Amharic is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a first language by the Amharas and as a lingua franca by other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia; the language serves as the official working language of Ethiopia, is the official or working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system. With 21,811,600 total speakers as of 2007, including around 4,000,000 L2 speakers, Amharic is the second-most spoken Semitic language in the world, after Arabic. Amharic is written left-to-right using a system that grew out of the Ge'ez script, called, in Ethiopian Semitic languages, Fidäl, "writing system", "letter", or "character" or abugida, from the first four symbols, which gave rise to the modern linguistic term abugida. There is no agreed way of romanising Amharic into Latin script; the Amharic examples in the sections below use one system, common, though not universal, among linguists specialising in Ethiopian Semitic languages.
Amharic has been the working language of courts, language of trade and everyday communications, the military, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church since the late 12th century and remains the official language of Ethiopia today. As of the 2007 census, Amharic is spoken by 21.6 million native speakers in Ethiopia and 4 million secondary speakers in Ethiopia. Additionally, 3 million emigrants outside of Ethiopia speak the language. Most of the Ethiopian Jewish communities in Ethiopia and Israel speak Amharic. In Washington DC, Amharic became one of the six non-English languages in the Language Access Act of 2004, which allows government services and education in Amharic. Furthermore, Amharic is considered a holy language by the Rastafari religion and is used among its followers worldwide, it is the most spoken language in the Horn of Africa. The Amharic ejective consonants correspond to the Proto-Semitic "emphatic consonants" transcribed with a dot below the letter; the consonant and vowel tables give these symbols in parentheses where they differ from the standard IPA symbols.
The Amharic script is an abugida, the graphemes of the Amharic writing system are called fidel. Each character represents a consonant+vowel sequence, but the basic shape of each character is determined by the consonant, modified for the vowel; some consonant phonemes are written by more than one series of characters: /ʔ/, /s/, /sʼ/, /h/. This is because these fidel represented distinct sounds, but phonological changes merged them; the citation form for each series is the consonant + ä form. The Amharic script is included in Unicode, glyphs are included in fonts available with major operating systems; as in most other Ethiopian Semitic languages, gemination is contrastive in Amharic. That is, consonant length can distinguish words from one another. Gemination is not indicated in Amharic orthography, but Amharic readers do not find this to be a problem; this property of the writing system is analogous to the vowels of Arabic and Hebrew or the tones of many Bantu languages, which are not indicated in writing.
Ethiopian novelist Haddis Alemayehu, an advocate of Amharic orthography reform, indicated gemination in his novel Fǝqǝr Ǝskä Mäqabǝr by placing a dot above the characters whose consonants were geminated, but this practice is rare. Punctuation includes the following: ፠ section mark ፡ word separator ። full stop ፣ comma ፤ semicolon ፥ colon ፦ preface colon ፧ question mark ፨ paragraph separator Simple Amharic sentencesOne may construct simple Amharic sentences by using a subject and a predicate. Here are a few simple sentences: Like most languages, Amharic grammar distinguishes person and gender; this includes personal pronouns such as English I, Amharic እኔ ǝne. As in other Semitic languages, the same distinctions appear in three other places in their grammar. Subject–verb agreementAll Amharic verbs agree with their subjects; because the affixes that signal subject agreement vary with the particular verb tense/aspect/mood, they are not considered to be pronouns and are discussed elsewhere in this article under verb conjugation.
Object pronoun suffixesAmharic verbs have additional morphology that indicates the person and gender of the object of the verb. While morphemes such as -at in this example are sometimes described as signaling object agreement, analogous to subject agreement, they are more thought of as object pronoun suffixes because, unlike the markers of subject agreement, they do not vary with the tense/aspect/mood of the verb. For arguments of the verb other than the subject or the object, there are two separate sets of related suffixes, one with a benefactive meaning, the other with an adversative or locative meaning. Morphemes such as -llat and -bbat in these examples will be referred to in this article as prepositional object pronoun suffixes because they correspond to prepositional phrases such as for her and on her, to distinguish them from the direct object pronoun suffixes such as -at'her'. Possessive suffixesAmharic has a further set of morphemes that are suffixed to nouns, signalling possession: ቤት bet'
The Blue Nile is a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. With the White Nile, it is one of the two major tributaries of the Nile; the Blue Nile supplies about 80% of the water in the Nile during the rainy season. The Blue Nile is so-called because floods during the summer monsoon erode a vast amount of fertile soil from the Ethiopian Highlands and carry it downstream as silt, turning the water dark brown or black; the distance of the river from its source to its confluence has been variously reported as being between 1,460 kilometres and 1,600 kilometres. This uncertainty over the length might result from the fact that the river flows through a series of impenetrable gorges cut in the Ethiopian Highlands to a depth of some 1,500 metres —a depth comparable to that of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in the United States. According to materials published by the Central Statistical Agency, the Blue Nile has a total length of 1,450 kilometres, of which 800 kilometres are inside Ethiopia.
