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Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate gland. Symptoms may include frequent urination, trouble starting to urinate, weak stream, inability to urinate, or loss of bladder control. Complications can include urinary tract infections, bladder stones, chronic kidney problems; the cause is unclear. Risk factors include a family history, type 2 diabetes, not enough exercise, erectile dysfunction. Medications like pseudoephedrine and calcium channel blockers may worsen symptoms; the underlying mechanism involves the prostate pressing on the urethra thereby making it difficult to pass urine out of the bladder. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and examination after ruling out other possible causes. Treatment options including lifestyle changes, medications, a number of procedures, surgery. In those with mild symptoms weight loss and decreasing caffeine intake is recommended. In those with more significant symptoms, medications may include alpha blockers such as terazosin or 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride.

Surgical removal of part of the prostate may be carried out in those who do not improve with other measures. Alternative medicine, such as saw palmetto, does not appear to help. About 105 million men are affected globally. BPH begins after the age of 40. Half of males age 50 and over are affected. After the age of 80 about 90% of males are affected. Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated in males with BPH, the condition does not increase the risk of prostate cancer. BPH is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms, which are divided into storage and symptoms which occur after urination. Storage symptoms include the need to urinate waking at night to urinate, involuntary urination, including involuntary urination at night, or urge incontinence. Voiding symptoms include urinary hesitancy, involuntary interruption of voiding, weak urinary stream, straining to void, a sensation of incomplete emptying, uncontrollable leaking after the end of urination; these symptoms may be accompanied by bladder pain while urinating, called dysuria.

Bladder outlet obstruction can be caused by BPH. Symptoms are abdominal pain, a continuous feeling of a full bladder, frequent urination, acute urinary retention, pain during urination, problems starting urination, slow urine flow and stopping, nocturia. BPH can be a progressive disease if left untreated. Incomplete voiding results in residual urine or urinary stasis, which can lead to an increased risk of urinary tract infection. Most experts consider androgens to play a permissive role in the development of BPH; this means that androgens must be present for BPH to occur, but do not directly cause the condition. This is supported by evidence suggesting. In an unusual study of 26 eunuchs from the palace of the Qing dynasty still living in Beijing in 1960, the prostate could not be felt in 81% of the studied eunuchs; the average time since castration was 54 years. On the other hand, some studies suggest that administering exogenous testosterone is not associated with a significant increase in the risk of BPH symptoms, so the role of testosterone in prostate cancer and BPH is still unclear.

Further randomized controlled trials with more participants are needed to quantify any risk of giving exogenous testosterone. Dihydrotestosterone, a metabolite of testosterone, is a critical mediator of prostatic growth. DHT is synthesized in the prostate from circulating testosterone by the action of the enzyme 5α-reductase, type 2. DHT can act in an autocrine fashion on the stromal cells or in paracrine fashion by diffusing into nearby epithelial cells. In both of these cell types, DHT binds to nuclear androgen receptors and signals the transcription of growth factors that are mitogenic to the epithelial and stromal cells. DHT is ten times more potent than testosterone because it dissociates from the androgen receptor more slowly; the importance of DHT in causing nodular hyperplasia is supported by clinical observations in which an inhibitor of 5α-reductase such as finasteride is given to men with this condition. Therapy with a 5α-reductase inhibitor markedly reduces the DHT content of the prostate and, in turn, reduces prostate volume and BPH symptoms.

Testosterone promotes prostate cell proliferation, but low levels of serum testosterone are found in patients with BPH. One small study has shown that medical castration lowers the serum and prostate hormone levels unevenly, having less effect on testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in the prostate. While there is some evidence that estrogen may play a role in the cause of BPH, this effect appears to be mediated through local conversion of androgens to estrogen in the prostate tissue rather than a direct effect of estrogen itself. In canine in vivo studies castration, which reduced androgen levels but left estrogen levels unchanged, caused significant atrophy of the prostate. Studies looking for a correlation between prostatic hyperplasia and serum estrogen levels in humans have shown none. In 2008, Gat et al. published evidence that BPH is caused by failure in the spermatic venous drainage system resulting in increased hydrostatic pressure and local testosterone levels elevated more than 100 fold above serum levels.

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Mike Dee

Mike Dee is an American sports executive, the former Chief Executive Officer of the San Diego Padres of Major League Baseball. He served in a similar role with the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League, as the Chief Operating Officer of the Boston Red Sox and as president of Fenway Sports Group. While with the Red Sox, the team won two World Series titles. Earning a degree in governing from Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Dee played collegiate basketball and is a member of Sigma Pi fraternity. Dee joined the San Diego Padres in 1995 as the director of corporate development, was promoted to senior vice president of business affairs as a protégé of Larry Lucchino in 1999, remaining with them until 2002, he assisted in the financial planning and construction of Petco Park and worked to fortify the Padres' business and military partnership within the community. When Lucchino purchased the Boston Red Sox in 2002, Dee followed him to Boston, reaching the position of Chief Operating Officer.

