Governor of Nuevo León
The Mexican state of Nuevo León has been governed by more than a hundred individuals in its history, who have had various titles and degrees of responsibility depending on the prevailing political regime of the time. Under the current regime, executive power rests in a governor, directly elected by the citizens, using a secret ballot, to a six-year term with no possibility of reelection; the position is open only to a Mexican citizen by birth, at least 30 years old with at least five years residency in Nuevo León. The governor's term finishes on October 3 six years later. Elections occur 3 years before/after presidential elections. Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, 1580–1588 Diego de Montemayor, 1588–1610 Diego de Montemayor, 1610–1611 Diego Rodríguez, 1612–1614 Agustín de Zavala, 1614–1625 Martín de Zavala, 1625–1664 León de Alza, 1665–1667 Nicolás de Azcárraga, 1667–1676 Domingo de Prudena, 1676–1681 Blas de la Garza y Falcón, 1681 Domingo de Videgaray y Zarza, 1681 Francisco de la Calancha y Valenzuela, 1681 Blas de la Garza Falcón, 1681 Juan de Echeverría, 1681–1682 Diego de Villarreal, 1682–1683 Alonso de León, 1683–1684 Antonio de Echevérez y Subiza, 1684–1687 Francisco Cuervo de Valdés, 1687–1688 Pedro Fernández de la Ventosa, 1688–1693 Juan Pérez de Merino, 1693–1698 Juan Francisco de Vergara y Mendoza 1698–1703 Francisco Báez Treviño, 1703–1705 Gregorio de Salinas Varona, 1705–1707 Cipriano García de Pruneda, 1707–1708 Luis García de Pruneda 1708–1710 Francisco Mier y Torre, 1710–1714 Francisco Báez Treviño 1714–1718 Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollón 1718 Francisco de Barbadillo y Vitoria, 1719–1723 Juan José de Arriaga y Brambila, 1723–1725 Pedro de Sarabia Cortés, 1725–1729 Bernardino de Meneses Monroy y Mendoza, 1730–1731 Juan Antonio Fernández de Jáuregui y Urrutia, 1731–1740 Pedro del Barrio Junco y Espriella, 1740–1746 Vicente Bueno de Borbolla, 1746–1751 Pedro del Barrio Junco y Espriella, 1752–1757 Juan Manuel Muñoz de Villavicencio, 1757–1762 Carlos de Velasco, 1762–1764 Ignacio Ussel y Guimbarda, 1764–1772 Francisco de Echegaray, 1772–1773 Melchor Vidal de Lorca y Villena, 1773 Vicente González de Santianes, 1773–1788 Manuel Bahamonde y Villamil, 1788–1795 Simón de Herrera y Leyva, 1795–1810 Manuel de Santa María, 1810–1811 José Santiago Villarreal, 1811 Blas José Gómez de Castro, 1811–1813 Ramón Díaz Bustamante, 1813 José Antonio Mujica, 1814 Froilán de Mier y Noguera, 1815 Francisco Bruno Barreda, 1816 and 1818–1821 Bernardo Villamil, 1817–1818 Juan de Echandía 1822 Francisco de Mier y Noriega, 1823 José Antonio Rodríguez, 1824 José María Parás, 1825–1827 and 1848–1850 Manuel Gómez Castro, 1827–1829 and 1833 Joaquín García, 1829–1833 and 1837–1839 Manuel María de Llano, 1833–1834 and 1839–1845.
Juan Nepomuceno de la Garza y Evía, 1835–1837 and 1845–1846 José María Ortega, 1841 Pedro de Ampudia, 1846 and 1853–1854 Pedro José García, 1850–1851 Agapito García Dávila, 1851–1853 Mariano Morret, 1854 Jerónimo Cardona, 1854–1855 Santiago Vidaurri, 1855–1859 and 1860–1864 José Silvestre Aramberri, 1859 Jesús María Benítez y Pinillos, 1864 Mariano Escobedo, 1865 Simón de la Garza Melo, 1865 Mariano Escobedo, 1866 Manuel Z. Gómez, 1866–1867 Jerónimo Treviño, 1867–1869 Simón de la Garza Melo, 1869 Lázaro Garza Ayala, 1869 José Eleuterio González, 1870 Jerónimo Treviño.
Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP of US$123 billion and the third largest with an estimated population of 4,689,601 people as of 2015. Monterrey serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations, its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is higher than the rest of the country's at around US$35,500 to the country's US$18,800, it is considered a Beta World City and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico and is regarded as its most "Americanized"; as an important industrial and business center, the city is home to many Mexican companies, including Grupo Avante, Lanix Electronics, Ocresa, CEMEX, Vitro, OXXO, FEMSA, DINA S. A. Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery, Grupo ALFA. Monterrey is home to international companies such as Siemens, Ternium, Toshiba, Whirlpool, Toyota, Babcock & Wilcox, British American Tobacco, Dell, Boeing, HTC, General Electric, Johnson Controls, Gamesa, LG, SAS Institute, Danfoss and Teleperformance, among others.
Monterrey is at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey was founded by Diego de Montemayor in 1596. In the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city has experienced great industrial growth. Before the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation-state, the population consisted of some indigenous semi-nomadic groups. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey: Azalapas, Huachichiles and Borrados. In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey sits was known as the Extremadura Valley, an area unexplored by the Spanish colonizers; the first expeditions and colonization attempts were led by conquistador Alberto del Canto, who named the city Santa Lucia, but they were unsuccessful because the Spanish were attacked by the natives and fled.