The Blue Nile flows south from Lake Tana and west across Ethiopia and northwest into Sudan. Within 30 km of its source at Lake Tana, the river enters a canyon about 400 km long; this gorge is a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication from the north half of Ethiopia to the southern half. The canyon was first referred to as the "Grand Canyon" by the British team that accomplished the first descent of the river from Lake Tana to near the end of the canyon in 1968. Subsequent river rafting parties called this the "Grand Canyon of the Nile"; the power of the Blue Nile may best be appreciated at the Blue Nile Falls, which are 45 metres high, located about 40 kilometres downstream of Lake Tana. Although there are several feeder streams that flow into Lake Tana, the sacred source of the river is considered to be a small spring at Gish Abay, situated at an altitude of 2,744 metres; this stream, known as the Gilgel Abay, flows north into Lake Tana. Other affluents of this lake include, in clockwise order from Gorgora, the Magech River, the Northern Gumara, the Reb River, the southern Gumara River, the Kilte.
Lake Tana's outflow flows some 30 kilometres before plunging over the Blue Nile Falls. The river loops across northwest Ethiopia through a series of deep valleys and canyons into Sudan, by which point it is only known as the Blue Nile. There are numerous tributaries of the Abay between the Sudanese border; those on its left bank, in downstream order, include the Wanqa River, the Bashilo River, the Walaqa River, the Wanchet River, the Jamma River, the Muger River, the Guder River, the Agwel River, the Nedi River, the Didessa River and the Dabus River. Those on the right side in downstream order, include the Handassa, Abaya, Tammi, Shita, Muga, Temcha, Katlan, Chamoga and the Beles. After flowing past Er Roseires inside Sudan, receiving the Dinder on its right bank at Dinder, the Blue Nile joins the White Nile at Khartoum and, as the Nile, flows through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea at Alexandria; the flow of the Blue Nile reaches maximum volume in the rainy season, when it supplies 70-80% of the water of the Nile proper.
The Blue Nile was a major source of the flooding of the Nile that contributed to the fertility of the Nile Valley and the consequent rise of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian mythology. With the completion in 1970 of the Aswan Dam in Egypt, the Nile floods ended for lower Egypt; the Blue Nile is vital to the livelihood of Egypt. The Blue Nile, the most significant tributary of the Nile, contributes more than half of the Nile's streamflow. Though shorter than the White Nile, 59% of the water that reaches Egypt originates from the Blue Nile branch of the great river; the river is an important resource for Sudan, where the Roseires Dam and Sennar Dams produce 80% of the country's power. These dams help irrigate the Gezira Scheme, most famous for its high quality cotton; the region produces wheat and animal feed crops. In November 2012, Ethiopia began a six-year project for the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a 6000-megawatt hydroelectric dam on the river; the dam is expected to be a boost for the Ethiopian economy.
Sudan and Egypt, voiced their concern over a potential reduction in water available. The first European to have seen the Blue Nile in Ethiopia and the river's source was Pedro Páez, a Spanish Jesuit who reached the river's source 21 April 1613; the Portuguese João Bermudes, the self-described "Patriarch of Ethiopia," provided the first description of the Blue Nile Falls in his memoirs published in 1565, a number of Europeans who lived in Ethiopia in the late 15th century such as Pêro da Covilhã could have seen the river long before Páez, but not reached its places of source. The source of the Blue Nile was reached in 1629 by the Portuguese Jesuit missionary Jerónimo Lobo and in 1770 by James Bruce. Although a number of European explorers contemplated tracing the course of the Blue Nile from its confluence with the White Nile to Lake Tana, its gorge, which begins a few kilometres inside the Ethiopian border, has discouraged all attempts since Frédéric Cailliaud's attempt in 1821; the first serious attempt by a non-local to explore this reach of the river was undertaken by the American W.
