predominantly consist of Banjar, Minangkabau people and Acehnese peoples, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other countries. Throughout their history, the Malays have been known as a coastal-trading community with fluid cultural characteristics.
They absorbed and transmitted numerous cultural features of other local ethnic groups, such as those of Minang, to some degree Javanese culture. Ethnic Malays are the major source of the ethnocultural development of the related Betawi, Cape Malay, Cocos Malays and Sri Lankan Malay cultures, as well as the development of Malay trade and creole languages like Ambonese Malay, Baba Malay, the Betawi language and Manado Malay; the epic literature, the Malay Annals, associates the etymological origin of "Melayu" to Sungai Melayu in Sumatra, Indonesia. The term is thought to be derived from the Malay word melaju, a combination of the verbal prefix'me' and the root word'laju', meaning "to accelerate", used to describe the accelerating strong current of the river; the word "Melayu" as an ethnonym, to allude to a different ethnological cluster, is assumed to have been made fashionable throughout the integration of the Malacca Sultanate as a regional power in the 15th century. It was applied to report the social partialities of the Malaccans as opposed to foreigners as of the similar area the Javanese and Thais This is evidenced from the early 16th century Malay word-list by Antonio Pigafetta who joined the Magellan's circumnavigation, that made a reference to how the phrase chiara Malaiu was used in the maritime Southeast Asia, to refer to the al parlare de Malaea.
The English term "Malay" was adopted via the Dutch word Malayo, itself derived from Portuguese: Malaio, which originates from the original Malay word, Melayu. Prior to the 15th century, the term "Melayu" and its similar-sounding variants appear to apply as an old toponym to the Strait of Malacca region in general. Malaya Dwipa, "Malaya Dvipa", is described in chapter 48, Vayu Purana as one of the provinces in the eastern sea, full of gold and silver; some scholars equate the term with Sumatra, but several Indian scholars believe the term should refer to the mountainous Malay peninsula, while Sumatra is more associated with Suvarnadvipa. Maleu-kolon – a location in the Golden Chersonese, from Ptolemy's work, Geographia. Mo-lo-yu – mentioned by Yijing, a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk who visited the Southeast Asia in 688–695. According to Yijing, the Mo-Lo-Yu kingdom was located at a distance of 15 days sailing from Bogha, the capital of Sribhoga, it took a 15-day sail as well to reach Ka-Cha from Mo-lo-yu.
A popular theory relates Mo-Lo-Yu with the Jambi in Sumatra, however the geographical location of Jambi contradicts with Yi Jing's description of a "half way sail between Ka-Cha and Bogha". In the Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, the word Ma-La-Yu was mentioned in Chinese historical texts – with changes in spelling due to the time span between the dynasties – to refer to a nation near the southern sea. Among the terms used was "Bok-la-yu", "Mok-la-yu", Ma-li-yu-er, Oo-lai-yu – traced from the written source of monk Xuanzang), Wu-lai-yu. Malayur – inscribed on the south wall of the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Tamil Nadu, it was described as a kingdom that had "a strong mountain for its rampart" in Malay peninsula, that fell to the Chola invaders during Rajendra Chola I's campaign in the 11th century. Bhūmi Mālayu –, a transcription from Padang Roco I
The Malay Annals titled Sulalatus Salatin, is a literary work that gives a romanticised history of the origin and demise of the great Malay maritime empire, the Malacca Sultanate. The work, composed sometime between 15th and 16th centuries, is considered one of the finest literary and historical works in the Malay language; the original text has undergone numerous changes, with the oldest known version dated May 1612, through the rewriting effort commissioned by the regent of Johor, Yang di-Pertuan Di Hilir Raja Abdullah. It was written in the Classical Malay on traditional paper in old Jawi script, but today exists in 32 different manuscripts, including those in Rumi script. Notwithstanding some of its mystical contents, historians have looked at the text as a primary source of information on past events verifiable by other historical sources, in the Malay world. In 2001, the Malay Annals was listed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme International Register; the number of manuscripts of the Malay Annals and its related texts is large.
