Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The sopranissimo or soprillo saxophone is the smallest member of the saxophone family. It is pitched in one octave above the soprano saxophone; because of the difficulties in building such a small instrument—the soprillo is 30 cm long, 33 cm with the mouthpiece—it is only that a true sopranissimo saxophone has been produced. The keywork only extends to a written E ♭ 6, rather than F ♯, or sometimes G, like most saxophones; the small mouthpiece requires a small and focused embouchure, making the soprillo difficult to play in its upper register. There is little market demand for soprillos, reducing the economy of scale and making the soprillo more expensive than more common saxophones like the alto or tenor; as of 2015, soprillos were being manufactured by the German instrument maker Benedikt Eppelsheim and the retail price is US$3,400. Sopranino saxophone Soprano saxophone Tubax Website dedicated to the soprillo Soprillo page from Benedikt Eppelsheim site The National Saxophone Choir of Great Britain Hear the soprillo in action with other members of the saxophone family Strange saxes page at the web site of Jay C.
Easton. Soprillo MP3s from Benedikt Eppelsheim site Soprillogy: CD dedicated to the soprillo
The subcontrabass saxophone is a type of saxophone that Adolphe Sax patented and planned to build but never constructed. Sax called, it is a transposing instrument pitched in B♭, one octave below the bass saxophone, two octaves below the tenor saxophone, three octaves and a major second below its written pitch. Until 1999, no genuine, playable subcontrabass saxophones were made, though at least two gigantic saxophones were built. Although the smaller of the two was able to produce musical tones, with assistants opening and closing its pads due to the instrument's lack of keywork, witnesses stated that it was incapable of playing a simple scale; the B♭ subcontrabass tubax, developed in 1999 by instrument manufacturer Benedikt Eppelsheim of Munich, Germany, is described by Eppelsheim as a "subcontrabass saxophone". This instrument is available in both C and B♭, with the B♭ model providing the same pitch range as the saxophone bourdon would have. A contrabass-range tubax in E♭ is available; the question of whether or not the tubax is a saxophone is debatable: it has the same fingering as a contrabass saxophone, but its bore, though conical, is narrower than that of a regular saxophone.
This makes for a more compact instrument with a "reedier" and "fatter" timbre. While some argue that the tubax is akin to the double-reed sarrusophone, the tubax's bore is much larger than that of the corresponding size of sarrusophone. Since several conical single-reed instruments with bores narrower than the saxophone are known, analogies to a double-reed instruments can only relate to range and overall dimensions; some authorities regard the tubax as a separate family of instruments rather than as a type of saxophone. A Brazilian company, J'Elle Stainer, produced a working compact subcontrabass in 2010, shown at Expomusic 2010. In September 2012, instrument manufacturer Benedikt Eppelsheim of Munich, Germany completed building the first full-size subcontrabass saxophone; this instrument stands 2.25 meters tall. In July 2013, J'Elle Stainer of Brazil completed building a 2.8-meter full-size subcontrabass saxophone. Tubax MP3 sound recording of the first movement of "Duet for Basses" by Walter Hartley, played as a B♭ Tubax duet, performed by Jay C.
The contrabass clarinet and contra-alto clarinet are the two largest members of the clarinet family that are in common usage. Modern contrabass clarinets are pitched in BB♭, sounding two octaves lower than the common B♭ soprano clarinet and one octave lower than the B♭ bass clarinet; some contrabass clarinet models have a range extending down to low E♭, while others can play down to low D or further to low C. This range, C – E, sounds B♭ – D; some early instruments were pitched in C. The contrabass clarinet is sometimes known by the name pedal clarinet, this term referring not to any aspect of the instrument's mechanism but to an analogy between its low tones and the pedal division of the organ. Subcontrabass clarinets, lower in pitch than the contrabass, have been built on only an experimental basis; the EE♭ contra-alto clarinet is sometimes referred to as the "EE♭ contrabass clarinet". The earliest known contrabass clarinet was the contre-basse guerrière invented in 1808 by a goldsmith named Dumas of Sommières.
