Bralorne is an historic Canadian gold mining community in the Bridge River District, some eighty dirt road miles west of the town of Lillooet. Gold has been the central element in the area's history going back to the 1858-1860 Fraser River Gold Rush. Miners rushed to the Cayoosh and Bridge River areas looking for placer deposits, One named Cadwallader looked for the outcroppings on the creek, now named for him and turned out to be the site of the richest hard-rock veins in the region. Early exploratory parties of Chinese and Italians in the upper Bridge River basin were driven out by Chief Hunter Jack, who himself had a secret placer mine somewhere in the region, believed to be in upper Tyaughton Creek. and whose big-game hunting territory this was. During the 1870s Hunter Jack began to invite chosen prospectors into the valley, ran a ferry across the Bridge River that all entering the region had to cross. Among these were those who would discover the hard rock lodes on Cadwallader Creek. Though styled the Bridge River Gold Rush, in this early period there were so few who had made it into the district that there were only forty residents during the 1890 Census, prompting the naming of one of the claims "Forty Thieves".
In the 1890s intrepid prospectors searched for the underground source of that gold in the mountains. William Allen prospected the area in 1897, his claim took the name from his hotel—the Pioneer—in Lillooet. A small mill was imported from California, Welshman John Williams, who had worked the California goldfields, built an arrastra or Mexican rock mill, which became a symbol of the Bridge River mines and remained in service into the heavy-production years of the mines. Again in 1897, three men hiked in from Lillooet to Cadwallader Creek looking for gold, they made three claims—the Lorne and the Golden King. These would form the core of the complex of claims. Arthur Noel bought the claims and worked them sporadically, holding on in bad times, waiting for the good.. He installed a 12 stamp mill; the mine became tied up in litigation and stood idle for a dozen years.. By 1914 Pioneer Gold Mines was set up with more industrial equipment and modern rock mill; the site worked through the profitable King vein exploited.
But it was the collapse of world markets and the solid price of gold in the Depression, when the mines took off. The district was one of the few bright lights in the BC economy during the Depression - in a seven-year period in the 1930s, the mines of the Bridge River produced $370,000,000 in gold. Taylor installed a 100-ton a day capacity mill but under the direction of M. O'Brian, output increased fivefold. Bralorne came into its own in the Great Depression years. In 1931 Austin C. Taylor and associates acquired the Bralorne property and financed construction of a 100-ton mill; the Bralorne Mine operated from March 1932 until 1971. In that time 3 million ounces of gold were refined from its adits. From this wealth, came a complete town, with schools, post office, recreation halls and hunting lodges; the mines themselves needed support buildings. Over one hundred miles of underground tunnels were dug in the forty or so years of operation; as Bralorne sits on a volcanic fault, the shafts were quite warm inside: 40 degrees C was not unknown.
On the topic of environment, the plant used cyanide to separate the gold from the quartz. The Bridge River provided a sanctuary from the economic woes of the world; as all around North America plants were idled and people starved, Bralorne provided a ray of hope. Hundreds of men were on the payroll for the mines. Huge bunkhouses were built to shelter the men. A huge community ensued—banks, ball teams, bakeries followed. In fact, the Bralorne mines propped up an otherwise failing region. Without the business from the mines, the Pacific Great Eastern railway, cariboo ranchers, town of Lillooet would have failed. Parts for all heavy equipment for the mines were brought into the district via the tortuous Mission Mountain Road and its continuation the Bridge River Road, after being barged down Seton Lake to Shalalth from the Lillooet end of the lake, when not shippable by railway; as the Bridge River region is rich in mineral deposits, other mines sprouted at Brexton and Minto City. These mines were not as large as Bralorne, employing men in the order of dozens, not hundreds, but still contributed to the area.
For many years Bralorne sat abandoned and forgotten, its empty buildings bare and open to all who want to strip or damage them. Interest has been renewed in the area, people are returning using some of the old buildings as recreation properties. An extensive museum of the area is in Bralorne; some other buildings have been burned, or stripped of lumber and fittings. The rusting and derelict ball and concentrator mill, has been cleaned up under the Mine Reclamation Act. Since 2002 rising gold prices have led to new exploration in the area and plans for re-opening the Bralorne Mine, nearby Pioneer Mine. In 2014, a realtor put Bradian, on sale for $1 million; the entire town was sold for just over one million dollars. It is a ghost town consisting of some 20 dwellings last occupied in the 1970s. Black Dome Mountain Ogden, British Columbia Railroad Pass Bralorne-Pioneer: Their Past Lives Here, Virtualmuseum.ca photo exhibit B
Carpenter Lake Carpenter Lake Reservoir, is the largest of the three reservoirs of the Bridge River Power Project, located in the mountains west of Lillooet, British Columbia. The lake is about 185 kilometres north of the province's major city of Vancouver and is formed by the 1951 diversion of the Bridge River by Terzaghi Dam into Seton Lake via a tunnel through Mission Mountain, which separates the Seton and Bridge drainages. Several ranches and homesteads in the broad serpentine of the upper Bridge River basin were flooded out by the hydro project, which changed the character of the upper valley forever. Carpenter Lake is about 50 kilometres in length, although its upper reaches beyond the flooded gold mining town of Minto City are mudflat due to fluctuations in the level of the reservoir, its total area approaches 50 square kilometres. The lake is named after a Mr. Carpenter, an engineer who first moved to Canada in 1909 and performed much of the early design work on the power project for the firm of Sanderson and Porter, supervised construction of the first tunnels through Mission Ridge from 1927 to 1931.