The manuscripts are found scattered over libraries in various countries: in Indonesia, in the United Kingdom, in the Netherlands and in Malaysia. Not all of these manuscripts have the same value. A version of the Annals dated 1612, acquired by Sir Stamford Raffles and coded Raffles MS no.18 or Raffles Manuscript 18, is considered the oldest and most faithful to the original. There is a possibility that Raffles MS no.18 version has developed from a genealogical king-list complete with the periods of reigns and dates. This king-list subsequently enlarged by various stories and relevant material, inserted into it in suitable places, but at the same time it lost its dates. Unknown Malay texts titled Soelalet Essalatina or Sulalatu'l-Salatina, that referred by Petrus Van der Vorm and François Valentijn in their works Collectanea Malaica Vocabularia and Oud En New Oost Indien could have existed in the form of a king-list. However, the introduction of Raffles MS no.18 describes that the manuscript originates from another manuscript known as Hikayat Melayu, which may trace its origin to the time of Melaka Sultanate.
The manuscript was brought together when the last ruler, Mahmud Shah fleeing the Portuguese invasion in 1511 to Kampar. In 1536, during the Portuguese attack on Johor Lama, where the exiled sultan established his base, the manuscript was seized by the Portuguese soldiers and brought to Goa, Portuguese India. Decades in the early 17th century, the manuscript was returned to Johor from Goa by a nobleman identified as Orang Kaya Sogoh. However, historian Abdul Samad Ahmad provides an alternative view, suggesting that the manuscript was returned from Gowa, Sulawesi instead of Goa, India, his argument is based on the fact that during Melaka's era as an important regional entreport, it had established a strong trading and diplomatic ties with regional kingdoms, including Gowa, some copies of Hikayat Melayu could have been spread to Sulawesi long before the arrival of Portuguese. Another view, from William Linehan, tried to argue that Goa ought to read guha or gua, that the reference was to Gua, a place located north of Kuala Lipis in Pahang, where a copy of the Annals had been preserved and brought to Johor and edited there in 1612.
On Sunday, 12th Rabi' al-awwal 1021 AH, during the reign of Alauddin Riayat Shah III in Pekan Tua, the regent of Johor, Yang di-Pertuan Di Hilir Raja Abdullah known as Raja Bongsu, had commissioned the rewriting and compilation work of the manuscript to the Bendahara Tun Sri Lanang. A year in 1613, the Johor capital of Batu Sawar was sacked by the Acehnese invaders and Alauddin Riayat Shah, his entire court, including Tun Sri Lanang and Raja Abdullah was captured and exiled to Aceh. Although Tun Sri Lanang manage to worked a bulk of the Annals in Johor, he completed the work during his captivity in Aceh. In 1821, the English translation of Raffles MS no.. It was followed by the edited version in Malay language by Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, published in Singapore in 1831 and the compilation by Édouard Dulaurier in 1849. In 1915, William Shellabear's edition was published, it is considered as a hybrid long text based on Abdullah and Dulaurier's version but containing extracts from other texts as well.
It was followed by another translation of Raffles MS no.18, this time by Richard Olaf Winstedt in 1938. Another important version, compiled by Malaysian historian Abdul Samad Ahmad in 1979, uses the original title of the text, Sulalatus Salatin. Abdul Samad's compilation was based on three manuscripts that he named as A, B and C, kept in the library of Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur. Two of the manuscripts, alternatively named as MS86 and MS86a by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, were referred in the nomination form submitted for UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme International Register; the Malay Annals is a historical literature written in the form of narrative-prose with its main theme was to laud the greatness and superiority of Melaka. The narration, while relating the story of the reign of the sultans of Melaka until the demise of the sultanate to the Portuguese in 1511 and beyond, deals with a core issue of Malay statehood and historiography, the relationship between rulers and ruled.
The Annals are prefaced by
Terengganu spelled Trengganu or Tringganu, is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia. The state is known by its Arabic honorific, Dāru l-Īmān; the coastal city of Kuala Terengganu which stands at the mouth of the broad Terengganu River is both the state and royal capital as well as the largest city in Terengganu. There are many islands located close to the coast such as Redang Island. There are several theories on the origin of the name "Terengganu". One theory attributes the name's origin to terang ganu, Malay for'bright rainbow'. Another story, said to have been narrated by the ninth Sultan of Terengganu, Baginda Omar, tells of a party of hunters from Pahang roving and hunting in the area of what is now southern Terengganu. One of the hunters spotted a big animal fang lying on the ground. A fellow party member asked to which animal did; the hunter, not knowing which animal answered taring anu. The party returned to Pahang with a rich hoard of game and sandalwood, which impressed their neighbours.
