The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
Raghubar Das is the Chief Minister of Jharkhand state of India. He was sworn in as the 6th chief minister of Jharkhand on 28 December 2014, he belongs to Bharatiya Janata Party. A former employee of Tata Steel, he served as the member of legislative assembly for five times, representing Jamshedpur East since 1995, he served as the Deputy Chief Minister and the Urban Development Minister during the BJP-led government in the state. During the period of emergency, he was sent behind the bars. Das belongs to Other Backward Class family, he was born on 3 May 1955 to a labourer with a steel company. He passed matriculation from Bhalubasa Harijan High School, completed B. Sc. from Jamshedpur Cooperative College. He studied law from the same college and acquired LLB degree. After studies, he joined Tata Steel as a labourer. Das was involved in politics since his college days, he participated in Jayprakash Narayan-led Total Revolution movement in the state. He was arrested and imprisoned in Gaya and was again imprisoned during the Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi.
Subsequently, Das joined the Janata Party in 1977. He joined Bharatiya Janata Party as a founding member in 1980, he participated in the first National Committee meeting of BJP in Mumbai in 1980. He was appointed as the chief of unit of Sitaramdera in Jamshedpur, he served as the city chief secretary and the vice president of Jamshedpur. BJP secretary and became the vice president, he was elected as the member of Bihar Legislative Assembly in 1995 from Jamshedpur East. He again won from the same constituency for five times, he was appointed as a chief of BJP in Jharkhand in 2004. The BJP won 30 seats in Jharkhand Legislative Assembly election, 2005, he served as the Urban Development Minister during the NDA government in 2005 under Arjun Munda as the chief minister. He led the Indian general election, 2009 in the state, he held the office of Deputy Chief Minister of Jharkhand state from 30 December 2009 to 29 May 2010, when Shibu Soren was the chief minister. He was appointed as the vice president in the National Committee of BJP on 16 August 2014.
He has shown assets to the tune of around Rs. 21 lakh. When BJP secured majority in Jharkhand Legislative Assembly election, 2014, he became the sixth and the first non-tribal chief minister of the state in December 2014. Official website Raghubar Das affidavit List of Chief Ministers of Jharkhand recent announcement
Shikharji, Giridih district, India, is located on Parasnath hill, the highest mountain in the state of Jharkhand. It is the most important Jain Tirtha for the Jains, believed to be the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras along with many other monks attained Moksha, according to Nirvana Kanda and other texts.. Its distance to cover is 23 kms by walk and takes to climb up and down the hill. If a short route is taken it takes approx 12 hours to complete.. Shikharji means the "venerable peak"; the site is called Sammed Śikhar or Sammet Shikhar "peak of concentration." Because it is a place where twenty of twenty-four Tirthankaras attained Moksha through meditation. The word "Parasnath" is derived from Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Jain tirthankara, one of those, believed to have attained Moksha at the site. Shikarji is located in an inland part of rural east India, it lies on NH-2, the Delhi-Kolkata highway in a section called the Grand Trunk road. Shikharji rises to 4,429 feet making it the highest mountain in Jharkhand state.
The earliest reference to Shikharji as a tirth is found in the Jñātṛdhārmakātha, one of the twelve core texts of Jainism. Shikharji is mentioned in the Pārśvanāthacarita, a twelfth century biography of Pārśva; the popularity of Shikharji as a site of pilgrimage followed that of Vulture Peak, where it is believed the Buddhist Sariputta attained enlightenment. Jharkhand acquired Shikharji under the Bihar Land Reforms Act. Use of Shikharji as a tourist destination impacts on the religious beliefs of the Jain; the pilgrimage to Shikharji is a round trip of 27 km through the Madhuban forest. The section from Gandharva Nala stream to the summit is the most sacred to Jains; the pilgrimage is made on foot or by a litter or doli carried by a doliwallah along a concrete paved track. Along the track are shrines to each of the twenty four tirthankaras and vendors of tea, water and snacks. There is an option for parikrama of a pilgrimage of 54 kilometres; the parikrama path is walking only. The temple at Shikharji is a new construction with some parts dating to the eighteenth century.