The batyphone was a contrabass clarinet, the outcome of W. F. Wieprecht's endeavor to obtain a contrabass for the reed instruments; the batyphone was made to a scale twice the size of the clarinet in C, the divisions of the chromatic scale being arranged according to acoustic principles. For convenience in stopping holes too far apart to be covered by the fingers, crank or swivel keys were used; the instrument was constructed of maple-wood, had a clarinet mouthpiece of suitable size connected by means of a cylindrical brass crook with the upper part of the tube and a brass bell. The pitch was two octaves below the clarinet in C, the compass being the same, thus corresponding to the modern bass tuba; the tone was pleasant and full, but not powerful enough for the contrabass register in a military band. The batyphone had besides one serious disadvantage: it could be played with facility only in its nearly related keys, G and F major; the batyphone was invented and patented in 1839 by F. W. Wieprecht, director general of all the Prussian military bands, E. Skorra, the court instrument manufacturer of Berlin.
In practice the instrument was found to be of little use, was superseded by the bass tuba. A batyphone bearing the name of its inventors formed part of the Snoeck collection, acquired for Berlin's collection of ancient musical instruments at the Hochschule für Musik. Soon after Wieprecht's invention, Adolphe Sax created his clarinette-bourdon in B♭. In 1889, Fontaine-Besson began producing a new pedal clarinet; this instrument consists of a tube 10 feet long, in which cylindrical and conical bores are combined. The tube is doubled up twice upon itself. There are 13 keys and 2 rings on the tube, the fingering is the same as for the B♭ clarinet except for the eight highest semitones; the tone is rich and full except for the lowest notes, which are unavoidably a little rough in quality, but much more sonorous than the corresponding notes on the double bassoon. The upper register resembles the chalumeau register of the B ♭ clarinet, being sweet. None of these instruments saw widespread use, but they provided a basis for contrabass clarinets made beginning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by several manufacturers, notably those designed by Charles Houvenaghel for Leblanc, which were more successful.
The contra-alto clarinet is higher-pitched than the contrabass and is pitched in the key of E♭ rather than B♭. The unhyphenated form "contra alto clarinet" is sometimes used, as is "contralto clarinet", but the latter is confusing since the instrument's range is much lower than the contralto vocal range, it is referred to as the E♭ contrabass clarinet and the great bass It is the second-largest member of the clarinet family in regular use, larger than the more common bass clarinet but not as large as the B♭ contrabass clarinet. Like other clarinets, the contra-alto clarinet is a wind instrument that uses a reed to produce sound; the keys of the contra-alto are similar to the keys on smaller clarinets, are played in the same way. Some contra-alto clarinet models have a range extending down to low E♭, sounding as the lowest G♭ on the piano, while others can play down to low C; the earliest contra-alto clarinets were developed in the first half of the nineteenth century. Albert built an instrument in F around 1890.
In the late 19th and early 20th century contra-alto clarinets in EE♭ attained some degree of popularity. The contra-alto clarinet is used in concert bands and clarinet choirs, where it though not always, plays the bass line of a piece of music. While there are few parts written for it, the contra-alto can play the baritone saxophone part and sounds the same pitch, it is used in jazz, a few solo pieces have been written for it. The contra-alto clarinet is used in a few Broadway pit orchestras, with its parts being written in reed books as a doubler instrument (e.g. with sop
The E-flat clarinet is a member of the clarinet family. It is considered the sopranino or piccolo member of the clarinet family. Smaller in size and higher in pitch than the more common B♭ clarinet, it is a transposing instrument in E♭, sounding a minor third higher than written. In Italian it is sometimes referred to as a terzino and is listed in B♭-based scores as terzino in Mi♭, The E♭ clarinet is used in orchestras, concert bands, marching bands, plays a central role in clarinet choirs, carrying the high melodies that would be treacherous for the B♭ clarinet. Solo repertoire is limited; the E♭ clarinet is required to play at the top of its range for much of the time to take advantage of its piercing quality. Fingerings in that register are more awkward than on the lower part of the instrument, making high, fast passages difficult. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the clarinet in high F took this role until the E♭ clarinet took over beginning sometime in the second decade of the 1800s.
