Shills can carry out their operations in the areas of media, marketing, confidence games, or other business areas. A shill may act to discredit opponents or critics of the person or organization in which they have a vested interest through character assassination or other means. The person or group in league with the shill relies on crowd psychology to encourage other onlookers or audience members to do business with the seller or accept the ideas they are promoting, Shills may be employed by salespeople and professional marketing campaigns. For example, a person planted in an audience to laugh and applaud when desired, shill can be used pejoratively to describe a critic who appears either all-too-eager to heap glowing praise upon mediocre offerings, or who acts as an apologist for glaring flaws. The origin of the term shill is uncertain, it may be an abbreviation of shillaber, the word originally denoted a carnival worker who pretended to be a member of the audience in an attempt to elicit interest in an attraction.
Some sources trace the usage back to 1914, in academia, this is called opinion spamming. Web sites can be set up for the same purpose, in addition, some shills use sock puppetry, where they sign on as one user soliciting recommendations for a specific product or service. They sign on as a different user pretending to be a customer of a specific company. In some jurisdictions and circumstances, this type of activity may be illegal, for example, the plastic surgery company Lifestyle Lift ordered their employees to post fake positive reviews on websites. As a result, they were sued, and ordered to pay $300,000 in damages by the New York Attorney Generals office, both the illegal and legal gambling industries often use shills to make winning at games appear more likely than it actually is. For example, illegal three-card monte and shell-game peddlers are notorious employers of shills and these shills often aid in cheating, disrupting the game if the mark is likely to win. In a legal casino, however, a shill is sometimes a gambler who plays using the money in order to keep games going when there are not enough players.
The title of one of Erle Stanley Gardners mystery novels, Shills Cant Cash Chips, is derived from type of shill. This is different from proposition players who are paid a salary by the casino for the same purpose, in marketing, shills are often employed to assume the air of satisfied customers and give testimonials to the merits of a given product. This type of shilling is illegal in some jurisdictions but almost impossible to detect, Shills, or potted plants, are sometimes employed in auctions. Driving prices up with phony bids, they seek to provoke a war among other participants. Often they are told by the seller precisely how high to bid, as the seller pays the price if the item does not sell. Shilling has a higher rate of occurrence in online auctions
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Trades Union Congress
The Trades Union Congress is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in England and Wales, representing the majority of trade unions. There are fifty-one affiliated unions with a total of about 5.8 million members, the TUC refers to themselves as the voice of Britain at work. The current General Secretary is Frances OGrady, the TUCs decision-making body is the Annual Congress, which takes place in September. Between congresses decisions are made by the General Council, which every two months. An Executive Committee is elected by the Council from its members, affiliated unions can send delegates to Congress, with the number of delegates they can send proportionate to their size. Each year Congress elects a President of the Trades Union Congress, the TUC is not affiliated to the Labour Party. At election time the TUC cannot endorse a particular party by name, however it can point to policies that it believes would be positive for workers’ rights, or to social cohesion and community welfare.
It can politically campaign against policies that it believes would be injurious to workers, the TUC runs the Tolpuddle Martyrs Museum and annual Tolpuddle Martyrs Festival and Rally commemorating the Tolpuddle Martyrs and their impact on trade unionism. The TUC Library preserves documents related to history in Britain. It was established in 1922 and now focuses on expanding the online, the TUC archives are held at the Modern Records Centre at the University of Warwick Library. The archive contains files from c1920 -1991 consisting of correspondence and external documents, reports, printed material, the TUC campaigns on a wide range of issues relating to the experience of people at work. Notably, the TUC succeeded in forcing Sports Direct to undergo an independent review into their treatment of workers in September 2016, in October 2016, the TUCs campaign against the Trade Union Bill won Best Public Affairs Campaign at the PR Week Awards. The TUCs Campaign Priorities for 2016-17 are,1, working people must not pay the price of the vote to leave the EU2.