However, the idol itself is old. Sanskrit inscriptions at the foot of the image date to 1678. At the base of Shikharji is a temple to Bhomiyaji. On the walls of the Jain temple at the village of Madhuban, there is a mural painting depicting all the temples on Parasnath Hill. Temples along the track include: In Jainism, the building of replica temples is seen as auspicious and worthwhile. On August 13, 2012, the world's first to-scale complete replication of Shikharji was opened in Siddhachalam in New Jersey over 120 acres of hilly terrain. Called Shikharji at Siddhachalam, it has become an important place of pilgrimage for the Jain diaspora. There is a small scale replica of Shikharji at Mehrauli; the nearest railway station named "Parasnath Station" is situated in Isri Bazar, Jharkhand. Its around 25 km from Madhuban, at the base of Shikharji. Parasnath station is situated on Grand Chord, part of Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line and Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line. Many long distance trains have halts at Parasnath Station.
Daily connectivities to Mumbai, Jaipur, Kolkata, Allahbad, Jammutawi, Kalka etc. are available. 12301-12302 Howrah Rajdhani Express via Gaya Junction has a halt on Parasnath station which run 6 days in a week. By Airway. Durgapur has direct flights from Kolkata and Delhi "Save Shikharji" is a protest movement by Jain sects who are against the state's development plans for Shikharji. Jain community members have opposed the plans of the state government to improve the infrastructure in the hill to boost tourism as alleged attempts to commercialize the Shikharji hill; this movement is headed by Yugbhushan Surishwarji, demands Shikharji Hill to be declared as a place of worship by Government of Jharkhand. List of Jain temples Tirth Pat Nirvana Kanda Tourist Places in Giridih Parasnath Hills travel guide from Wikivoyage
Below Poverty Line
Below Poverty Line is an economic benchmark used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. It is determined using various parameters which vary from state within states; the present criteria are based on a survey conducted in 2002. Going into a survey due for a decade, India's central government is undecided on criteria to identify families below poverty line. Internationally, an income of less than $3.20 per day per head of purchasing power parity is defined as extreme poverty. By this estimate, about 21.2% of Indians are poor. Income-based poverty lines consider the bare minimum income to provide basic food requirements. Criteria are different for the urban areas. In its Tenth Five-Year Plan, the degree of deprivation is measured with the help of parameters with scores given from 0–4, with 13 parameters. Families with 17 marks or less out of a maximum 52 marks have been classified as BPL. Poverty line depends on the per capital income in India rather than level of prices.
In its Ninth Five-Year Plan, BPL for rural areas was set than Rs. 20,000, less than two hectares land, no television or refrigerator. The number of rural BPL families was 650,000 during the 9th Plan; the survey based on this criterion was again carried out in 2002 and the total number of 387,000 families were identified. This figure was in force until September 2006. In its Tenth Five-Year Plan survey, BPL for rural areas was based on the degree of deprivation in respect of 13 parameters, with scores from 0–4: landholding, type of house, food security, consumer durables, literacy status, labour force, means of livelihood, status of children, type of indebtedness, reasons for migrations, etc; the Planning Commission fixed an upper limit of 326,000 for rural BPL families on the basis of simple survey. Accordingly, families having less than 15 marks out of maximum 52 marks have been classified as BPL and their number works out to 318,000; the survey was carried out in 2002 and thereafter but could not be finalised due to a stay issued by the Supreme Court of India.
The stay was vacated in February 2006 and this survey was finalised and adopted in September 2006. This survey formed the basis for benefits under government of India schemes; the state governments are free to adopt any criteria/survey for state-level schemes. In its Tenth Five-Year Plan BPL for urban areas was based on degree of deprivation in respect of seven parameters: roof, water, education level, type of employment, status of children in a house. A total of 125,000 upper families were identified as BPL in urban area in 2004, it has been implemented since then. Those spending over Rs 32 a day in rural areas and Rs 47 in towns and cities should not be considered poor, an expert panel headed by former RBI governor C Rangarajan said in a report submitted to the BJP government last week; the recommendation, which comes just ahead of the budget session of Parliament, is expected to generate fresh debate over the poverty measure as the committee's report has only raised the bar marginally. Based on the Suresh Tendulkar panel's recommendations in 2011-12, the poverty line had been fixed at Rs 27 in rural areas and Rs 33 in urban areas, levels at which getting two meals may be difficult.