The Red Sox set new franchise revenue and attendance records each year of Dee's time with the club, including an MLB-record sellout streak that began in 2003. They won two World Series, breaking an 86-year drought. In 2004, he became president of Fenway Sports Group, a sports investment corporation conceived to diversify and expand Red Sox' business interests beyond Major League Baseball. FSG is the parent company of the Red Sox and Liverpool F. C. of the Premier League. In addition, FSG acquired Fenway Park and Anfield, a 50% interest in Roush Fenway Racing and 80% of New England Sports Network during his tenure. Dee oversaw the eight-year remodeling of Fenway Park and the surrounding neighborhood, ensured annual concerts there. In 2009, he completed the Red Sox' thirty-year agreement that commenced in 2012 with Lee County, Florida for a publicly funded spring training complex. Dee served as the CEO of the Miami Dolphins and Sun Life Stadium from 2009 through 2013, he helped broker the stadium naming-rights deal with Sun Life Financial.

In May 2013, Florida Legislature turned down Dee's attempt to secure $350 million in public money to upgrade Sun Life Stadium, which defeated Sun Life Stadium's bid at hosting Super Bowls 50 and 51. On July 17, 2013, the San Diego Padres hired Dee to serve as team Chief Executive Officer. Dee hired A. J. Preller to be the Padres' general manager in 2014. On October 12, 2016, it was announced that the San Diego Padres and Dee have parted ways, noting no specific reason. On May 2, 2017, Dee joined Entercom Communications as President of Entercom Sports with responsibility for "elevating Entercom’s position as a leading sports media partner in support of the company’s expansive suite of local sports radio stations and personalities and sports play-by-play relationships," according to a company press release. Dee is married to Karen, they have two sons and Tommy, he functions on the F&M advisory board. Dee is an avid cyclist participating in the Pan Mass Challenge, in addition to serving on its board.

The nation's largest athletic fundraiser, Pan Mass has raised more than $500 million for cancer research

Bosnia and Herzegovina at the Paralympics

Bosnia and Herzegovina, having become independent from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992, made its Paralympic Games début at the 1996 Summer Paralympics in Atlanta, with two athletes competing in men's track and field. The country has competed in every edition of the Summer Paralympics since and made its Winter Paralympics début at the 2010 Winter Paralympics in Vancouver, with a single representative in alpine skiing. Bosnia and Herzegovina has won four Paralympic medals, all in men's sitting volleyball: silvers in 2000,2008 and in 2016,and two golds in 2004 and 2012. Bosnia and Herzegovina at the Olympics Bosnia and Herzegovina men's national sitting volleyball team

Margaret Graham (matron)

Margaret Graham was a nurse at the centre of a dispute dubbed the "Adelaide Hospital Row" at the Adelaide Hospital in 1894. She overcame this dubious distinction to become the regarded Matron of the hospital one of the first Australian nursing Matrons to serve at the front during World War I. Graham was born in Carlisle, daughter of Margaret Graham, née Farrer and her husband house painter John Graham. Nothing further is known of her early life until she emigrated to South Australia in 1886 aboard the steam ship Austral, on 2 April 1891 enrolled as a probationary nurse at the Adelaide Hospital. In March 1894 was appointed acting charge nurse in charge of Adelaide ward, on 19 November was recommended by the hospital board for appointment as night charge nurse; this recommendation was not implementedAdelaide Hospital in the last decade of the 19th century was a dysfunctional workplace, beset with factional jealousies and professional rivalries, exacerbated by opponents of the Government, who saw political benefit in keeping the hospital an "open sore".

Graham became embroiled in controversy when nurse Gordon, a sister of the Chief Secretary John Gordon, was promoted to Superintendent of Night Nurses, the second highest nursing rank. Many nurses thought the position should have gone to the more senior charge nurse Louise Hawkins, that this was a case of favoritism. Six nurses, Graham among them, sent a petition to Premier Kingston requesting an independent enquiry. A committee of twelve, including Drs. Way, Stirling and Sir John Colton, met to consider the Premier's request for a review of the appointment; this they endorsed on the grounds that Miss Gordon's selection was on her leadership potential, not her nursing ability. Further, they regarded the letter as insulting and impertinent, recommended suspension of the signatories. Under pressure, five of the nurses withdrew their support for Hawkins, but Graham refused to retract and was urged by her superior, Matron McLeod, to resign, Dr. Way suggested she take a position at the Port Adelaide Hospital.