They asked the hunters where did they source their riches, to which they replied, from the land of taring anu, which evolved into Terengganu. Terengganu was called Trangkanu by the Siamese. Terengganuans pronounce Terengganu as Tranung or Ganu; the traditional Chinese name for Terengganu has been "丁加奴", a direct transcription of the Malay name. However, in recent years, the Chinese community in Terengganu has raised objections to the name, citing that the characters used loosely translate to "giving birth to a child who will become a slave". Therefore, they petitioned the regulatory commission for Chinese language in Malaysia to change the Chinese name for the state to "登嘉楼", which can be loosely translated to "aspiring/stepping up to a higher level", in September 2004, it is worth noting, that the new name has been in unofficial use by the state's Chinese society for at least 30 years before its official adoption. There are certain segments of the Chinese society who opposed to the name change, citing the fact that the new name contains too many character strokes, making it much more difficult to write.
They have proposed to revert the name back to the version used before 2004, but with the word "奴" to the similar sounding, but more positive "努". The traditional Indian name for Terengganu has been'Tringganu'. Since the land was once Hindu influenced, the name Tringganu or Tri-anggan-ur is believed to be named after the Hindu deity Lord Dattātreya. Lord Dattātreya is identified as the personification of the Hindu trinity or Trimurti namely Brahma and Shiva. Terengganu's location by the South China Sea ensured that it was on trade routes since ancient times; the earliest written reports on the area, now Terengganu were by Chinese merchants and seafarers in the early 6th century A. D. Like other Malay states, Terengganu practised a Hindu–Buddhist culture combined with animist traditional beliefs for hundreds of years before the arrival of Islam. Under the influence of Srivijaya, Terengganu traded extensively with the Majapahit Empire, the Khmer Empire and the Chinese. Terengganu was the first Malay state to receive Islam, as attested to by the Terengganu Inscription Stone with Arabic inscriptions found in Kuala Berang, the capital of the district of Hulu Terengganu.
The inscribed date, incomplete due to damage can be read as various dates from 702 to 789 AH. Terengganu became a vassal state of Malacca, but retained considerable autonomy with the emergence of Johor Sultanate. Terengganu emerged as an independent sultanate in 1724; the first sultan was Tun Zainal Abidin, the younger brother of a former sultan of Johor, Johor influenced Terengganu politics through the 18th century. However, in the book Tuhfat al-Nafis, the author, Raja Ali Haji, mentions that in the year 1708, Tun Zainal Abidin was installed as the Sultan of Terengganu by Daeng Menampuk - known as Raja Tua - under the rule of Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah. In the 19th century, Terengganu became a vassal state of the Thai Rattanakosin Kingdom, sent tribute every year called bunga mas. Under Thai rule, Terengganu prospered, was left alone by the authorities in Bangkok; the period witnessed the existence of a Terengganuan Vassal of Besut Darul Iman. The terms of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 saw power over Terengganu transferred from Siam to Great Britain.
A British advisor was appointed to the sultan in 1919, Terengganu become one of the Unfederated Malay States. The move was unpopular locally, in 1928 the British used military force to suppress a popular uprising. During World War II, Japan occupied Terengganu and transferred sovereignty over the state back to Siam, renamed Thailand in 1939, along with Kelantan and Perlis. After the defeat of Japan, British control over these Malay states was reestablished. Terengganu became a member of the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and a state of independent Malaya in 1957. Following decades of rule by the Barisan Nasional coalition, the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party came to power in 1999, making Terengganu the second state in Malaysia to be ruled by the Islamist party. Terengganu was recapture and continue to ruled by the Barisan Nasional since 2004 until 2018. Terengganu is situated in eastern Peninsular Malaysia, is bordered in the northwest
Mahmud II was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat, carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz. Described as "Peter the Great of Turkey", Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire; the reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic. Notwithstanding his domestic reforms, Mahmud's reign was marked by nationalist uprisings in Ottoman-ruled Serbia and Greece, leading to significant loss of territory for the Empire following the emergence of an independent Greek state, his mother was Nakşidil Valide Sultan. In 1808, Mahmud II's predecessor, half-brother, Mustafa IV ordered his execution along with his cousin, the deposed Sultan Selim III, in order to defuse the rebellion.