The Rangarajan committee was tasked with revisiting the Tendulkar formula for estimation of poverty and identification of the poor after a massive public outcry erupted over the abnormally low poverty lines fixed by UPA government The Government of Kerala is one of the few state governments which has formulated its own criteria. In Kerala there are nine parameters. Families which lack access to four or more parameters are classified as BPL; the nine parameters for urban areas are: No land or less than five cents of land No house or dilapidated house No sanitation latrine Family with an illiterate family member No regular employed person in the family No access to safe drinking water Women-headed household or presence of widows or divorcee Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes Mentally retarded or disabled member in the family The poverty line was fixed in terms of income/food requirements in 2000. It was stipulated that the calorie standard for a typical individual in rural areas was 2400 calorie and was 2100 calorie in urban areas.
The cost of the grains that fulfil this normative standard was calculated. This cost was the poverty line. In 1978, it was Rs. 61.80 per person per Rs. 71.30 for urban areas. Since the Planning Commission calculates the poverty line every year adjusting for inflation; the poverty line in recent years is as follows – This income is bare minimum to support the food requirements and does not provide much for the other basic essential items like health, education etc. That is; the Socio Economic Survey conducted during 2002 was based on 13 Socio economic indicators indicating the quality of life and by Score-based ranking for all households. Each of the indicators have 0–4 marks, thus for 13 indicators, the tentative marks obtained by the families are from 0–52 for all the Districts. The Supreme Court of India in Writ Petition No. 196/2001 filed by People's Union for Civil Liberties, the result of Below Poverty Line census 2002 need not be finalised. In October 2005 the Government of India informed that based on the advice given by the Additional Solicitor General, it has been decided to finalise the results o
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Jamui is a district among 38 districts of Bihar state, India. The district was formed on 21 February 1991, it is located at a longitude of 86° 13'E and the latitude is 24° 55'N. The present collector and District Magistrate of Jamui is Shri Dharmendra Kumar. Various literature indicates the fact. According to Jains, the 24th Tirthankara lord Mahavira attained omniscience in Jambhiyagram situated on the bank of river named Ujjihuvaliya. Another place traced as "Jrimbhikgram" on the bank of Rijuvalika river, resembles Jambhiyagram, Ujjhuvaliya; the Hindi translation of the words Jambhiya and Jrimbhikgram is Jamuhi, developed in the recent time as Jamui.￼￼￼￼ Withth the passage of time, the river Ujhuvaliya /Rijuvalika is supposed to be developed as the river Ulai and as such both the place are still found in Jamui. The Ulai river is still flowing nearby Jamui; the old name of Jamui has been traced as Jambhubani in a copper plate, kept in Patna Museum. This plate clarifies. Thus, the two ancient names as Jambhiyagram and Jambubani prove that this district was important as a religious place for Jains, it was a place of Gupta Empire.
In the 19th century. According to other historians Jamui, was famous in the era of the Mahabharata. According to available literature, Jamui was related to Gupta and Pala rulers before the 12th century, but after that this place became famous for Chandel rulers. Prioror to Chandel Raj, this place was ruled by Nigoria, defeated by Chandels and the dynasty of Chandela founded in the 13th century; the kingdom of Chandels spread over the whole of Jamui. Chirag Paswan is the current Member of Parliament from Jamui; the district is a part of the Red Corridor. Jamui district occupies an area of 3,098 square kilometres, comparatively equivalent to Indonesia's Yamdena Island; the district has untapped reserves of resources including mica, coal and iron ore. Situated along the Bihar-Jharkhand border, Jamui is dotted with hills and the small retreat town of Simultala falls within the Jhajha block, on the main Delhi-Howrah rail line; the town of Gidhaur, situated 17 kilometres away was the seat of kings during the British Raj and many buildings from the period still survive.