Standing up for abandoned communities 3, reaching out to young workers 5. Building a stronger movement after the union act In 1948 the NHS was created as a result of union campaigning. In 1970 the Equal Pay Act made it illegal for employers to give a woman worker different pay, in 1999 the National Minimum Wage was established to protect low-paid workers. In 1999 a limit was placed on working hours, largely as a health and this was quickly followed by a minimum holiday entitlement. In 2007 the no-smoking ban was introduced in areas in response to union arguments that workers were risking their health
Premiership of David Cameron
The premiership of David Cameron began on 11 May 2010 when Cameron accepted the Queens invitation to form a government. This occurred upon the resignation of Camerons predecessor as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, while serving as Prime Minister, Cameron served as First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service and Leader of the Conservative Party. As one of his first moves Cameron appointed Nick Clegg, the leader of the Liberal Democrats, between them, the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats controlled 363 seats in the House of Commons, with a majority of 76 seats. After the 2015 general election, Cameron remained Prime Minister, this time at the head of a Conservative-only government with a majority of 12 seats. Following the vote by the British public to leave the European Union in a 2016 referendum, the Prime Minister, who had campaigned against leaving the EU, said that he had informed the Queen of his decision before going to the public. Speaking outside of 10 Downing Street, he remarked that fresh leadership needed to come in and he officially resigned as Prime Minister on 13 July 2016, following the unopposed victory of Theresa May in the leadership election on 11 July.
At the 2010 general election on 6 May, the Conservative Party achieved its highest number of seats since the 1992 election, however, it was still 20 seats short of an overall majority, resulting in the nations first hung parliament since February 1974. Talks between Cameron and Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg led to a coalition of the two parties, enabling the Queen to invite Cameron to form a government and become Prime Minister. Cameron and his wife Samantha Cameron were driven from Buckingham Palace, Cameron paid tribute to the outgoing Labour government and his predecessor Gordon Brown. He went on to describe the difficult decisions to reach better times ahead, Cameron met with his partys MPs on 11 May, whose cheers of jubilation were heard from the central hall of the Commons. It is likely that he explained the details of any coalition agreements made between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats. Cameron made his first official visits as Prime Minister in May and his first trip to a foreign country was on 20 May to France where he met with the French President Nicolas Sarkozy.
He visited Germany on 21 May where he talks with Chancellor Angela Merkel. A press conference on the new cabinet took place on 12 May 2010, it was confirmed that William Hague had assumed the post of Foreign Secretary and the new Home Secretary would be Theresa May. Camerons cabinet included Clegg and four other Liberal Democrats, Danny Alexander, Vince Cable, Chris Huhne, the government announced a policy, called Plan A, of eliminating the structural deficit and ensuring that the debt-to-GDP ratio started falling by the end of the parliament in 2015. To facilitate this goal, the Office for Budget Responsibility and a spending review were created. While several government agencies have enacted spending decreases, funding policies for the National Health Service and for overseas development have been exempt. In February 2013, the UK lost its AAA credit rating, by 2015 the annual deficit had been cut by about half, so the debt-to-GDP ratio was still rising
Quackery is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices. The term quack is a form of the archaic term quacksalver, from Dutch. In the Middle Ages the term quack meant shouting, the quacksalvers sold their wares on the market shouting in a loud voice. Common elements of general quackery include questionable diagnoses using questionable diagnostic tests, as well as untested or refuted treatments, quackery is often described as health fraud with the salient characteristic of aggressive promotion. To be both quackery and fraud, the quack must know they are misrepresenting the benefits and risks of the services offered. This definition would include questionable ideas as well as products and services. In line with this definition, the word fraud would be reserved only for situations in which deliberate deception is involved, usually ineffective, and sometimes dangerous medicines and treatments have been peddled throughout human history. Theatrical performances were given to enhance the credibility of purported medicines.
Even where no fraud was intended, quack remedies often contained no effective ingredients whatsoever, some remedies contained substances such as opium and honey, which would have given symptomatic relief but had no curative properties. Some would have addictive qualities to entice the buyer to return, the few effective remedies sold by quacks included emetics and diuretics. However, knowledge of appropriate uses and dosages was limited, R. W. Donnell coined the phrase quackademic medicine to describe this attention given to alternative medicine by academia. Referring to the Flexner Report, he said that medical education needs a good Flexnerian housecleaning, for example, David Gorski criticized Brian M. Daffys Elixir and Turlingtons Balsam were among the first products that used branding and mass marketing to create and maintain markets. A similar process occurred in countries of Europe around the same time, for example with the marketing of Eau de Cologne as a cure-all medicine by Johann Maria Farina.
