Birmingham Small Arms Company
This article is not about Gamo subsidiary BSA Guns Limited or BSA Company or its successors. At its peak, BSA was the largest motorcycle producer in the world, in the late 1950s and early 1960s poor management and failure to develop new products in the motorcycle division led to a dramatic decline of sales to its major USA market. The management had failed to appreciate the importance of the resurgent Japanese motorcycle industry, the original company, The Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited, remains a subsidiary of Manganese Bronze but its name was changed in 1987. BSA began in June 1861 in the Gun Quarter, England and it was formed by a group of fourteen gunsmith members of the Birmingham Small Arms Trade Association. The War Office provided this new grouping of gunsmiths free access to technical drawings, the newly formed company purchased 25 acres of land at Small Heath, built a factory there and made a road on the site calling it Armoury Road. This machinery brought to Birmingham manifested the principle of the inter-changeability of parts, BSAs resort to the use of machinery was rewarded in 1863 with an order for 20,000 Turkish infantry rifles. F.
Swinburn under the chairmanship of John Dent Goodman, the first War Office contract was not agreed until 1868. In 1879, the factory, without work, was shut for a year, the military arms trade was precarious. The next year BSA branched out into bicycle manufacture, the gun factory proved remarkably adaptable to the manufacture of cycle parts. What cycles needed was large quantities of standard parts accurately machined at low prices, bicycle production ceased in 1887 as the company concentrated on producing the Lee–Metford magazine-loading rifle for the War Office which was re-equipping the British Army with it. The order was for 1,200 rifles per week, BSA recommenced manufacturing bicycles on their own behalf from 1908. BSA Cycles Ltd was set up in 1919 for the manufacture of bicycles and motorcycles. BSA sold the business to Raleigh in 1957 after separating the bicycle and motorcycle business in 1953. In 1893, BSA commenced making bicycle hubs and continued to supply the cycle trade with bicycle parts up to 1936, BSA bought The Eadie Manufacturing Company of Redditch in 1907 and so began to manufacture the Eadie two speed hub gear and the Eadie coaster brake hub.
BSA signed an agreement with the Three Speed Gear Syndicate in 1907 to manufacture a 3 speed hub under licence. This was classified as the Sturmey Archer Type X. BSA introduced a Duo hub in the late 1930s which was capable of one fixed gear, all BSA hub gear production temporarily ceased in 1939, until they recommenced making their 3 speed hub around 1945. The Eadie coaster hub made a return in 1953 on two BSA bicycle models. BSA forever ceased production of their hub gears in 1955, BSA sold its ammunition business in 1897 to Birmingham Metal and Munitions Company Limited part of the Nobel-Dynamite Trust, through Kynoch a forerunner of ICI
Vespa is an Italian brand of scooter manufactured by Piaggio. The name means wasp in Italian, the Vespa has evolved from a single model motor scooter manufactured in 1946 by Piaggio & Co. S. p. A. of Pontedera, Italy to a line of scooters. Post World War II Italy, in light of its agreement to cessation of war activities with the Allies, had its aircraft industry severely restricted in capability and capacity. Piaggio emerged from the conflict with its Pontedera fighter plane plant demolished by bombing, italys crippled economy and the disastrous state of the roads did not assist in the re-development of the automobile markets. In 1944, Piaggio engineers Renzo Spolti and Vittorio Casini designed a motorcycle with bodywork fully enclosing the drivetrain, in addition to the bodywork, the design included handlebar-mounted controls, forced air cooling, wheels of small diameter, and a tall central section that had to be straddled. Officially known as the MP5, the prototype was nicknamed Paperino, Piaggio was displeased with the MP5, especially the tall central section.
He contracted aeronautical engineer Corradino DAscanio, to redesign the scooter, dAscanios MP6 prototype had its engine mounted beside the rear wheel. The wheel was directly from the transmission, eliminating the drive chain. The prototype had a unit spar frame with stress-bearing steel outer panels and these changes allowed the MP6 to have a step-through design without a centre section like that of the MP5 Paperino. The MP6 design included a single sided front suspension, interchangeable front and rear mounted on stub axles. Other features of the MP6 were similar to those on the Paperino, including the handlebar-mounted controls, upon seeing the MP6 for the first time, Enrico Piaggio exclaimed, Sembra una vespa. Piaggio effectively named his new scooter on the spot, Vespa is both Latin and Italian for wasp—derived from the vehicles body shape, The thicker rear part connected to the front part by a narrow waist, and the steering rod resembled antennae. On 23 April 1946, at 12 oclock in the office for inventions and makes of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce in Florence. S. p. A. took out a patent for a motorcycle of a complexity of organs and elements combined with a frame with mudguards.