He retired in 1944. Downton Lake Lajoie Dam "Carpenter Lake". BC Geographical Names. Bridge River Recreation Area, BC Hydro website
Bendor Island is a French island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located 300m off the coast from the commune of Bandol, in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in south eastern France, it was bought and subsequently developed by the industrialist Paul Ricard in 1950. The island has a surface area of 0.08 km2, with a coastline of 1.5 km. The island is 17m high at its highest point. A frequent daily ferry service runs to the island from Bandol; the island has a main hotel, the Hotel Delos, five restaurants, an artists village, boutiques, an art gallery and two museums: the Universal Exposition of Wines and Spirits and the Museum of Ricard Advertising Objects. The both museums were built by Ricard, admittance is free, but they are open during July and August only. Sporting amenities include water sports facilities, a diving club and a marina; the marina is the smallest on the Côte d'Azur, with a surface area of just 2.8 km2. In 1950 the island was bought by the industrialist Paul Ricard the founder of Ricard, the pastis manufacturer.
At the time of Ricard's purchase the sole inhabitant of the island was a sheep. Ricard bought the Île des Embiez in 1958, located nearby off the coast of Six-Fours-les-Plages. Under Ricard's patronage the island became a magnet for the jet set of the 1960s. Visitors to the island included Mireille Darc, Gilbert Bécaud, Salvador Dalí, Melina Mercouri, Marcel Pagnol, Annie Cordy, Fernandel. A monolith built by Ricard dominates the marina; the monolith is inscribed with the phrase "Nul bien sans peine", Ricard's personal philosophy. Ricard built the monolith in tribute to Pierre Paul Puget, a Provençal sculptor and architect of the 17th century, it was from Puget. The island of Embiez, bought by Ricard in 1958. Bend, Or Bend Or Bendor Grosvenor Official website Ile de Bendor on Facebook
Seton Lake is a freshwater fjord draining east via the Seton River into the Fraser River at the town of Lillooet, British Columbia, about 22 km long and 243 m in elevation and 26.2 square kilometres in area. Its depth is 1500 feet; the lake is natural in origin but was raised as part of the Bridge River Power Project, the two main powerhouses of which are on the north shore of the upper end of the lake near Shalalth. At the uppermost end of the lake is the community of Seton Portage and the mouth of the short Seton Portage River, which connects Anderson Lake on the farther side of the Portage to Seton Lake; the Seton Portage River is the main source of natural inflow to Seton Lake, is fed by Anderson Lake but by Whitecap Creek, which has its origin on the east slopes of Whitecap Mountain, the highest in the Bendor Range, by Spider Creek, which has its origin on the north slopes of an unnamed summit to the south of Seton Lake, which happens to be the highest of the Cayoosh Range which lines the south flank of the valley.
The Canadian National Railway runs along the north shore of the lake. Prior to the construction of the power project, Seton was considered the bluer and clearer and more brilliant of the two lakes. Afterwards, diversion of the glacial silt-laden waters of the Bridge River into Seton Lake have transformed it into a dull turquoise, Anderson is now considered the bluer of the two lakes; the lake was named in the 1860s by Alexander Caulfield Anderson, who traversed the uncharted territory in 1846, after his cousin and boyhood friend, Lt. Col. Alexander Seton, drowned in the wreck of the troopship HMS Birkenhead off the South African coast in 1852. In 1858 the route of the Douglas Road incorporated the lake passage. Bridge River-Lillooet Country Archive Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia Aerial view looking W Aerial view looking NW Aerial view looking NW Seton Lake Lookout Hiking Trail
Lillooet Cayoosh Flat, is a community on the Fraser River in British Columbia, about 240 kilometres up the British Columbia Railway line from Vancouver. Situated at an intersection of deep gorges in the lee of the Coast Mountains, it has a dry climate with an average of 329.5 millimetres of precipitation being recorded annually. Lillooet has a long growing season, once had prolific market gardens and orchard produce, it vies with Lytton and Osoyoos for the title of "Canada's Hot Spot" on a daily basis in summer. Lillooet is an important location in Aboriginal history and culture and remains one of the main population centres of the St'at'imc, today it is one of the southernmost communities in North America where indigenous people form the majority. Just over 50 per cent of the people in Lillooet and area are St'at'imc. First Nations communities assert the land as traditional territory since time immemorial. Considered to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited locations on the continent, the area is reckoned by archaeologists to have been inhabited for several thousand years.