W. Macmillan in 1902, assisted by the Norwegian explorer B. H. Jenssen. However, Jenssen's boats were blocked by t
Asosa is a town in western Ethiopia and the capital of the Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia. Located in the Asosa Zone, this town has a latitude and longitude of 10°04′N 34°31′E, with an elevation of 1570 meters; this town is served by an airport with a 6398 × 152 ft paved runway. A Belgian force from the Congo captured Asosa 11 March 1941, destroying the Italian 10th Brigade and capturing 1,500 men. During the Ethiopian Civil War, with help from the Eritrean People's Liberation Front the Oromo Liberation Front captured Asosa from the Derg in early January 1990, held the city for a brief time. During the occupation, In response the government airforce subjected Asosa to aerial attacks several times that month, killing 19 people and wounding 20. Before the OLF withdrew from Asosa, it destroyed the town's only electricity generator, stole 1.8 million Birr from the bank, most of which were deposits from the local farmer cooperatives, took any valuable items its troops could carry. During the 1990s Asosa was characterised by entire government office complexes of completed buildings, which John Young notes was "testimony to corrupt relations between politicians and contractors."
Young continues, "Indicative of the scale of the problem, during a peace and development conference held in Assosa in June 1996, the deputy prime minister, Tamrat Layne, dismissed the entire regional government and had many of its members imprisoned for corruption."The governor of the town of Asosa, Ahmed Khalifa, on 7 July 2007 fled to Ad-Damazin, the capital of the Blue Nile State, in Sudan. Khalifa was accused by the Ethiopian authorities of offering concessions to Sudan on border issues. Sudan turned down a request to return Khalifa to Ethiopia, resulting in increased tensions between the two countries. Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2005, Asosa has an estimated total population of 20,226, of whom 10,929 are men and 9,297 are women; the 1994 national census reported a total population for Asosa of 11,749 in 2,825 households, of whom 6,324 were men and 5,425 women. The six largest ethnic groups reported in this town were the Oromo, the Amhara, the Berta, the Tigray, the Sebat Bet Gurage, the Silt'e.
Oromiffa was spoken as a first language by 44.42%, 31.53% spoke Amharic, 15.98% Berta, 4.43% Tigrinya. The majority of the inhabitants professed Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, with 54.92% of the population having reported they practised that belief, while 29.75% of the population said they were Muslim, 14.89% were Protestant. It is the largest settlement in Asosa woreda. Meaza Ashenafi and women's rights activist List of cities and towns in Ethiopia
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. The word "bamboo" comes from the Kannada term bambu, introduced to English through Indonesian and Malay. In bamboo, as in other grasses, the internodal regions of the stem are hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross-section are scattered throughout the stem instead of in a cylindrical arrangement; the dicotyledonous woody xylem is absent. The absence of secondary growth wood causes the stems of monocots, including the palms and large bamboos, to be columnar rather than tapering. Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants in the world, due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow 91 cm within a 24-hour period, at a rate of 4 cm an hour. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. Bamboos are of notable economic and cultural significance in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, being used for building materials, as a food source, as a versatile raw product.
Bamboo has a higher specific compressive strength than wood, brick or concrete, a specific tensile strength that rivals steel. Bamboos have long been considered the most primitive grasses because of the presence of bracteate, indeterminate inflorescences, "pseudospikelets", flowers with three lodicules, six stamens, three stigmata. Following more recent molecular phylogenetic research, many tribes and genera of grasses included in the Bambusoideae are now classified in other subfamilies, e.g. the Anomochlooideae, the Puelioideae, the Ehrhartoideae. The subfamily in its current sense belongs to the BOP clade of grasses, where it is sister to the Pooideae; the bamboos comprise three clades classified as tribes, these correspond with geographic divisions representing the New World herbaceous species, tropical woody bamboos, temperate woody bamboos. The woody bamboos do not form a monophyletic group. Altogether, more than 1,400 species are placed in 115 genera. Most bamboo species are native to moist tropical and warm temperate climates.
However, many species are found in diverse climates, ranging from hot tropical regions to cool mountainous regions and highland cloud forests. In the Asia-Pacific region they occur across East Asia, from north to 50 °N latitude in Sakhalin, to south to northern Australia, west to India and the Himalayas. China, Korea and Australia, all have several endemic populations, they occur in small numbers in sub-Saharan Africa, confined to tropical areas, from southern Senegal in the north to southern Mozambique and Madagascar in the south. In the Americas, bamboo has a native range from 47 °S in southern Argentina and the beech forests of central Chile, through the South American tropical rainforests, to the Andes in Ecuador near 4,300 m. Bamboo is native through Central America and Mexico, northward into the Southeastern United States. Canada and continental Europe are not known to have any native species of bamboo; as garden plants, many species grow outside these ranges, including most of Europe and the United States.
Some attempts have been made to grow bamboo on a commercial basis in the Great Lakes region of east-central Africa in Rwanda. In the United States, several companies are growing and distributing species such as Phyllostachys nigra and Phyllostachys edulis; the two general patterns for the growth of bamboo are "clumping" and "running". Clumping bamboo species tend to spread as the growth pattern of the rhizomes is to expand the root mass similar to ornamental grasses. "Running" bamboos, need to be controlled during cultivation because of their potential for aggressive behavior. They spread through their rhizomes, which can spread underground and send up new culms to break through the surface. Running bamboo species are variable in their tendency to spread; some can send out runners of several metres a year, while others can stay in the same general area for long periods. If neglected, over time, they can cause problems by moving into adjacent areas. Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants on Earth, with reported growth rates up to 91 cm in 24 hours.
However, the growth rate is dependent on local soil and climatic conditions, as well as species, a more typical growth rate for many cultivated bamboos in temperate climates is in the range of 3–10 cm per day during the growing period. Growing in regions of warmer climates during the late Cretaceous period, vast fields existed in what is now Asia; some of the largest timber bamboo can grow over 30 m tall, be as large as 25–30 cm in diameter. However, the size range for mature bamboo is species-dependent, with the smallest bamboos reaching only several inches high at maturity. A typical height range that would cover many of the common bamboos grown in the United States is 4.5–12 m, depending on species. Anji County of China, known as the "Town of Bamboo", provides the optimal climate and soil conditions to grow and process some of the most valued bamboo poles available worldwide. Unlike all trees, individual bamboo culms emerge from the ground at their full diameter and grow to their full height in a single growing season of three to four months.
During this time, each new shoot grows
Eucalyptus is a genus of over seven hundred species of flowering trees, shrubs or mallees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae known as eucalypts. Plants in the genus Eucalyptus have bark, smooth, fibrous or stringy, leaves with oil glands, sepals and petals that are fused to form a "cap" or operculum over the stamens; the fruit is a woody capsule referred to as a "gumnut". Australia is covered by 92,000,000 hectares of eucalypt forest, comprising three quarters of the area covered by native forest. There most are native to Australia. One species, Eucalyptus deglupta, ranges as far north as the Philippines. Of the 15 species found outside Australia, just nine are non-Australian. Species of eucalyptus are cultivated in the tropical and temperate world, including the Americas, Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. However, the range over which many eucalypts can be planted in the temperate zone is constrained by their limited cold tolerance. On warm days, eucalyptus forests are sometimes shrouded in a smog-like mist of vaporised volatile organic compounds.
Eucalypts vary in habit from shrubs to tall trees. Trees have a single main stem or trunk but many eucalypts are mallees that are multistemmed from ground level and taller than 10 metres. There is no clear distinction between a mallee and a shrub but in eucalypts, a shrub is a mature plant less than 1 metre tall and growing in an extreme environment. E. vernicosa in the Tasmanian highlands, E. yalatensis on the Nullarbor and E. surgens growing on coastal cliffs in Western Australia are examples of eucalypt shrubs. The terms "mallet" and "marlock" are only applied to Western Australian eucalypts. A mallet is a tree with a single thin trunk with a steeply branching habit but lacks both a lignotuber and epicormic buds. E. astringens is an example of a mallet. A marlock is a shrub or small tree with a single, short trunk, that lacks a lignotuber and has spreading, densely leafy branches that reach to the ground. E. platypus is an example of a marlock. Eucalyptus trees, including mallees and marlocks, are single-stemmed and include Eucalyptus regnans, the tallest known flowering plant on Earth.
The term "morrell" is somewhat obscure in origin and appears to apply to trees of the western Australian wheatbelt and goldfields which have a long, straight trunk rough-barked. It is now used for E. longicornis and E. melanoxylon. Tree sizes follow the convention of: Small: to 10 m in height Medium-sized: 10–30 m Tall: 30–60 m Very tall: over 60 m All eucalypts add a layer of bark every year and the outermost layer dies. In about half of the species, the dead bark is shed exposing a new layer of living bark; the dead bark may be shed in ribbons or in small flakes. These species are known as "smooth barks" and include E. sheathiana, E. diversicolor, E. cosmophylla and E. cladocalyx. The remaining species retain the dead bark which accumulates. In some of these species, the fibres in the bark are loosely intertwined or more adherent. In some species the rough bark is infused with gum resin. Many species are ‘half-barks’ or ‘blackbutts’ in which the dead bark is retained in the lower half of the trunks or stems — for example, E. brachycalyx, E. ochrophloia, E. occidentalis — or only in a thick, black accumulation at the base, as in E. clelandii.