Although the E♭ is somewhat of a rarity in school bands, it is a staple instrument in college and other upper level ensembles. Unlike the B♭ soprano clarinet which has numerous musicians performing on each part, the E♭ clarinet part is played by only one musician in a typical concert band; this is because the E♭ clarinet has a bright, shrill sound similar to the sound of the piccolo. It plays the role of a garnish instrument along with the piccolo, duo segments between the two instruments are quite common; the E♭ clarinet is heard playing along with the flutes and/or oboes. Important soloistic parts in standard band repertoire for the E♭ clarinet include the second movement of Gustav Holst's First Suite in E-flat for Military Band and his piece "Hammersmith", Paul Hindemith's Symphony in B-flat for Band, Gordon Jacob's William Byrd Suite; the E♭ clarinet is a featured player in modern wind band repertoire, such as Adam Gorb's Yiddish Dances, where it takes on a solo role for much of the five-movement piece.
While most E♭ clarinets are built and marketed for professionals or advanced students, an inexpensive plastic E♭ clarinet dubbed the "Kinder-Klari" has been produced for beginning children's use. It has a simplified fingering system, lacking some of alternative fingerings; the larger D clarinet is rare, although it was common in the early and mid-eighteenth century. From the end of that century to the present it has become less common than the clarinets in E♭, B♭, A, or C. Handel’s Overture in D major for two clarinets and horn was written for two D clarinets. D clarinets were once employed by some composers to be used by one player equipped with instruments in D and E♭ — analogous to a player using instruments in B♭ and A. In modern performance, it is normal to transpose D clarinet parts for E♭ clarinet; the rationale underlying a composer's choice between E♭ and D clarinet is difficult to discern and can seem perverse when the option not chosen would be easier for the player to execute. For instance, the original version of Arnold Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony No. 1 is for E♭ clarinet while the orchestral version is for D.
Certain passages of Maurice Ravel's Daphnis et Chloe, are set in concert D but are scored for E♭ clarinet, with the effect that some fingerings in those passages are difficult on the E-flat clarinet, forced to play in its B major, but would be much easier on a D clarinet, which would play in its C major. Another famous example is the D clarinet part of Richard Strauss's Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche. Solo literature for these instruments is sparse; the following are notable: Johann Melchior Molter: Six Clarinet Concerti. Concerti by Jerome Neff and William Neil. Ernesto Cavallini: Carnival of Venice variations, Fantasia on a Theme from Ultimo Giorno Di Pomeii, I figli di Eduardo 4th. Henri Rabaud: "Solo de Concours" for E♭ clarinet. Amilcare Ponchielli: Quartetto for B♭ and E♭ clarinets and oboe, with piano accompaniment. Giacinto Scelsi: "Tre Pezzi for E♭ Clarinet" William Bolcom: "Suite of Four Dances for E♭ Clarinet" Manuel Lillo Torregrosa: "Teren Rof", "Vivencias", "Obviam ire siglo", "Angular": Concerts 1, 2, 3, 4 for E♭ Clarinet and Band Arnold Schoenberg: Suite, op.
29. Anton Webern: Drei Lieder fur Singstimme, Es-Klarinette und Gitarre Op.18. Parts written for D clarinet are played on the more popular E♭ clarinet, with the player transposing or playing from a written part transposed a semitone lower. Orchestral compositions and operas with notable E♭ or D clarinet solos include: Hector Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique Maurice Ravel: Boléro Richard Strauss: Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche Igor Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring Dmitri Shostakovich - Symphony No. 6, The Age of Gold Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk Gustav Mahler - Symphony No. 1 in D Major Other orchestral compositions and operas making extensive use of E♭ or D clarinet include: Béla Bartók - Bluebeard's Castle, Miraculous Mandarin Leonard Bernstein - Candide, West Side Story, On the Town, Divertimento for Orchestra, Slava! A Political Overture Aaron Copland - El Salon Mexico Edward Elgar - Symphony No. 2 Leoš Janáček - Sinfonietta Gustav Mahler - Symphonies Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (4th movement
The contrabassoon known as the double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon, sounding an octave lower. Its technique is similar to its smaller cousin, with a few notable differences; the reed is larger than the bassoon's, at 65–75 mm in total length as compared to 53–58 mm for most bassoon reeds. The large blades allow ample vibration; the contrabassoon reed is similar to an average bassoon's in that scraping the reed affects both the intonation and response of the instrument. The fingering of the contrabassoon is different than that of the bassoon at the register change and in the extreme high range; the instrument is twice as long, curves around on itself twice, due to its weight and shape, is supported by an endpin rather than a seat strap. Additional support is sometimes given by a strap around the player's neck. A wider hand position is required, as the primary finger keys are spaced; the contrabassoon has a water key to expel condensation and a tuning slide for gross pitch adjustments.
