Mozambique–United States relations
Mozambique – United States relations are bilateral relations between Mozambique and the United States. Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and improving. Besides Madagascar, Mozambique was the only East African country to be involved in importing African slaves to the Americas. By 1993, U. S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more important in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United States served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords; the United States is the largest bilateral donor to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique. The U. S. Embassy opened in Maputo on November 8, 1975, the first American ambassador arrived in March 1976. In that same year, the United States extended a $10 million grant to the Government of Mozambique to help compensate for the economic costs of enforcing sanctions against Rhodesia.
In 1977, however motivated by a concern with human rights violations, the U. S. Congress prohibited the provision of development aid to Mozambique without a presidential certification that such aid would be in the foreign policy interests of the United States. Relations hit a nadir in March 1981, when the Government of Mozambique expelled four members of the U. S. Embassy staff. In response, the United States suspended plans to provide development aid and to name a new ambassador to Mozambique. Relations between the two countries languished in a climate of stagnation and mutual suspicion. Contacts between the two countries continued in the early 1980s as part of the U. S. administration's conflict resolution efforts in the region. In late 1983, a new U. S. ambassador arrived in Maputo, the first Mozambican envoy to the United States arrived in Washington, signaling a thaw in the bilateral relationship. The United States subsequently responded to Mozambique's economic reform and drift away from Moscow's embrace by initiating an aid program in 1984.
President of Mozambique Samora Machel paid a symbolically important official working visit to the United States in 1985, where he met U. S. President Ronald Reagan. After that meeting, a full U. S. Agency for International Development mission was established, significant assistance for economic reform efforts began. President Joaquim Chissano met with President George W. Bush in September 2003. Since taking office in February 2005, President Armando Guebuza has visited the United States on five occasions. In June 2005, President Guebuza visited Washington, D. C. to take part in President Bush's mini-summit on Africa, along with the leaders of Ghana, Namibia and Niger. That month, he attended the Corporate Council on Africa Business Summit in Baltimore. President Guebuza returned in September 2005 for the United Nations General Assembly in New York and in December 2005 attended the Fourth Development Cooperation Forum at the Carter Center in Atlanta. In 2006 he visited New York for the UN General Assembly, in 2007 he visited Washington, D.
C. for the signing of Mozambique's Millennium Challenge Corporation compact. Principal U. S. Embassy officials include: Ambassador—Leslie V. Rowe Chargé d'affaires, a.i.--Todd Chapman USAID Mission Director—Todd Amani Public Affairs Officer—Kristin Kane Defense Attaché—Lt. Col. John Roddy Peace Corps Director—David Bellama Centers for Disease Control Director—Lisa Nelson Management Officer—Jeremey Neitzke Regional Security Officer—Steve Jones Economic/Political Chief—Matt Roth Consular Officer—Sarah HortonThe U. S. Embassy in Mozambique is in Maputo; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Mozambique - U. S. relations Mozambique-US Relations during Cold War from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
The CFA franc is the name of two currencies, the West African CFA franc, used in eight West African countries, the Central African CFA franc, used in six Central African countries. Both currencies are guaranteed by the French treasury. Although separate, the two CFA franc currencies have always been at parity and are interchangeable; the ISO currency codes are XAF for the Central African CFA franc and XOF for the West African CFA franc. Both CFA francs have a fixed exchange rate to the euro: 100 CFA francs = 1 former French franc = 0.152449 euro. CFA francs are used in fourteen countries: twelve nations ruled by France in West and Central Africa, plus Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea; these fourteen countries have a combined population of 147.5 million people, a combined GDP of US$166.6 billion. The ISO currency codes are XAF for the Central African CFA franc and XOF for the West African CFA franc; the currency has been criticized for making economic planning for the developing countries of French West Africa all but impossible since the CFA's value is pegged to the euro.
Others disagree and argue that the CFA "helps stabilize the national currencies of Franc Zone member-countries and facilitates the flow of exports and imports between France and the member-countries". The European Union's own assessment of the CFA's link to the euro, carried out in 2008, noted that "benefits from economic integration within each of the two monetary unions of the CFA franc zone, more so between them, remained remarkably low" but that "the peg to the French franc and, since 1999, to the euro as exchange rate anchor is found to have had favourable effects in the region in terms of macroeconomic stability". Between 1945 and 1958, CFA stood. Since independence, CFA is taken to mean Communauté Financière Africaine, but in actual use, the term can have two meanings; the CFA franc was created on 26 December 1945, along with the CFP franc. The reason for their creation was the weakness of the French franc after World War II; when France ratified the Bretton Woods Agreement in December 1945, the French franc was devalued in order to set a fixed exchange rate with the US dollar.
New currencies were created in the French colonies to spare them the strong devaluation, thereby facilitating imports from France. French officials presented the decision as an act of generosity. René Pleven, the French minister of finance, was quoted as saying: In a show of her generosity and selflessness, metropolitan France, wishing not to impose on her far-away daughters the consequences of her own poverty, is setting different exchange rates for their currency; the CFA franc was created with a fixed exchange rate versus the French franc. This exchange rate was changed only twice: in 1948 and in 1994. Exchange rate: 26 December 1945 to 16 October 1948 – 1 CFA franc = 1.70 FRF. This 0.70 FRF premium is the consequence of the creation of the CFA franc, which spared the French African colonies the devaluation of December 1945. 17 October 1948 to 31 December 1959 – 1 CFA franc = 2.00 FRF 1 January 1960 to 11 January 1994 – 1 CFA franc = 0.02 FRF 12 January 1994 to 31 December 1998 – 1 CFA franc = 0.01 FRF 1 January 1999 onwards – 100 CFA franc = 0.152449 euro or 1 euro = 655.957 CFA franc.
The 1960 and 1999 events were changes in the currency in use in France: the relative value of the CFA franc versus the French franc/euro changed only in 1948 and 1994. The value of the CFA franc has been criticized as being too high, which many economists believe favours the urban elite of the African countries, who can buy imported manufactured goods cheaply at the expense of farmers who cannot export agricultural products; the devaluation of 1994 was an attempt to reduce these imbalances. Over time, the number of countries and territories using the CFA franc has changed as some countries began introducing their own separate currencies. A couple of nations in West Africa have chosen to adopt the CFA franc since its introduction, despite the fact that they were never French colonies. 1960: Guinea leaves and begins issuing Guinean francs 1962: Mali leaves and begins issuing Malian francs 1973: Madagascar leaves and begins issuing its own francs, the Malagasy franc, which ran concurrently with the Malagasy ariary 1973: Mauritania leaves, replacing the franc with the Mauritanian ouguiya 1974: Saint