The immediate area of the town attracted large seasonal and permanent populations of native peoples because of the confluence of several main streams with the Fraser and because of a rock-shelf just above the confluence of the Bridge River, an obstacle to migrating salmon. Many archaeological and heritage sites are in the vicinity of the town, including Keatley Creek Archaeological Site, one of the largest ancient pit-house communities in the Pacific North West; this rock shelf, known in gold rush times as the Lower Fountain, was reputedly made by the trickster Coyote, leaping back and forth across the river to create platforms for people to catch and dry fish on. This location, named Sat' or Setl in the native language and known as the Bridge River Rapids or Six Mile in English, is the busiest fishing site on the Fraser above its mouth and there are numerous drying racks scattered around the banks of the river canyon around it; the town had its start as one of the main centres of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858–59, during which it was reckoned to be "the largest town west of Chicago and north of San Francisco", a title held by certain other towns in British Columbia in rapid succession.
Just after this gold rush, the town's layout as it is today was surveyed by the Royal Engineers and its Main Street tied into the original Cariboo Wagon Road or Old Cariboo Road to Fort Alexandria, a huge project undertaken as a toll road by Gustavus Blin Wright, one of the many entrepreneurial personalities of the early colony. Much of its tortuous canyon-brink road grade for twenty or thirty kilometres from "Mile 0" remained in use until the 1970s; the route via the lakes to Lillooet and up Blin Wright's wagon road to the Cariboo goldfields was outflanked within a few years by the now-better known Cariboo Wagon Road via a shorter and less portage-intensive route from Yale to Barkerville via Ashcroft a few years later. Lillooeters still, consider their town to be "Mile 0" of the original Cariboo Wagon Road, it is true that the numbered roadhouse names of the Cariboo district are measured from the bend in Main Street, where a cairn was erected to commemorate this fact; the first stretch of Main Street north from the cairn is said to point due north and at one time was called "the Golden Mile" because of all the gold dust reputed to be scattered along it in its heyday, because it was the hub of supply for the surrounding goldfields.
Lillooet was named Cayoosh Flat, a name, felt to be unsavoury by the residents of the town at the time of its incorporation in 1860. Since it was at the end of the Lillooet Trail, aka the Douglas Road or Lakes Route, the Lil'wat native people farther southwest along that route spoke the same language as the native bands near town, the governor was petitioned to change the name to Lillooet, with permission for use of the name granted by the chiefs of the Lower St'at'imc at Mount Currie and agreed to by the bands of what is now the Upper St'at'imc. There have been a series of gold rushes in the surrounding region since the original one, including a large hard-rock one in the upper Bridge River Country which began in the 1880s and 1890s but had its peak from the 1930s to the 1950s, focussed on two main mining towns at Bralorne and adjacent Pioneer Mine and that area's main base town of Gold Bridge. Gold mining and prospecting continues in the area to this day, as do prospects for copper and nephrite jade, though not to the same extent.
Until the discovery of larger deposits of jade near Cassiar, the Lillooet area was the world's largest source of the nephrite form of jade. Unknown tonnes were exported to China before government assayers discovered the nature of the "black rocks" that the Chinese miners found so interesting. In the 1950s, local farmer and teacher Ron Purvis adapted the skil-saw concept by implementing a diamond rotary blade; this enabled the carving of the many immense jade boulders which line the banks and bed of the Fraser and Bridge Rivers, which were on the one hand immovable and on the other would shatter or striate if blasting was used to break them. Purvis' innovation was revolutionary in the jade mining business and larger versions of his saw are at use in the Cassiar region. There are no major commercial jade mines in the Lillooet area today, although local shops still carry polished jade souvenirs; the Golden Cache Mine located on Cayoosh Creek just West of Lillooet was believed to hold one of the richest ore bodies of gold until lack of results ended investment, though it started a local prospecting boom with various miners and companies continuing the search for rich vein
Bridge River Power Project
The Bridge River Power Project is a hydroelectric power development in the Canadian province of British Columbia, located in the Lillooet Country between Whistler and Lillooet. It harnesses the power of the Bridge River, a tributary of the Fraser, by diverting it through a mountainside to the separate drainage basin of Seton Lake, utilizing a system of three dams, four powerhouses and a canal; the potential for the project was first observed in 1912 by Geoffrey Downton, a land surveyor, visiting the goldfield towns in the area who noticed the short horizontal distance between the flow of the Bridge River, just above its impressive canyon, the much-lower Seton Lake. It was fifteen years before this observation was put to task, not until 1927 that a private company first bored a tunnel through Mission Ridge, which separates the basins of the Bridge and Seton systems; this tunnel was completed in 1931, but work on the project was suspended due to the Great Depression and the Second World War.