A Royal Commission found that her protest was justified, but insulting terms had been used against the Government and the Hospital Board, if these were retracted Graham should be reinstated. The Government dissolved the hospital board, in the interval between their sacking and appointment of the new one, reinstated Nurse Graham; the medical superintendent Dr. Perks, who had recommended Gordon's promotion to Way, resigned in September 1895 after Graham's return. Matron McLeod, a personal friend of Perks resigned. On 8 April 1896 the honorary medical staff and surgical staff resigned en masse, but continued attending to their patients until their contracts expired or replacements were appointed. Professional rivalry between surgeons was so intense. Graham was appointed charge nurse and put in charge of Wyatt ward on 4 March 1896, she soon lived down her reputation as a rebel by dedication to her profession, was appointed Matron on 1 January 1898. When the Duchess of Cornwall, married to the future George V, visited the Adelaide Hospital on 10 July 1901, Graham served as her guide, showing her over Albert, Alexandra, Alfred and Flinders wards.

In November 1911, in an echo of 1895, three nurses were sacked by the board for complaining about the conduct of one Sister Dunstan, responsible to Matron Graham. Subsequently 81 nurses refused to work under her. Graham smoothed the way for the nurses to return to work, advising them they would not be required to serve under Dunstan. Dunstan was an efficient and conscientious nurse and might have had better relations with her juniors had Graham been more accepting and accommodating. Matron Graham was an excellent teacher but avoided paperwork wherever possible, leaving it for her night charge nurse. In 1904 she enlisted with the Australian Army Nursing Service, a newly formed volunteer body of 108 women nurses attached to the Australian Army Medical Corps, was appointed the State's Lady Superintendent, with Miss Mary Knowles as Matron. Graham enlisted for active service with the 1st AIF on 19 or 28 September 1914. With some 2,000 troops she boarded Ascanius, which left Port Adelaide's Outer Harbor on 20 October 1914, arrived Fremantle on 25 October, Colombo 14 November, destined for Malta where she joined the hospital ship Guildford Castle.

An alternative history can be found in the biography of Nurse Frances Mary Deere, who enlisted 25 November 1914, travelled by train from Adelaide to Melbourne, joining the medical unit ship HMAT Kyarra, which departed Melbourne on 5 December 1914 under a news blackout. Among the 20 nursing volunteers from Adelaide was Matron Margaret Graham; this accords with the handwritten correction on the record card pictured here and by Merrilyn Lincoln's assertion in the Australian Dictionary of Biography that Graham "embarked at Melbourne in December". There is however no doubting newspaper reports of Graham boarding Ascanius which left Adelaide in October, several Army records in Graham's file mention that ship; the Matron in charge of the nurses on the Kyarra was not Graham but the less senior Mary Knowles. Graham reported for duty at 2nd Australian General Hospital, Mena House, Heliopolis on 27 Apr

Cacodylic acid

Cacodylic acid is the organoarsenic compound with the formula 2AsO2H. With the formula R2AsOH, it is the simplest of the organoarsinic acids, it is a colorless solid, soluble in water. Neutralization of cacodylic acid with base gives cacodylate salts, they are potent herbicides. Cacodylic acid/sodium cacodylate is a buffering agent in the preparation and fixation of biological samples for electron microscopy. In the 18th century it was found that combining As2O3 and four equivalents of potassium acetate gives a product called "Cadet's fuming liquid" which contains cacodyl oxide, 2O and cacodyl, 2. Early research into "cacodyls" was reported by Robert Bunsen at the University of Marburg. Bunsen said of the compounds, "the smell of this body produces instantaneous tingling of the hands and feet, giddiness and insensibility... It is remarkable that when one is exposed to the smell of these compounds the tongue becomes covered with a black coating when no further evil effects are noticeable", his work in this field led to an increased understanding of the methyl group.

Cacodyl oxide, 2O, is considered the first organometallic compound to be prepared synthetically. Cacodylic acid and its salts were incorporated into herbicides by large variety of manufacturers under numerous brand names. APC Holdings Corp. sold its salts under the Phytar brand name. The variety used in Vietnam was Phytar 560G. "Agent Blue," a mixture of cacodylic acid and sodium cacodylate was used during the Vietnam War as a defoliant. Cacodylic acid is a weak acid with a pKa of 6. Cacodylic acid can be reduced to dimethylarsine, a versatile intermediate for the synthesis of other organoarsenic compounds: 2AsO2H + 2 Zn + 4 HCl → 2AsH + 2 ZnCl2 + 2 H2O 2AsO2H + SO2 + HI → 2AsI + SO3 + H2O Cacodylic acid is toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact; the U. S. EPA states that all forms of arsenic are a serious risk to human health and the United States' Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ranked arsenic as number 1 in its 2001 Priority List of Hazardous Substances at Superfund sites.

Arsenic is classified as a Group-A carcinogen. Arsenic Arsine Cacodyl oxide Kenyon, E. M.. "A Concise Review of the Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Dimethylarsenic Acid". Toxicology. 160: 227–236. Doi:10.1016/S0300-483X00458-3. Elschenbroich, C.