In some species in this category, for example E. youngiana and E. viminalis, the rough basal bark is ribbony at the top, where it gives way to the smooth upper stems. The smooth upper bark of the half-barks and that of the smooth-barked trees and mallees can produce remarkable colour and interest, for example E. deglupta. E. Globulus bark cells are able to photosynthesize in the absence of foliage, conferring an "increased capacity to re-fix internal CO2 following partial defoliation"; this allows the tree to grow in less-than-ideal climates, in addition to providing a better chance of recovery from damage sustained to its leaves in an event such as a fire. Different recognised types of bark include: Stringybark — consists of long fibres and can be pulled off in long pieces, it is thick with a spongy texture. Ironbark — is hard and furrowed, it is impregnated with dried kino which gives a dark red or black colour. Tessellated — bark is broken up into many distinct flakes, they can flake off. Box — has short fibres.
Some show tessellation. Ribbon -- is still loosely attached in some places, they can be firmer strips, or twisted curls. Nearly all eucalyptus are evergreen, but some tropical species lose their leaves at the end of the dry season; as in other members of the myrtle family, eucalyptus leaves are covered with oil glands. The copious oils produced are an important feature of the genus. Although mature eucalyptus trees may be towering and leafed, their shade is characteristically patchy because the leaves hang downwards; the leaves on a mature eucalyptus plant are lanceolate, petiolate alternate and waxy or glossy green. In contrast, the leaves of seedlings are opposite and glaucous, but many exceptions to this pattern exist. Many species
Amhara Region is one of the nine ethnic divisions of Ethiopia, containing the homeland of the Amhara people. Known as "Region 3", its capital is Bahir Dar. Ethiopia's largest inland body of water, Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile river, is located within Amhara; the region contains the Semien Mountains National Park, which includes Ras Dashan, the highest point in Ethiopia. Amhara is bordered by the state of Sudan to the west and northwest, in other directions by other regions of Ethiopia: Tigray to the north, Afar to the east, Benishangul-Gumuz to the west and southwest, Oromia to the south; the government of Amhara is composed of the executive branch, led by the President. During the Ethiopian Empire, Amhara included several provinces, most of which were ruled by native Ras or Negus; the Amhara Region incorporated most of the former provinces of Begemder, Angot, Bete Amhara and Shewa. Based on the 2007 census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, the Amhara Region has a population of 17,221,976.
8,641,580 were 8,580,396 women. With an estimated area of 154,708.96 km2, this region has an estimated density of 108.2 people per square kilometer. For the entire Region 3, 983,768 households were counted, which results in an average for the Region of 4.3 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 3.3 and rural households 4.5 people. The projected population as of 2017 was 21,134,988. In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was reported to be 13,834,297 of whom 6,947,546 were men and 6,886,751 women. According to the CSA, as of 2004, 28% of the total population had access to safe drinking water, of whom 19.89% were rural inhabitants and 91.8% were urban. Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for Amhara as of 2005 include the following: 17.5% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile. At 91.47% of the local population, the region is predominantly inhabited by people from the Semitic-speaking Amhara ethnic group.
Most other residents hail from other Afro-Asiatic language communities, including the Agaw/Awi, Agaw/Kamyr and Argobba. The predominant religion of the Amhara for centuries has been Christianity, with the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church playing a central role in the culture of the country. According to the 2007 census, 82.5% of the population of the Amhara Region were Ethiopian Orthodox. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church maintains close links with the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Easter and Epiphany are the most important celebrations, marked with services and dancing. There are many feast days throughout the year, when only vegetables or fish may be eaten. Marriages are arranged, with men marrying in their late teens or early twenties. Traditionally, girls were married as young as 14, but in the 20th century, the minimum age was raised to 18, this was enforced by the Imperial government. After a church wedding, divorce is frowned upon; each family hosts a separate wedding feast after the wedding.
Upon childbirth, a priest will visit the family to bless the infant. The mother and child remain in the house for 40 days after birth for physical and emotional strength; the infant will be taken to the church for baptism at 80 days. The Amhara Highlands receive 80% of the total rainfall of Ethiopia and is the most fertile and hospitable regions of Ethiopia; the Amhara Region is the location of the source of the Blue Nile, at Bahir Dar. The flow of the Blue Nile reaches maximum volume in the rainy season when it supplies about two-thirds of the water of the Nile proper; the Blue Nile, along with the Atbara River to the north, which flows out of the Ethiopian Highlands, caused the annual Nile floods that contributed to the fertility of the Nile Valley. This supported the rise of Egyptian mythology. With the completion in 1970 of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt, the Nile floods ended. Lake Tana has a number of islands. According to Manoel de Almeida, there were 21 islands, seven to eight of which had monasteries on them "formerly large, but now much diminished."
When James Bruce visited the area in the 18th century, he noted that the locals counted 45 inhabited islands, but wrote he believed that "the number may be about eleven." A mid-twentieth century account identified 37 islands, of which 19 were said to have or have had monasteries or churches on them. The lake islands were the home of ancient Ethiopian emperors. Treasures of the Ethiopian Church are kept in the isolated island monasteries; the body of Yekuno Amlak is interred in the monastery of St. Stephen on Daga Island. Other i
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian churches. One of the few pre-colonial Christian churches in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has a membership of between 45 and 50 million people, the majority of whom live in Ethiopia, it is a founding member of the World Council of Churches. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is in communion with the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, having gained autocephaly in 1959; the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church was administratively part of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria from the first half of the 4th century until 1959, when it was granted its own patriarch by Cyril VI, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. As one of the oldest Christian churches and a non-Chalcedonian church, it is not in communion with the Ethiopian Catholic Church. Ethiopia is the second country following only Armenia, to have proclaimed Christianity as state religion. Tewahedo is a Ge'ez word meaning "being made one".
This word refers to the Oriental Orthodox belief in the one unified nature of Christ. The Oriental Orthodox churches adhere to a Miaphysitic Christological view followed by Cyril of Alexandria, the leading protagonist in the Christological debates of the 4th and 5th centuries, who advocated "mia physis tou theou logou sesarkōmenē", or "one nature of the Word of God incarnate" and a "union according to hypostasis", or hypostatic union; the distinction of this stance was that the incarnate Christ has one nature, but that one nature is of the two natures and human, retains all the characteristics of both after the union. Miaphysitism holds that in the one person of Jesus Christ and humanity are united in one nature without separation, without confusion, without alteration and without mixing where Christ is consubstantial with God the Father. Around 500 bishops within the Patriarchates of Alexandria and Jerusalem refused to accept the dyophysitism doctrine decreed by the Council of Chalcedon in 451, an incident that resulted in the first major split in the main body of the Christian Church.
The Oriental Orthodox churches, which today include the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Malankara Orthodox Church of India, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, are referred to as "Non-Chalcedonian", sometimes incorrectly by outsiders as "monophysite". Monophysitism is a theology adopted by a 5th-century presbyter and archimandrite in Constantinople known as Eutyches and claims that Christ has "one single nature" where his divinity absorbed his humanity resulting in a "simple" mathematical "one" nature to which the Oriental Orthodox churches object. According to these, both natures in Christ are preserved after the union in "mia physis"—one nature. Tewahedo is a Ge'ez word meaning "being made one" or "unified"; this word refers to the Oriental Orthodox belief in the one single unified nature of Christ. This is in contrast to the "two Natures of Christ" belief, held by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Oriental Orthodoxy is known as "non-Chalcedonian", sometimes by outsiders as "monophysite". However, these Churches themselves describe their Christology as miaphysite. Many traditions claim that Christian teachings were introduced to the region after Pentecost. John Chrysostom speaks of the "Ethiopians present in Jerusalem" as being able to understand the preaching of Saint Peter in Acts, 2:38. Possible missions of some of the Apostles in the lands now called Ethiopia is reported as early as the 4th century. Socrates of Constantinople includes Ethiopia in his list as one of the regions preached by Matthew the Apostle, where a specific mention of "Ethiopia south of the Caspian Sea" can be confirmed in some traditions such as the Roman Catholic Church among others. Ethiopian Church tradition tells that Bartholomew accompanied Matthew in a mission which lasted for at least three months. Paintings depicting these missions are available in the Church of St. Matthew found in the Province of Pisa, in northern Italy portrayed by Francesco Trevisan and Marco Benefial.
The earliest account of an Ethiopian converted to the faith in the New Testament books is a royal official baptized by Philip the Evangelist, one of the seven deacons: Then the angel of the Lord said to Philip, Start out and go south to the road that leads down from Jerusalem to Gaza. So he was on his way when he caught sight of an Ethiopian; this man was a eunuch, a high official of the Kandake Queen of Ethiopia in charge of all her treasure. The passage continues by describing ho