Construction of a powerhouse to utilize the diversion did not begin until 1946. A townsite, or employees village, was built in the 1920s adjacent to the construction site, it was developed as a model community, with a community hall, a combined rink and tennis court, lavish guest houses for visiting executives, parks, a school, a private beach and a full-service hotel which served the busy travel trade over the mountain to the goldfields towns of Bralorne and Minto. Abandoned during the 1930s, the townsite - known as "Bridge River" - was used during the war as a relocation centre for Japanese-Canadians exiled from the Coast in the wake of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, its most notable resident during that period was Masajiro Miyazaki, an osteopath, engaged by the provincial police in Lillooet to serve as coroner despite wartime restrictions, stayed on as the town doctor for years after. Miyazaki was conferred an Order of Canada award for his service to that community. Following the war, growing power requirements led to a fast-tracking of the project, the largest at the time and one of the most staggering undertaken because of the terrain and spectacular setting of the project.
Materials for the diversion dams in the Bridge River and all equipment for the powerhouse to be built at Lajoie, near Gold Bridge, had to be trucked over the 3,500-foot climb and dozens of switchbacks of the tortuous Mission Mountain Road, shared with industrial and passenger traffic to and from the busy mine towns. The only access to the railhead for that road, at Shalalth, was via the rail line itself from Lillooet and, to get there, via the old pre-Trans-Canada "Cariboo Highway" from Hope to Lytton that had not been upgraded much since it was built in the 1920s; the first generator was installed at what would become Bridge River Powerhouse No. 1 in 1948, with three more generators added by 1954, giving the plant a total output of 180,000 kilowatts - the largest in the province at that time. A second tunnel, with two large penstocks, was built to supply a second powerhouse on the far side of the townsite. Work on this powerhouse was carried out while the tunnel that would supply it was being bored, it would have four generators opening in 1960 with a generating capacity of 248,000 kilowatts.
Geoffrey Downton, the "discoverer" of the project, was invited to push the "start" button to fire up the No. 2 generators. The No. 1 Powerhouse is fed by four penstocks, the No. 2 Powerhouse by two much larger ones, which supply the water from Carpenter Lake, created by Terzaghi Dam, from the tunnels bored through Mission Mountain. Terzaghi Dam was above the pass, just below the tunnel intakes and Mission Creek, the valley on the north side of the pass, it was known as Mission Dam before being named Terzaghi Dam, after Karl Terzaghi, the "father of modern soil mechanics", the chief consultant. Another dam, Lajoie Dam, three kilometres above the gold-mining district's supply town of Gold Bridge, was built at Lajoie, 60 kilometres above the diversion dam. Construction of Lajoie Dam began in 1949 as a simple storage dam to regulate reservoir levels for the Bridge River plants, but in 1955 it was raised to its full height of 287 feet, creating Downton Lake, 534,300 acree-feet of water, elev. 2,460 feet.
A one-generator powerhouse was completed in 1957 with a capacity of 22,000 kilowatts, much of that destined to feed the power demands of the Bralorne and Pioneer Mines and their associated towns, only ten miles away, as well as other residents and towns elsewhere in the upper Bridge River valley. Terzaghi Dam, lower in crest than Lajoie Dam at 180 feet but the most important structure in the project, was completed in 1960, creating Carpenter Lake, it replaced an earlier structure, a cofferdam, built across the Bridge River to force its flow into the Powerhouse No. 1 diversion tunnel, open and operating in 1948. The rising lake waters flooded out several large ranches and homesteads in the valley, some of which dated back to the 1890s, the short-lived company town of Minto City, which lay at the confluence of Gun Creek with the former Bridge River, despite a long holdout by Wally O'Keeffe. Seton Lake existed before the project, but a small diversion dam at its outlet raised the level of the lake by about 10 feet.
From the lake's outlet, a specially built canal carries the diverted flow of the Bridge River to the last possible bit of "head" before the Fraser River, a differential of only 140' but enough to generate 42,000 kilowatts. The c
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
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