The basic patented design allowed a series of features to be deployed on the spar-frame that would allow quick development of new models. The original Vespa featured a rear seat for a passenger. The fuel cap was located underneath the seat, which saved the cost of a lock on the fuel cap or need for additional metal work on the smooth skin
A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine. This gives each intake cycle of the more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work. Power for the supercharger can be provided mechanically by means of a belt, shaft, when power is provided by a turbine powered by exhaust gas, a supercharger is known as a turbosupercharger – typically referred to simply as a turbocharger or just turbo. Common usage restricts the term supercharger to mechanically driven units, in 1848 or 1849 G. Jones of Birmingham, England brought out a Roots-style compressor. The worlds first functional, actually tested engine supercharger was made by Dugald Clerk, gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for supercharging an internal combustion engine in 1885. Louis Renault patented a centrifugal supercharger in France in 1902, an early supercharged race car was built by Lee Chadwick of Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1908 which reportedly reached a speed of 100 mph.
The worlds first series-produced cars with superchargers were Mercedes 6/25/40 hp, both models were introduced in 1921 and had Roots superchargers. They were distinguished as Kompressor models, the origin of the Mercedes-Benz badging which continues today, on March 24,1878 Heinrich Krigar of Germany obtained patent #4121, patenting the first ever screw-type compressor. Later that same year on August 16 he obtained patent #7116 after modifying and improving his original designs and his designs show a two-lobe rotor assembly with each rotor having the same shape as the other. Although the design resembled the Roots style compressor, the screws were clearly shown with 180 degrees of twist along their length, the technology of the time was not sufficient to produce such a unit, and Heinrich made no further progress with the screw compressor. Nearly half a century later, in 1935, Alf Lysholm and he patented the method for machining the compressor rotors. There are two types of superchargers defined according to the method of gas transfer, positive displacement.
Positive displacement blowers and compressors deliver an almost constant level of pressure increase at all engine speeds, dynamic compressors do not deliver pressure at low speeds, above a threshold speed, pressure increases with engine speed. Positive-displacement pumps deliver a nearly fixed volume of air per revolution at all speeds, Roots superchargers are external compression only. External compression refers to pumps that transfer air at ambient pressure into the engine, if the engine is running under boost conditions, the pressure in the intake manifold is higher than that coming from the supercharger. That causes a backflow from the engine into the supercharger until the two reach equilibrium and it is the backflow that actually compresses the incoming gas. This is an inefficient process and the factor in the lack of efficiency of Roots superchargers when used at high boost levels. The lower the boost level the smaller is this loss, and Roots blowers are very efficient at moving air at low pressure differentials, all the other types have some degree of internal compression
Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5. A shotgun is generally a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled, preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were widely used by armies in the 18th century. The direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control. It was often used by cavalry troops because of its shorter length and ease of use. In the 19th century, these weapons were replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms. The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, since then, it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, and military applications. The shot pellets from a spread upon leaving the barrel, and the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful primarily for hunting birds, however, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarters combat weapon or a defensive weapon.
Militants or insurgents may use shotguns in asymmetric engagements, as shotguns are commonly owned civilian weapons in many countries, shotguns are used for target shooting sports such as skeet and sporting clays. These involve shooting clay disks, known as clay pigeons, thrown in various ways, shotguns come in a wide variety of forms, from very small up to massive punt guns, and in nearly every type of firearm operating mechanism. The common characteristics that make a unique center around the requirements of firing shot. These features are the typical of a shotgun shell, namely a relatively short, wide cartridge, with straight walls. Ammunition for shotguns is referred to in the USA as shotgun shells, the term cartridges is standard usage in the United Kingdom. The shot is fired from a smoothbore barrel, another configuration is the rifled slug barrel. The typical use of a shotgun is against small and fast moving targets, the spreading of the shot allows the user to point the shotgun close to the target, rather than having to aim precisely as in the case of a single projectile.