The instrument comes in a few pieces. Sometimes, the bell can be detached, instruments with a low A extension come in two parts; the contrabassoon is a deep sounding woodwind instrument that plays in the same sub-bass register as the tuba and the contrabass versions of the clarinet and saxophone. It has a sounding range beginning at B♭0 and extending up three octaves and a major third to D4. Donald Erb and Kalevi Aho write higher in their concertos for the instrument; the instrument is notated an octave above sounding pitch in bass clef, with tenor or treble clef called for in high passages. Tonally, it sounds much like the bassoon except for a distinctive organ pedal quality in the lowest octave of its range which provides a solid underpinning to the orchestra or concert band; the lowest range, in comparison with the bassoon, can be played more than the bassoon can. Although the instrument can have a distinct'buzz', which becomes a clatter in the extreme low range, this is nothing more than a variance of tone quality which can be remediated by appropriate reed design changes.
While prominent in solo and small ensemble situations, the sound can be obscured in the volume of the full orchestra or concert band. Precursors to the contrabassoon are documented as early as 1590 in Austria and Germany, at a time when the growing popularity of doubling the bass line led to the development of lower-pitched dulcians. Examples of these low-pitched dulcians include the octavebass, the quintfaggot, the quartfaggot. There is evidence that a contrafagott was used in Frankfurt in 1626. Baroque precursors to the contrabassoon developed in France in the 1680's, in England in the 1690's, independent of the dulcian developments in Austria and Germany during the previous century; the contrabassoon was developed in England, in the mid-18th century. It was around that time; some notable early uses of the contrabassoon during this period include in J. S. Bach's St. John's Passion, G. F. Handel's Music for the Royal Fireworks; until the late 19th century, the instrument had a weak tone and poor intonation.
For this reason, the contrabass woodwind parts were scored for, contrabassoon parts were played on, contrabass sarrusophone or, less reed contrabass, until improvements by Heckel in the late 19th century secured the contrabassoon's place as the standard double reed contrabass. For more than a century, between 1880 and 2000, Heckel’s design remained unchanged. Chip Owen at the American company, began manufacturing an instrument in 1971 with some improvements. During the 20th century changes to the instrument were limited to an upper vent key near the bocal socket, a tuning slide, a few key linkages to facilitate technical passages. In 2000, Heckel announced a new keywork for its instrument and Fox introduced its own new key system based on input from New York Philharmonic contrabassoonist Arlan Fast. Both companies' improvements allow for improved technical facility as well as greater range in the high register. Most major orchestras use one contrabassoonist, either as a primary player or a bassoonist who doubles, as do a large number of symphonic bands.
The contrabassoon is a supplementary orchestral instrument and is most found in larger symphonic works doubling the bass trombone or tuba at the octave. Frequent exponents of such scoring were Brahms and Mahler, as well as Richard Strauss, Dmitri Shostakovich; the first composer to write a separate contrabassoon part in a symphony was Beethoven, in his Fifth Symphony, although Bach, Handel and Mozart had used it in other genres. Composers have used the contrabassoon to comical or sinister effect by taking advantage of its seeming "clumsiness" and its sepulchral rattle, respectively. A clear examp
The clarinette d'amour is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. In comparison with the B♭ and A soprano clarinets, the clarinette d'amour had a similar shape and construction, but was larger pitched in G. However, it had proportionally smaller tone holes and bore, a pear-shaped or sometimes globular bell similar to that of the cor anglais, it first appeared around the middle of the 18th century and was popular in central Europe, but was regarded as obsolete by the mid 19th century. It has been conjectured that the basset horn, which shares the features of low pitch and small bore, was developed from the clarinette d'amour. Oboe d'amore F. Geoffrey Rendall; the Clarinet. 2nd ed. London: Ernest Benn, 1957