Orbe

Orbe is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Vaud. It is now part of the district of Jura-Nord Vaudois. Orbe is first mentioned about 280 as Urba. In 1179, it was mentioned as versus Orbam. During the Roman era, Orbe – known as Urba – was a town of Gallia, in the territory of the Helvetii. In the Antonine Itinerary, it is placed between Lacus Lausonius and Ariolica, xviii m.p. from Lacus Lausonius and xxiiii m.p. from Ariolica. On the Boscéaz hill, a Roman villa was built by an unknown landowner; the mosaics of the villa are still visible. By the Middle Ages, Orbe sat on the road over the Jougne Pass and at the crossroads of two major transportation routes. One stretched from the Jura Mountains to the Alps while the other ran from the Rhine River to the Rhone River; the municipality grew up on both sides of the Orbe. On the left side was the villa Tavellis and the parish church of Saint-Germain, while the right side had the villa Tabernis with the church of Saint-Martin. At some point during the Middle Ages, a bridge was built across the river which joined the two settlements.

Orbe Castle and the town's market were built on the hill above the bridge. In 888, the town was owned by the Burgundian king Rudolf I; the next records of the town come from silver coins which the town's mint produced for Conrad the peaceful between 937 and 993. The town remained part of the independent Kingdom of Arles or Burgundy until the death of the last king, Rudolf III in 1032. Before Rudolph's death, the Emperor Conrad II of the Holy Roman Empire had forced him to name Conrad as his successor. With Rudolph's death, the entire kingdom, including Orbe, was incorporated into the empire. In 1076, Emperor Henry IV replaced the Burgundian noble in Orbe with one of his vassals, Count Wilhelm II. Land and rights in the town passed through several nobles, in 1168, Amadeus II of Montfaucon, the count of Montbéliard, bought about half of the town of Orbe. In a record from 1183, the town's churches and much of the land were owned by Baulmes and Payerne Priories. Around the end of the 11th century, Romainmôtier Abbey acquired some land in the town, on which they built a hospital.

In 1139, they expanded the building into the nearby Notre-Dame chapel. In addition to the religious land owners, the Counts of Montfaucon-Montbeliard began to live in the town. In 1233, they built. Two years Amadeus III of Montfaucon-Montbeliard built the Bourg-Vieux and Bourg-Neuf to help protect the town. By fortifying the town and castle, the counts and the town were able to control the trade routes that passed through the valley. In 1352, Orbe became a town with a town charter modeled on Moudon's. After the death of Girard de Montfaucon and of his wife, Orbe was inherited by Count Montbeliard in 1379. In 1410, it passed to the Prince of Orange; the Chalon family held the town until it was captured by the Swiss Confederation in 1475 during the Burgundian Wars. However, the Swiss were unable to hold it and Hugh de Chalon recaptured it in the same year. In the following year, Charles the Bold met with Swiss messengers at Orbe. Due to the Swiss victory in the Burgundian Wars, the confederation acquired much of the old Burgundian land near the Jura Mountains in 1484.

The de Chalon lands, including Orbe and nearby Echallens, became a joint condominium or gemeine Herrschaft, administered by Bern and Fribourg. It remained a subject territory until the 1798 French invasion and the creation of the French-backed Helvetic Republic. Under the Helvetic Republic, Orbe became the capital of the District of Orbe; the Helvetic Republic, which espoused the ideals of the French Revolution, was popular with the urban residents of Orbe. The reforms of the Helvetic Republic were too much for many Swiss to accept, the republic was overthrown by the Stecklikrieg revolution; as the Helvetic government retreated in September 1802 from Bern to Lausanne, government troops occupied Orbe. Under the Act of Mediation, Orbe remained the capital of its own district. Orbe has an area, as of 2009, of 12 km2. Of this area, 8.85 km2 are used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 2.36 km2 are settled, 0.35 km2 is either rivers or lakes. Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 3.0% of the total area, while housing and buildings made up 8.7%, transportation infrastructure made up 5.7%.

Parks, green belts, sports fields made up 1.7%. Of the forested land, 2.2% of the total land area is forested and 1.4% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 60.7% is used for growing crops and 9.2% is pastures, while 3.7% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality was the capital of the Orbe District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, Orbe became part of the new district of Jura-Nord Vaudois. The municipality is located on a hill surrounded by the Orbe River, it consists of the village of Orbe and a number of hamlets, including Granges Saint-Germain, Granges Saint-Martin, Mont Choisi, Le Puisoir. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is two Sea-daces addorsed Or. Orbe has a population of 6,938; as of 2008, 28.6% of the population is resident foreign nationals. Over the years 1999–2009, the population has changed at a rate of 25.8%, 22.1% due to migration and 4.3% due to births and deaths.

Most of the population speaks French, with Portuguese being second-most common and German being third. Th