The disadvantages of shot are limited range and limited penetration of the shot, which is why shotguns are used at short ranges, and typically against smaller targets. Larger shot sizes, up to the case of the single projectile slug load, result in increased penetration. Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, First, it has enormous stopping power at short range, more than nearly all handguns and many rifles
Norton Motorcycle Company
The Norton Motorcycle Company is a British motorcycle marque, originally from Birmingham, UK. It was founded in 1898 as a manufacturer of fittings and parts for the two-wheel trade, by 1902, the company began manufacturing motorcycles with bought-in engines. In 1908, a Norton-built engine was added to the range and this began a long series of production of single and eventually twin-cylinder motorcycles, and a long history of racing involvement. Production of the military Model 16 H and Big 4 sidevalve motorcycles was Nortons contribution to the WWII war effort, when major shareholders started to leave Norton in 1953, the company declined and Associated Motor Cycles bought the shares. Although motorcycle sales went through a recession in the 1950s, and Norton Motors Ltd was only a small manufacturer, Norton sales flourished. A series of Norton Dominator Twins of 500 cc, 600 cc, 650 cc and the 750 cc Norton Atlas kept sales buoyant, especially with sales to the USA. In 1968, the new 750 cc Norton Commando Model appeared and this kept the vibrations from the rider, giving a smooth comfortable ride.
The Commando was a best seller, and voted #1 Motorcycle of the Year a number of times in Britain,850 cc models appeared for 1973, giving more torque. For 1975 an electric start arrived in the 850 Mk3, the largest UK motorcycle manufacturer at the time was BSA-Triumph, comprising Birmingham Small Arms Company in Birmingham, and Triumph Motorcycles in Meriden. BSA-Triumph faced difficulties caused by poor management, outdated union practices, old-fashioned motorcycle designs, the Triumph factory Meriden was the least modern, but workers engaged in a sit-in, forming a workers co-operative. Poore was CEO of Manganese Bronze Holdings, an apparently more concerned with asset stripping than with motorcycle production. Subsequent political manoeuvrings led to the downfall of NVT, as taxpayer-assisted wranglings over amalgamations and sell-offs all, the original company was formed by James Lansdowne Norton at 320, Bradford Street, Birmingham, in 1898. In 1902, Norton began building motorcycles with French and Swiss engines, in 1907, a Norton ridden by Rem Fowler won the twin-cylinder class in the first Isle of Man TT race, beginning a sporting tradition that went on until the 1960s.
The first Norton engines were made in 1907, with production models available from 1908 and these were the 3.5 hp and the Big 4, beginning a line of side-valve single-cylinder engines which continued with few changes until the late 1950s. The first Norton logo was a simple, art nouveau design. However, a new logo appeared on the front of the catalogue for 1914 and it became known as the curly N logo, with only the initial letter as a capital, and was used by the company thereafter, first appearing on actual motorcycles in 1915. Ethel Norton did some testing of her fathers motorcycles, in 1913 the business declined, and R. T. Shelley & Co. the main creditors and saved it, Norton Motors Ltd was formed shortly afterwards under joint directorship of James Norton and Bob Shelley
Triumph Engineering Co Ltd was a British motorcycle manufacturing company, based originally in Coventry and in Solihull at Meriden. A new company, Triumph Motorcycles Ltd based in Hinckley gained the rights after the end of the company in the 1980s and is now one of the worlds major motorcycle manufacturers. The company was started by Siegfried Bettmann, who had emigrated from Nuremberg, part of the German Empire, in 1884, aged 20, Bettmann had founded his own company, the S. Bettmann & Co. Bettmanns original products were bicycles, which the company bought and sold under its own name, Bettmann distributed sewing machines imported from Germany. In 1886, Bettmann sought a more specific name, and the became known as the Triumph Cycle Company. A year later, the company was registered as the New Triumph Co, now with funding from the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company. During that year, another native of Nuremberg, Moritz Schulte, Schulte encouraged Bettmann to transform Triumph into a manufacturing company, and in 1888 Bettmann purchased a site in Coventry using money lent by his and Schultes families.
The company began producing the first Triumph-branded bicycles in 1889, in 1896 Triumph opened a bicycle factory in Nuremberg. In 1898 Triumph decided to extend production at Coventry to include motorcycles, in 1903, after selling more than 500 motorcycles, Triumph began motorcycle production at the Nuremberg factory. By the end of year, the company had produced more than 250. In 1907, after the company opened a plant, it produced 1,000 machines. Triumph had initiated a lower-end brand, manufactured in the original plant. Confusion between motorcycles produced by the Coventry and Nuremberg Triumph companies resulted in the products being renamed Orial for certain export markets. However, a company named Orial already existed in France, so the Nuremberg motorcycles were renamed again as TWN, the beginning of the First World War was a boost for the company as production was switched to provide for the Allied war effort. More than 30,000 motorcycles—among them the Model H Roadster known as the Trusty Triumph, after the war and Schulte disagreed about planning, with Schulte wishing to replace bicycle production with cars.
Harry Ricardo produced an engine for their latest motorbike, by the mid-1920s Triumph had become one of Britains main motorcycle and car makers, with a 500,000 square feet plant capable of producing as many as 30,000 motorcycles and cars each year. Triumph found its bicycles demanded overseas, and export sales became a source of the companys revenues, although for the United States. The companys first automotive success was the Super Seven model, which debuted in 1928, soon after, the Super Eight model was developed
A starter is a device used to rotate an internal-combustion engine so as to initiate the engines operation under its own power. Starters can be electric, hydraulic, or in case of large engines. Internal-combustion engines are feedback systems, once started, rely on the inertia from each cycle to initiate the next cycle. In a four-stroke engine, the third stroke releases energy from the fuel, powering the fourth stroke, to start the first cycle at the beginning of any particular session, the first two strokes must be powered in some other way than from the engine itself. The starter motor is used for purpose and is not required once the engine starts running. The hand-crank method was used to start engines, but it was inconvenient, difficult. The behavior of an engine during starting is not always predictable, the engine can kick back, causing sudden reverse rotation. Many manual starters included a slip or release provision so that once engine rotation began. In the event of a kickback, the rotation of the engine could suddenly engage the starter, causing the crank to unexpectedly and violently jerk.
For cord-wound starters, a kickback could pull the operator towards the engine or machine, or swing the starter cord and handle at high speed around the starter pulley. Even though cranks had a mechanism, when the engine started. Although users were advised to cup their fingers and thumb under the crank and pull up, it felt natural for operators to grasp the handle with the fingers on one side, the thumb on the other. Even a simple backfire could result in a thumb, it was possible to end up with a broken wrist. Moreover, increasingly larger engines with higher compression ratios made hand cranking a more physically demanding endeavour, the first electric starter was installed on an Arnold, an adaptation of the Benz Velo, built 1896 in East Peckham, England by electrical engineer H. J. Dowsing. In 1911, Charles F. Kettering, with Henry M. Leland, patent 1,150,523 for the first electric starter in America. At the voltage and current levels required, such a motor would burn out in a few minutes of continuous operation, the starters were first installed by Cadillac on production models in 1912, with the same system being adopted by Lanchester that year.
These starters worked as generators once the engine was running, the Star and Adler cars had spring motors, which used the energy stored in a spring driving through a reduction gear. If the car failed to start the starter handle could be used to wind up the spring for a further attempt and it was still common for cars to be supplied with starter handles into the 1960s, and this continued much for some makes
Pune is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra and the ninth most populous city in the country. In the 18th century, Pune was the centre of the Indian subcontinent. Considered to be the capital of Maharashtra, Pune is known as Oxford of the East due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions in the city. The city has emerged as an educational hub in recent decades. Since the 1950s and 1960s, Pune has had a traditional old-economic base as most of the old industries continue to grow, a few college in the Europe have actively engaged in Student-exchange programs with several colleges in Pune. Pune is one of the fastest growing cities in the Asia-Pacific region, the ‘Mercer 2015 Quality of Living rankings’ evaluated local living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world where Pune ranked at 145, second in India after Hyderabad. It highlights Pune among evolving business centres and emerging nine cities around the world with citation Hosts IT, the oldest reference to the place is found inscribed on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated AD937, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya meaning Sacred News.
By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi, copper plates dated 858 AD and 868 AD show that by the 8th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327, in 1595, Maloji Raje Bhosale was granted the jagirdari of Pune by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century, Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar. His grandson, the founder of Maratha Empire, was born in Shivneri fort not far from Pune, Shivaji was brought up by his mother in Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period between 1660 and 1705 and he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of areas around Pune and in neighbouring area of the Maval region.
In addition, he developed methods to manage disputes and to enforce law. Construction on the Lal Mahal began in 1631 AD, the Lal Mahal was completed in 1640 AD. Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple, the Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city. Shivaji encouraged the development of dams in the Parvati and Kondhwa regions of Pune for agricultural purposes and its surrounding villages were the major recruitment areas for Shivajis army between 1645 AD and 1680 AD. Between 1660 AD and 1670 AD the town was captured by Mughal General Shahista Khan, Shivaji often used Pune as his transit base during his major campaigns such as Varhad-Karanja, AhemadaNagar District and Jalna
Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting
IRIB is independent of the Iranian government and its head is appointed directly by the leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. The IRIB provides twelve radio stations for domestic audiences and through the IRIB World Service thirty radio stations are available for foreign, in addition publishes the Persian-language newspaper Jaam-e Jam. The appointment and dismissal of the head of the Radio and Television of the Islamic Republic of Iran rests with the Leader, the policies and the manner of managing the organization and its supervision will be determined by law. Prior to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, IRIB was known as National Iranian Radio & Television, the first director after 1979 Revolution was Sadeq Qotbzadeh. The current director is Mohammad Sarafraz, the previous directors included Ezzatollah Zarghami, Ali Larijani and Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani. Sima Festival is the biggest and most important TV productions contest sponsoring annually by IRIB organization, winners are the best producers, directors and directors in various categories honored by organizations head and receive valuable prizes.
IRIB has branches in 20 countries worldwide, including France, Belgium, Malaysia, UK, the United States, fifty percent of those 30 provincial channels use the local accent or dialect. The IRIB provides twelve radio stations as well, and an international service. IRIB has 27 world service channels, IRIB has Arabic, Hindi and Spanish channels, beside the native Persian. IRIB produces 5000 hours of TV shows,300 movies and 20,000 minutes of animated movies, total number of employees,13,000 to 50,00045. 5% of Irans youth report trust in news broadcast by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting. Total budget of IRIB is about $900-1000 million which is maintained by advertisement, Soroush Press, a publisher of some magazines including Soroush Weekly, Soroush Koodakan, Soroush Nojavan, Soroush Javan, Soroush Banovan and publishes books, too. Jamejam Daily is the organ of the IRIB organization. IRIB News Department is an agency affiliated to the IRIB Organization. IRIB has a production company, called Sima Film. IRIB outsources media production to privately owned domestic media companies.
Produce technical equipment such as transmition and switching systems for IRIB IT & ICT Company related to IRIB Which is provide IPTV services and it has 26 branch offices in Iran. Provides CD/DVD of IRIB programs and holds some special short term education in 31 offices all over provinces of Iran. is holding company of 17 related company to IRIB such as Soroush Multimedia Co. & TAKTA CO. provides some courses related to media is responsible for researches in social, known before as Cima Media Intl, is the sole representative of IRIB in distribution of its productions as well as program acquisition for IRIB localTV channels
Lambretta is the brand name of a line of motor scooters initially manufactured in Milan, Italy, by Innocenti. The name is derived from the word Lambrate, the suburb of Milan named after the river flows through the area. Lambretta was the name of a mythical water-sprite associated with the river runs adjacent to the former production site. Innocenti S. A. based in Lugano, Switzerland is the owner of the international trademark Lambretta and has licensed the brand throughout the world, in 1922, Ferdinando Innocenti of Pescia built a steel-tubing factory in Rome. In 1931, he took the business to Milan where he built a factory producing seamless steel tubing and employing about 6,000. The factory was bombed and destroyed during World War II. The main stimulus for the style of the Lambretta and Vespa dates back to pre-World War II Cushman scooters made in Nebraska. These olive green scooters were in Italy in large numbers, ordered originally by the United States military as field transport for the paratroops, the United States military had used them to get around German defence tactics of destroying roads and bridges in the Dolomites and the Austrian border areas.
It had to be easy to drive for both men and women, be able to carry a passenger and not get its drivers clothes soiled, DAscanio, who hated motorbikes, designed a revolutionary vehicle. It was built on a frame with a handlebar gear change. The front protection shield kept the rider dry and clean in comparison to the front end on motorcycles. The pass-through leg area design was geared towards women, as wearing dresses or skirts made riding conventional motorcycles a challenge, the front fork, like an aircrafts landing gear, allowed for easy wheel changing. The internal mesh transmission eliminated the standard chain, a source of oil. This basic design allowed a series of features to be deployed on the frame which would allow quick development of new models. However, DAscanio fell out with Innocenti, who rather than a spar frame wanted to produce his frame from rolled tubing, allowing him to revive both parts of his pre-war company. DAscanio disassociated himself from Innocenti and took his design to Enrico Piaggio who produced the spar-framed Vespa from 1946 on, the final design of the Lambretta was done by aeronautical engineers Cesare Pallavicino and Pier Luigi Torre.
Pallavicino had been Technical Director at the Caproni airplane factory during World War II before working on the Lambretta design, Torre was an engine designer at Italo Balbos Idros, he designed the engine and organized Innocentis factory for mass production. Arriving on the market the year, the 1947 Lambretta featured a rear pillion seat for a passenger or optionally a storage compartment
Pesaro is a town and comune in the Italian region of the Marche, capital of the Pesaro e Urbino province, on the Adriatic. According to the 2011 census, its population was 95,011, making it the second most populous city in the Marche, Pesaro is known as City of Bicycle, thanks to its big net of bicycle paths. The city received this award by Legambiente, the most important ecologist society in Italy, in 2015 and it is known as City of Music thanks to the bond with Gioacchino Rossini, the famous composer born in Pesaro. For this reason, in 2015, the Italian Government officially candidate Pesaro as Creative City in the group of World Heritage Sites of UNESCO, furniture industry and tourism are the main strengths of the local economy. The city was founded as Pisaurum by the Romans in 184 BC as colony in the territory of the Picentes, a settlement of the Picentes tribe has been found at Novilara. The northern Picentes were invaded in the 4th century BC by the Gallic Senones, earlier by the Etruscans, within it the Gauls at least were still distinct, as the Romans separated them out and expelled them from the country.
Under the Roman administration Pesaro, a hub across the Via Flaminia, became an important center of trading, after the fall of the Western Empire, Pesaro was occupied by the Ostrogoths, and destroyed by Vitigis in the course of the Gothic War. Hastily rebuilt five years after the Byzantine reconquest, it formed the so-called Pentapolis, after the Lombard and Frankish conquests of that city, Pesaro became part of the Papal States. During the Renaissance it was ruled successively by the houses of Malatesta, Sforza, in 1475, a legendary wedding took place in Pesaro, when Costanzo Sforza and Camilla DAragona married. On 11 September 1860 Piedmontese troops entered the city, and Pesaro was subsequently annexed to the new Kingdom of Italy, rocca Costanza - Massive castle built by Costanzo I Sforza, it has a square plan with four cylindrical corner towers and a wide dry moat. Its sunken court is the precedent for the more famous one at the Roman Villa Giulia. Rooms are frescoed by prominent Mannerist painters Bronzino, Francesco Menzocchi, Girolamo Genga, mura Roveresche - Della Rovere Walls, demolished in the early 20th century), only two gates, Porta del Ponte and Porta Rimini, and a short section remain.
Birthplace of Gioacchino Rossini- Now a museum dedicated to the composer and it has a museum with manifestoes, prints and his spinet. Among the masterpieces is the Pesaro Altarpiece by Giovanni Bellini, oliveriani Museum and Library- Archaeological Collection and Manuscript Library, founded in 1756 by Annibale degli Abati Olivieri. Cathedral of Pesaro Romanesque-Gothic Basilica built over remains of a late Roman edifice, the façade, in Romanesque-Gothic style, is unfinished, it has a simple ogival portal surmounted by a band of small arches. A recent restoration has brought to light floor mosaics, the Baroque Sanctuary of Beata Vergine del Carmelo. Rossini Opera Festival has taken place every summer since 1980 in Pesaro, Pesaro hosts the home games of Victoria Libertas basketball team, better known across Europe as Scavolini Pesaro. Adriatic Arena, third biggest Italian indoor arena behind Mediolanum Forum in Milan, among the town industries is the motocross and enduro brand of TM Racing, a small manufacturer of race-ready motorbikes based in the coastal town since 1978