Selim III was killed, but Mahmud was safely kept hidden by his mother and was placed on the throne after the rebels deposed Mustafa IV. The leader of this rebellion, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha became Mahmud II's vizier. Western historians give Mahmud a poor reputation for being the Sultan during a time of deterioration of the Ottoman Empire. There are many stories surrounding the circumstances of his attempted murder. A version by the 19th-century Ottoman historian Ahmed Cevdet Pasha gives the following account: one of his slaves, a Georgian girl named Cevri, gathered ashes when she heard the commotion in the palace surrounding the murder of Selim III; when the assassins approached the harem chambers where Mahmud was staying, she was able to keep them away for a while by throwing ashes into their faces, temporarily blinding them. This allowed Mahmud to climb onto the roof of the harem, he ran to the roof of the Third Court where other pages saw him and helped him come down with pieces of clothes that were tied together as a ladder.
By this time one of the leaders of the rebellion, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha arrived with his armed men, upon seeing the dead body of Selim III proclaimed Mahmud as padishah. The slave girl Cevri Kalfa was awarded for her bravery and loyalty and appointed haznedar usta, the chief treasurer of the Imperial Harem, the second most important position in the hierarchy. A plain stone staircase at the Altınyol of the Harem is called Staircase of Cevri Kalfa, since the events happened around there and are associated with her; the vizier took the initiative in resuming reforms, terminated by the conservative coup of 1807 that had brought Mustafa IV to power. However, he was killed during a rebellion in 1808 and Mahmud II temporarily abandoned the reforms. Mahmud II's reformation efforts would be much more successful. During the early years of Mahmud II's reign, his governor of Egypt Mehmet Ali Paşa waged the Ottoman-Saudi War and reconquered the holy cities of Medina and Mecca from the First Saudi State. Abdullah bin Saud and the First Saudi State had barred Muslims from the Ottoman Empire from entering the holy shrines of Mecca and Medina.
Abdullah bin Saud and his two followers were publicly beheaded for their crimes against holy cities and mosques. His reign marked the first breakaway from the Ottoman Empire, with Greece gaining its independence following a revolution that started in 1821. During the Battle of Erzurum, part of the Ottoman-Persian War, Mahmud II's superior force was routed by Abbas Mirza, resulting in a Qajar Persian victory which got confirmed in the Treaties of Erzurum. Several years in 1827, the combined British and Russian navies defeated the Ottoman Navy at the Battle of Navarino; this event, together with the French conquest of Algeria, an Ottoman province in 1830, marked the beginning of the gradual break-up of the Ottoman Empire. Non-Turkish ethnic groups living in the empire's territories in Europe, started their own independence movements. One of Mahmud II's most notable acts during his reign was the destruction of the Janissary corps in June 1826, he accomplished this with careful calculation using his reformed wing of the military intended to replace the Janissaries.
When the Janissaries mounted a demonstration against Mahmud II's proposed military reforms, he had their barracks fired upon crushing the elite Ottoman troops and burned the Belgrade forest outside Istanbul to incinerate any remnants. This permitted the establishment of a European-style conscript army, recruited from Turkish speakers of Rumelia and Asia Minor. Mahmud was responsible for the subjugation of the Iraqi Mamluks by Ali Ridha Pasha in 1831, he ordered the execution of the renowned Ali Pasha of Tepelena. He sent his Grand Vizier to execute the Bosniak hero Husein Gradaščević and dissolve the Bosnia Eyalet. In 1839, just prior to his death, he began preparations for the Tanzimat reform era which included introducing a Council of Ministers or the Meclis-i Vukela; the Tanzimat marked the beginning of modernization in Turkey and had immediate effects on social and legal aspects of life in the Empire, such as European style clothing, legislation, institutional organization
Ahmad Mua’zzam Shah of Pahang
Sultan Ahmad Al-Mu’azzam Shah Ibni Al-Marhum Bendahara Sri Maharaja Tun Ali was the sixth Raja Bendahara of Pahang and the founder and first modern Sultan of Pahang. Known as Wan Ahmad before his accession, he seized the throne in 1863 after having defeated his elder brother Tun Mutahir in the Pahang Civil War, assuming the title Sri Paduka Dato' Bendahara Siwa Raja Tun Ahmad. In the early years of his reign, Pahang descended into turmoil, with various attempts made by the surviving sons of the late Tun Mutahir, based in Selangor, to overthrow him; this led to Pahang's decisive involvement in the Selangor Civil War that brought it to a conclusive end. The successive wars that ravaged the land had led to the rise of dissension among the ruling class and territorial chiefs who were thenceforth divided into factions. In 1881, prompted by his dwindling authority both within Pahang and among his counterparts in the western Malay states, Ahmad took upon the title of Sultan Ahmad al-Muadzam Shah and formally proclaimed as Sultan by his chiefs two years later.