Minto Tower in Gidhaur is a prime example of architecture from the period. Jain Mandir Lachhuar:This is a large and old rest house of 65 rooms constructed for the Jain Pilgrims. There is a Mandir of Lord Mahavira inside the Dhamsala; the idol in this temple is more than 2,600 years old. This black stone idol is of weighs around 250 kg; this is situated on the way of the birthplace of Lord Mahavira. This place is located in Sikandra Block, approx 20 km. west from Jamui District Headquarter. Giddheswar Temple: Temple of lord Shiva situated on the top of stone boulders, it 15 km south from the district headquarter. Simultalla hill station:This place is supposed to be the Tapo-Bhumi of Sri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa, who founded Tara Math of Devi Bhagvati. Kali Mandir Malaypur:Temple of goddess Kali is situated at village Malaypur, block Barhat. A festival known as Kali Mela is held every year at this place; the temple is just near by Jamui. Minto Tower Gidhaur:Minto tower was built by the Maharaja of Gidhaur in 1909 to commemorate the visit of the British Viceroy Lord Irwin to Gidhaur.
It is in the middle of Gidhaur Market on the main Jamui-Jhajha state highway. Patneswar Mandir:This temple of lord Shiva is situated on the way of Station Road Jamui, it is about 5 km north from the district headquarter Jamui. Maa netula temple This is a temple of Maa Ambe Situated at village kumar, block sikandra, it is about 26 km west form the district headquarter jamui bihar. Bhim Bandh: It is located between Lakshmipur and Haveli Kharagpur Jungle. Here the visitors find many source of hot water; this is a picnic spot in winter season from October to February. Shiv Mandir: It is situated in Harla jury of Lakshmipur block, it is a temple of lord Shiva in Lakshmipur block. It is about 500m southward from Lakshmipur market. Kali Mandir Lakshmipur: Temple of goddess Kali is situated in Harla jury of Lakshmipur block. A temple of goddess Kali in this block, it is about 600m southward from Lakshmipur main market. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Jamui one of the country's 250 most backward districts.
It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. No. of Police District 1 No. of Sub-Divisions 1 No. of Police Sub-Divisions 2 No. of Blocks 10 No. of Circles 10 No. of Police Stations 12 No. of Panchayats 153 No. of Villages 1,528 According to the 2011 census Jamui district has a population of 1,756,078 equal to the nation of The Gambia or the US state of Nebraska. This gives it a ranking of 273rd in India; the district has a population density of 567 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 25.54%. Jamui has a sex ratio of 921 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 62.16%. Jamui Railway Station, station code JMU, is one of the major railway stations in Danapur division of East Central Railway. Jamui is connected to metropolitan areas of India, by the Delhi-Kolkata Main Line via Mugalsarai-Patna route which runs along the historic Grand Trunk road. Jamui Station serves the headquarters of Jamui district in the Indian state of Bihar
The State Legislative Assembly is the lower house of a state legislature in the States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative house. In 7 states it is the lowest house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being Vidhan Parishad or the State Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories have no legislative body. Each Member of the Legislative Assembly is directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Assemblies, in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India; the Constitution of India states that a State Legislative Assembly must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members.
A Vidhan Sabha may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority coalition. To become a member of a State Legislative Assembly, a person must be a citizen of India, not less than 25 years of age, he or she should not be bankrupt. He or she should state an affidavit that there are no criminal procedures against him or her. Speaker of State Legislative Assembly, responsible for the conduct of business of the body, a Deputy Speaker to preside during the Speaker's absence; the Speaker manages all debates and discussions in the house. He or she is a member of the stronger political party A State Legislative Assembly holds equal legislative power with the upper house of state legislature, the State Legislative Council, except in the area of money bills in which case the State Legislative Assembly has the ultimate authority. A motion of no confidence against the government in the state can only be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly.
If it is passed by a majority vote the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers must collectively resign. A money bill can only be introduced in State Legislative Assembly. In bicameral jurisdictions, after it is passed in the State Legislative Assembly, it is sent to the Vidhan Parishad, where it can be kept for a maximum time of 14 days. In matters related to ordinary bills, the will of Legislative Assembly prevails and there is no provision of joint sitting. In such cases, Legislative council can delay the legislation by maximum 4 months. † – In these fourteen legislative assemblies, one seat is reserved for the nominated Anglo-Indian member. ‡ – In Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly, two seats are reserved for the nominated women members. # – In Puducherry Legislative Assembly, three seats are reserved for the nominated members by the Union Government of India. Legislative assembly Legislative council State governments of India State Assembly elections in India Politics of India Legislative Bodies in India website Assembly constituency level publications website Laws of India website to download laws made by different states Punjab State Legislative Assembly Election Results 2012