The number of internationally marketed quack medicines increased in the 18th century, by 1830, British parliamentary records list over 1,300 different proprietary medicines, the majority of which were quack cures by modern standards. A Dutch organisation that opposes quackery, Vereniging tegen de Kwakzalverij was founded in 1881 and it has published its magazine Nederlands Tijdschrift tegen de Kwakzalverij ever since. In these early years the VtdK played a part in the professionalisation of medicine and its efforts in the public debate helped to make the Netherlands one of the first countries with governmental drug regulation. In 1909, in an attempt to stop the sale of quack medicines and this publication was originally a series of articles published in the British Medical Journal between 1904 and 1909. The publication was composed of 20 chapters, organising the work by sections according to the ailments the medicines claimed to treat, the book did lead to the end of some of the quack cures, but some survived the book by several decades
Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals and trusts. Tax evasion is an activity associated with the informal economy. In contrast, tax avoidance is the use of tax laws to reduce ones tax burden. In 1968, Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker first theorized the economics of crime, allingham and A. Sandmo produced, in 1972, an economic model of tax evasion. This model deals with the evasion of tax, the main source of tax revenue in developed countries. According to the authors, the level of evasion of income tax depends on the detection probability, the literatures theoretical models are elegant in their effort to identify the variables likely to affect non-compliance. Alternative specifications, yield conflicting results concerning both the signs and magnitudes of variables believed to affect tax evasion, empirical work is required to resolve the theoretical ambiguities. Income tax evasion appears to be influenced by the tax rate, the unemployment rate. The U. S. Tax Reform Act of 1986 appears to have reduced tax evasion in the United States, customs duties are an important source of revenue in developing countries.
Importers purport to evade customs duty by under-invoicing and misdeclaration of quantity, when there is ad valorem import duty, the tax base can be reduced through underinvoicing. Misdeclaration of quantity is more relevant for products with specific duty, production description is changed to match a H. S. Code commensurate with a lower rate of duty. Smuggling is importation or exportation of products by illegal means. Smuggling is resorted to for total evasion of customs duties, as well as for the importation of contraband, during the second half of the 20th century, value-added tax emerged as a modern form of consumption tax throughout the world, with the notable exception of the United States. Producers who collect VAT from consumers may evade tax by under-reporting the amount of sales, the US has no broad-based consumption tax at the federal level, and no state currently collects VAT, the overwhelming majority of states instead collect sales taxes. Canada uses both a VAT at the level and sales taxes at the provincial level, some provinces have a single tax combining both forms.
In addition, most jurisdictions which levy a VAT or sales tax legally require their residents to report and this is especially prevalent in federal countries like Nigeria, US and Canada where sub-national jurisdictions charge varying rates of VAT or sales tax. In Nigeria, for example, some federated states enforce VAT on each item of goods sold by traders, the price must be clearly stated and the VAT shown separately from the basic price. If the trader does not comply this is punishable as an attempt to siphon the VAT, therefore, it is not generally cost-effective to enforce tax collection on low-value goods carried in private vehicles from one jurisdiction to another with a different tax rate
The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system. The prosecution is the party responsible for presenting the case in a criminal trial against an individual accused of breaking the law. Prosecutors are typically lawyers who possess a law degree, and are recognized as legal professionals by the court in which they intend to represent society and they usually only become involved in a criminal case once a suspect has been identified and charges need to be filed. They are typically employed by an office of the government, with safeguards in place to such an office can successfully pursue the prosecution of government officials. Often, multiple offices exist in a country, especially those countries with federal governments where sovereignty has been bifurcated or devolved in some way. Since prosecutors are backed by the power of the state, they are subject to special professional responsibility rules in addition to those binding all lawyers.
For example, in the United States, Rule 3.8 of the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct requires prosecutors to make timely disclosure to the defense of all evidence or information and that tends to negate the guilt of the accused or mitigates the offense. Not all U. S. states adopt the rules, however, U. S. Supreme Court cases. Typical sources of requirements imposed on prosecutors come from appellate court opinions, state or federal court rules. A DPP may be subject to varying degrees of control by the Attorney General, in Australia, the Offices of the Director of Public Prosecutions institute prosecutions for indictable offences on behalf of the Crown. More recent constitutions, such as South Africas, tend to guarantee the independence, in Canada, public prosecutors in most provinces are called Crown Attorney or Crown Counsel. They are generally appointed by the provincial Attorney-General, though Scots law is a mixed system, its civil law jurisdiction indicates its civil law heritage.
Here, all prosecutions are carried out by Procurators Fiscal and Advocates Depute on behalf of the Lord Advocate, in very serious cases, a Procurator Fiscal, Advocate Depute or even the Lord Advocate, may take charge of a police investigation. Other remedies are open to a prosecutor in Scotland, including fines and non-court based interventions, such as rehabilitation. All prosecutions are handled within the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, Procurators fiscal will usually refer cases involving minors to Childrens Hearings, which are not courts of law, but a panel of lay members empowered to act in the interests of the child. In the United States, the director of an office may be known by any of several names depending on the jurisdiction. Prosecutors are most often chosen through local elections, and typically hire other attorneys as deputies or assistants to conduct most of the work of the office. United States Attorneys, appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, represent the government in federal court