The event marked the revival of Pahang as a Sultanate after more than two centuries of union with the crown of Johor. Ahmad gained formal recognition from the British Straits Settlements government in 1887, in return for signing a treaty with the British which compelled him to accept a British Agent in his court. During his reign, Pahang politics came under the purview of the British government. Increasing pressure was exerted upon the Sultan by the residing British Agent to administer the state according to the British ideals of just rule and modernisation; this had plunged the state into a seething cauldron of discontent with clashes between traditional chiefs and the British. The British compelled Ahmad to put his state under the British protectorate in 1888 and John Pickersgill Rodger was appointed Pahang's first Resident; the work of building up a State administration began with the creation of the Supreme Court, a police force and a State Council. In 1895, the Sultan entered into a Treaty of Federation to form the Federated Malay States.
Ahmad transferred his executive and administrative powers to his eldest son Tengku Long Mahmud, due to old age in 1909, retaining his position and titles as Head of State until his death in 1914. On 23 May 1836 at Pulau Maulana, Che Puan Long, a wife of the 22nd Bendahara of Johor Empire, Tun Ali, gave birth to a son Wan Ahmad, for whom an Arab, Habib Abdullah ibni Omar Al-Attas foretold a great future. Wan Ahmad is the patrilineal descendant of the 13th Bendahara, proclaimed as the 10th Sultan of Johor, Abdul Jalil Shah IV. After the accession Abdul Jalil, Pahang was made the special province of the Bendaharas, who ruled the state as the vassal of the Johor empire. However, during the reign of Tun Abdul Majid, with the gradual dismemberment of the empire, Pahang status was changed from a provincial state to a fiefdom, thus the reigning Bendahara assumed the title Raja Bendahara, it was not until 1853. Wan Ahmad was educated in his father's court, where many teachers of various degrees expounded to the royal family.
He was granted Kuantan and Endau as his fief by his father when he was a young at age, but opposed in his control of these territories by his brother, after the latter's succession in 1857. The dispute over the territories of Kuantan and Endau prompted Wan Ahmad to oppose his brother in the supreme government; the tensions among the two brothers escalated into a bitter civil war, shortly after the death of their father in 1857. His elder brother, Tun Mutahir was supported by Johor to the south, by the British Straits Settlements who were opposing the Siamese Rattanakosin Kingdom. Wan Ahmad, 22 years old of age at that time, was helped by the Terengganu, a Malay sultanate to the north, by the Siamese. Both sides, whose outside supporters had ulterior motives, engaged chiefly in raids and ambushes, with occasional battles near fortifications along the vast riverine system of Pahang. Siamese vessels sent to assist Wan Ahmad in 1862 were routed by the British warships; the war ceased soon after Wan Ahmad troops conquered and established control over a number of important towns and regions in the interior, seizing the capital, Pekan.
Tun Mutahir retreated to Temai and in May 1863, he fled to Kuala Sedili, where he died with his son Wan Koris. Ahmad owed his victory in the war to his outstanding ability as a field commander; the victor was formally installed ruler by his chiefs with the title Bendahara Siwa Raja Tun Ahmad, thus ended the fratricidal struggle between the two brothers. The new Raja Bendahara signalised his victory by proclaiming amnesty to those chiefs and subjects who had aided his enemies, he rewarded the wealthy businessmen who had rendered him financial assistance during the war by leasing to them the State salt and opium monopolies
Hang Tuah was a warrior who lived in Malacca during the reign of Sultan Mansur Shah in the 15th century. He was the most powerful of all the laksamana, or admirals, is considered by the Malays to be one of history's greatest silat masters. Hang Tuah is held in the highest regard in present-day Malay culture, is arguably the most well-known and illustrious warrior figure in Malay history and literature; as a young boy, Hang Tuah worked as a woodcutter in his parents' shop. His grasp of spiritual concepts and potential as a fighter were apparent from a young age. At ten years old he learned silat together with his four comrades Hang Kasturi, Hang Jebat, Hang Lekir and Hang Lekiu, their teacher was a renowned master who lived a hermetic life at the top of a mountain. Under the guru's tutelage, Hang Tuah and his four compatriots were taught the arts of self-defense and meditation. Hang Tuah's appearance in the history of the region began when some men ran amok near Kampung Bendahara. Tun Perak came with a party of guards to investigate the incident, but was attacked.
His guards fled but when Hang Tuah and his friends, who happened to be at a nearby stall, saw what was happening, they rushed to save Tun Perak. They fought the group and, because of their ferociousness, they ran away. Tun Perak was amazed by the courage of his companions, he presented them to Sultan Muzaffar Syah. Hang Tuah's illustrious career as an admiral or laksamana includes tales of his absolute and unfaltering loyalty to his Sultan, some of which are chronicled in Sejarah Melayu and Hikayat Hang Tuah. Hang Tuah became the sultan's constant aide, accompanying the king on official visits to foreign countries. On one such visit to Majapahit, Hang Tuah fought a duel with the famed pendekar Taming Sari. After a brutal fight Hang Tuah emerged as winner, Singhavikramavardhana, the ruler of Majapahit, bestowed upon him Taming Sari’s kris or dagger; the Keris Taming Sari was named after its original owner, was purported to be magical, empowering its owner with physical invulnerability. Hang Tuah acted as the sultan's ambassador, travelling on the king's behalf to allied countries.
Another story concerning Hang Tuah's legendary loyalty to the ruler is found in the Hikayat Hang Tuah, involves his visit to Inderaputra or Pahang during one such voyage. The sultan sent Hang Tuah to Pahang with the task of persuading the princess Tun Teja, engaged, to become the sultan's companion. Tun Teja fell under the impression that Hang Tuah had come to persuade her to marry him, not the sultan, agreed to elope with him to Melaka, it was only during the voyage home. The Hikayat Hang Tuah and Sejarah Melayu each carry different accounts of this incident; the Hikayat records that it was Hang Tuah who persuaded Tun Teja to elope with him, thus deceiving her. The most famous story in which Hang Tuah is involved is the fight with his closest childhood companion, Hang Jebat. Hang Tuah's deep loyalty to and popularity with the sultan led to rumours being circulated that Hang Tuah was having an illicit affair with one of the sultan's dayang; the sultan sentenced Hang Tuah to death without trial for the alleged offence.
The death sentence was never carried out, because Hang Tuah's executioner, the bendahara, went against the sultan’s orders and hid Hang Tuah in a remote region of Melaka. Believing that Hang Tuah was dead, murdered unjustly by the king he served, Hang Jebat decided to avenge his friend's death. Hang Jebat's revenge became a palace killing spree or furious rebellion against the sultan, it remains consistent, that Hang Jebat wreaked havoc onto the royal court, the sultan was unable to stop him, as none of the warriors dared to challenge the more ferocious and skilled Hang Jebat. The bendahara informed the sultan that the only man, able to stop Hang Jebat, Hang Tuah, was still alive; the bendahara recalled Hang Tuah from his hiding place and the warrior was given full amnesty by the sultan and was instructed to kill Hang Jebat. After seven gruelling days of fighting, Hang Tuah was able to kill Hang Jebat, it is notable that the two main sources of Hang Tuah's life differ yet again on the details of his life.
According to the Hikayat Hang Tuah, it was Hang Jebat who avenged his friend's death, only to be killed by the same friend, but according to Sejarah Melayu, it was Hang Kasturi. The Sejarah Melayu or the Malay Annals are unique in that they constitute the only available account of the history of the Malay Sultanate in the 15th and early 16th century, but the Hang Jebat story, as the more romantic tale, remains more popular. Hang Tuah continued to serve Melaka after the death of Hang Jebat. In his life, as Hang Tuah progressed in his years, the warrior was ordered by the successive Melakan ruler to court a legendary princess on the sultan's behalf; the Puteri Gunung Ledang was so named because she resided on Mount Ledang at the Melaka-Johor border. According to legend, the Princess met with Hang Tuah, only agreed to marry the sultan if he satisfied a list of requirements, or pre-wedding gifts; the list included a golden bridge linking Melaka with the top of Gunung Ledang, seven trays of mosquito livers, seven jars of virgins' tears and a bowl of the sultan's first-born son's blood.
Hang Tuah knew the tasks would not be fulfilled, was said to be so overwhelmed that he failed his king that he flung his kris into a river and vowed only to return to Melaka if it resurfaced, which it never did. It was
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong known as the Supreme Head or the King, is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom. Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state; the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs in the world. In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has extensive powers within the constitution on paper; the constitution specifies that the executive power of the Federal government is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, he is bound to exercise this power on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under Cabinet authority; the Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the elected members of Parliament. Among them, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has discretionary powers to choose who he wants as the Prime Minister and is not bound by the decision of the outgoing prime minister if no party has won a majority vote.
It, does not afford him the right and authority to dismiss the prime minister. He can dismiss or withhold consent to a request for the dissolution of Parliament, he may discontinue or dissolve Parliament but he can only dissolve Parliament at the request of the Prime Minister. He can reject any new laws or amendments to existing laws but if he still withholds permission, it will automatically become law after 30 days from the initial submission to him; the queen consort for the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is known as the Raja Permaisuri Agong and the couple are styled in English as "His Majesty" and "Her Majesty". The 16th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Al-Sultan Abdullah of Pahang, replacing Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan, who abdicated on 6 January 2019, he was elected on 24 January, at a special meeting of the Conference of Rulers. He was sworn in at the Istana Negara on 31 January; the full style and title in Malay is Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia means Under the dust of the Almighty referring to how the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's power is dust compared to God's power and the ruler is always subservient to God.
Seri Paduka Baginda refers to Seri as in a person. Paduka means victorious and the term Baginda is in Malay for a royal in the third person. Yang di-Pertuan Agong in literal English is "He Who is Made Supreme Lord", it is an archaic term for a presiding head, "Yang di-Pertuan" or means "the one-in-charge. "Agong" means "supreme". The term Agong is not translated, as in the Constitution of Malaysia. Common English terms used in the media and by the general public include "King", "Supreme King", "Paramount Ruler", "Head of State", "Head of the Federation" and "Head of State of the Federation". In Malaysian passports before 2010, the title "The Supreme Head of Malaysia" was used in the English version of the passport note. Since the issuance of ICAO-compliant e-passports in 2010, the untranslated title "His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia" is used, but in all English correspondence, the King is referred to as "His Majesty The Yang di-Pertuan Agong" In August 1957, having rejected the suggested title of Yang di-Pertuan Besar in favour of Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Conference of Rulers elected the first occupant of the throne.
By seniority, the 84-year-old major general Ibrahim of Johor, Sultan of Johor since 1895, was first in line, but he declined due to old age. The next in line, Abu Bakar of Pahang, Sultan of Pahang since 1932, was rejected five times by his fellow electors, did not secure the necessary votes. Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, having been elected to his state throne in 1933, was elected by eight votes to one; the first Conference of Rulers comprised: The Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad The Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah The Raja of Perlis, Tuanku Syed Putra ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail The Sultan of Terengganu, Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Zainal Abidin III The Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Badlishah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah The Sultan of Kelantan, Sultan Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV The Sultan of Pahang, Sultan Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mutassim Billah Shah, Tunku Ismail ibni Sultan Ibrahim The Sultan of Perak, Sultan Sultan Yussuff Izzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Nasiruddin Mukhataram Shah Radziallah Hu'an-hu The following rulers have served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong: The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is formally elected to a five-year term by and from the nine rulers of the Malay states, who form the Conference of Rulers.
After a ruler has served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he may not stand for election until all rulers of the other states have stood for election. In the event of a vacancy of the office, the Conference of Rulers elects a new Yang di-Pertuan Agong as if the previous term had expired; the new Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected for a full five-year term. After his term expires, the Conference holds a new election, in which the incumbent would not be re-elected; the position de facto rotates among the nine rulers. The selection of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong follow