The Spanish expeditionary Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva negotiated with King Philip II of Spain to establish a territory in northern New Spain that would be called Nuevo León, the "New Kingdom of León". In 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey; the New Kingdom of León extended westward from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, around 1,000 kilometers northward. For eight years Nuevo León was abandoned and uninhabited, until a third expedition of 13 families led by conquistador Diego de Montemayor founded Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey on September 20, 1596, next to a water spring called Ojos de Agua de Santa Lucia, where the Museum of Mexican History and Santa Lucía riverwalk are now; the new city's name was chosen to honor the wife of Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey, ninth Viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey's Coat of Arms shows an Indian throwing an arrow to the sun in front of Cerro de la Silla mountain.
This represents a native ceremony performed at sunrise. During the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens; the city facilitated trade between San Antonio and from Saltillo to the center of the country. Tampico's port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories' trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the northern foreign colonies. In the 19th century, after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey rose as a key economic center for the newly formed nation due to its balanced ties between Europe, the United States, the capital. In 1824, the "New Kingdom of León" became the State of Nuevo León, Monterrey was selected as its capital, but the political instability that followed the first 50 years of the new country allowed two American invasions and an internal secession war, during which the governor of the state annexed Coahuila and Tamaulipas states, designating Monterrey as the capital of the Republic of the Sierra Madre as it did before in 1840 for the Republic of the Rio Grande.
In 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican–American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after repelling U. S. forces' first few advances on the city. The battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center. Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua and Jerónimo Treviño. During the last decade of the 19th century, Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry, it was during this period that José Eleuterio González founded the University Hospital, now one of northeast Mexico's best public hospitals, affiliated with the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León. Antonio Basagoiti and other citizens founded the Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey; the brewery Cervecería Cuaut
Fernando Canales Clariond
Fernando de Jesús Canales Clariond is a Mexican politician and businessman affiliated with the National Action Party. He succeeded his cousin, Benjamín Clariond as governor of Nuevo León in 1997, he served as Secretary of Economy and as Secretary of Energy in the cabinet of Vicente Fox. Fernando Canales is the son of Fernando Canales Consuelo Clariond. Consuelo is the daughter of Jacques Antoine Clariond, founder of Industrias Monterrey, his wife María Garza. IMSA is nowadays one of the leading business groups in Latin America. During his youth he considered the Catholic priesthood but opted-in for a bachelor's degree in law from the Escuela Libre de Derecho. On he received an MBA from the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education and specialized in industrial relations at the Institute of Social Studies of The Hague, in the Netherlands. In the private sector Canales has served as chief executive officer and vice president of IMSA and as a member of the board in several companies in the United States, Venezuela, Argentina and Mexico.
Politically, he is a member of the right-of-center National Action Party since 1978. He became its 1985 nominee for the Nuevo León governorship but lost against Jorge Treviño of the Revolutionary Institutional Party. Twelve years he reattempted it and won, becoming the first governor of the PAN in the history of the state; as a governor, Canales delivered mixed results. He left the post after being invited to the federal cabinet by President Vicente Fox and was appointed Secretary of Economy on January 15, 2003, his former treasurer, Fernando Elizondo, assumed as interim but Elizondo lost the governorship in the July 2003 elections against Natividad González Parás, Canales' leading opponent six years earlier. 1997, Nuevo Leon state election
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Nuevo León the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey, it is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer stretch of the U. S.–Mexico border adjacent to the U. S. state of Texas. The state was named after the New Kingdom of León, an administrative territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, itself named after the historic Spanish Kingdom of León. Besides its capital, other important cities are Guadalupe, Santa Catarina, San Nicolás de los Garza, San Pedro Garza García, all of which are part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. Nuevo León was founded by conquistador Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of any permanent settlements.
Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate the area, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of a group of Portuguese and Spanish settlers who were of Jewish descent, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to settle the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León and would fail as well. It wasn't until 1596 under the leadership of Diego de Montemayor. Nuevo Leon became one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain; the capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico with over four million residents. Monterrey is a modern and affluent city, Nuevo León has long been one of Mexico's most industrialized states. Nuevo León has an extreme climate, there is little rainfall throughout the year; the territory covers 64,220 square kilometres, can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos and Santa Clara mountain ranges, the Pilón, Ascensión, Río Blanco valleys.
As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey and the metropolitan area. There are the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Agualeguas dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality; the flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, prairie dogs, foxes and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species; as of 2015, Nuevo León's population was about 5.119 million. Of these over 90%, or about 4.7 million, of the state's population resides within the Monterrey Metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Life expectancy in the state is high, being 79 years for women. Ninety-four percent of the total population occupy urban areas, one million of which are home-owners, 98% have all utilities; the remaining 2% is the small indigenous population, isolated and lives in the mountain regions.
Following the nation's tendency, a majority of the population identifies as being Roman Catholic, but it has a sizable Protestant population. The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an perfect record for finished secondary education, 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree. In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2.8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard. Institutions of higher education include: Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Tecnológico Nacional de México Centro de Estudios Universitarios Universidad Regiomontana Universidad Metropolitana de Monterrey Universidad de Monterrey Centro de Estudios Superiores de Diseño de Monterrey Facultad Libre de Derecho de Monterrey Highly industrialized, Nuevo León possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland.
In 2007, the per capita GDP of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At about $27,000, it was the highest GDP per capita of any Mexican state, was therefore higher than the Mexican national average. One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, is among the richest in the country in terms of per capita income, it is home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex, Maseca, Banorte, ALFA (Sigma, Nemak and Hylsa, i-service, Vitro SA, FEMSA, Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma. Nuevo León boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt"
Municipal president of Monterrey
List of the colonial governors and municipal presidents of the Municipality of Monterrey, in the state of Nuevo León. Timeline of Monterrey, Mexico Governor of Nuevo León Official site of the government of Monterrey
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona