Pennsylvania House of Representatives
The Pennsylvania House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Pennsylvania General Assembly, the legislature of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. There are 203 members, elected for two-year terms from single member districts. Republican Mike Turzai was first elected Speaker of the House on January 6, 2015. In 2012, a State Representative district had an average population of 60,498 residents, it is the largest full-time state legislature in the country. The Hall of the House contains important symbols to Pennsylvania history and the work of legislators. Speaker's Chair: a throne-like chair of rank that sits directly behind the Speaker's rostrum. Architect Joseph Huston designed the chair in 1906, the year. Mace: the House symbol of authority, peace and respect for law rests in a pedestal to the right of the Speaker, its base is solid mahogany, intricately carved and capped by a brass globe engraved with the Pennsylvania coat of arms. An American Eagle perches on top; the tradition of the mace may date to the Roman Republic when attendants of Roman consuls carried bundles of sticks wrapped around an axe to enforce order.
The tradition is common may come directly from Pennsylvania's English heritage. Murals: a colorful panorama of Pennsylvania history appear in murals by Edwin Austin Abbey; the most commanding of the series hangs behind the Speaker's rostrum and dominates the wall behind the Speaker. It is called The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania Ceiling: a work of art in itself with its ornate geometry of gold leaf buttoned at the center by a charming painted illustration. In "The Hours", Abbey represents the passage of time in the form of 24 maidens revolving in an endless circle amidst the moon, the sun and the stars of the Milky Way; the speakership is the oldest elected statewide office in the Commonwealth. Since its first session in 1682—presided over by William Penn—over 130 house members have been elevated to the speaker's chair; the house cannot hold an official session in the absence of the speaker or his designated speaker pro tempore. Speaker Leroy Irvis was the first African American elected speaker of any state legislature in the United States since Reconstruction.
Speaker Dennis O'Brien was the only minority-party Speaker known in Pennsylvania and only the second known nationwide. Pennsylvania has never had a female speaker; as of November 13, 2018 Speaker of the House of Representatives: Mike Turzai Pennsylvania State Senate Project Vote Smart List of Pennsylvania state legislatures Specific GeneralTrostle, Sharon, ed.. The Pennsylvania Manual. 119. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Department of General Services. ISBN 0-8182-0334-X. Pennsylvania House of Representatives State House of Pennsylvania information and voting records This link leads to information about elected officials and candidates in Pennsylvania on the website "Project Vote Smart." This web site provides such information for all states in the US
Panama the Republic of Panama, is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people. Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century, it broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada and Venezuela. After Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada became the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the construction of the Panama Canal to be completed by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914; the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties led to the transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999. Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce and tourism are major and growing sectors.
It is regarded as a high-income country. In 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index. In 2018, Panama was ranked seventh-most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them found nowhere else on the planet. Panama is a founding member of the United Nations and other international organizations such as OAS, LAIA, G77, WHO and NAM; the definite origin of the name Panama is unknown. There are several theories. One postulates that the country was named after a found species of tree. Another that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, that the name means "many butterflies" in one or several of indigenous Amerindian languages that were spoken in the territory prior to Spanish colonization. Most scientifically corroborated theory, that by Panamanian linguists, states that the word is a hispanicization of Kuna language word "bannaba" which means "distant" or "far away".
A relayed legend in Panama is that there was a fishing village that bore the name "Panamá", which purportedly meant "an abundance of fish", when the Spanish colonizers first landed in the area. The exact location of the village is unspecified; the legend is corroborated by Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán's diary entries, who reports landing at an unnamed village while exploring the Pacific coast of Panama in 1515. In 1517, Don Gaspar de Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post in the same location Guzmán described. In 1519, Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Spanish Empire's Pacific port at the site; the new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crown's global plan after the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific began. The official definition and origin of the name as promoted by Panama's Ministry of Education is the "abundance of fish and butterflies"; this is the usual description given in social studies textbooks.
At the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the known inhabitants of Panama included the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes. These people have nearly disappeared; the Isthmus of Panama was formed about three million years ago when the land bridge between North and South America became complete, plants and animals crossed it in both directions. The existence of the isthmus affected the dispersal of people and technology throughout the American continent from the appearance of the first hunters and collectors to the era of villages and cities; the earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points. Central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillo, which date back to 2500–1700 BC; these evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, their beautiful Gran Coclé style polychrome pottery. The monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures.
Before Europeans arrived Panama was settled by Chibchan and Cueva peoples. The largest group were the Cueva; the size of the indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertain. Estimates range as high as two million people, but more recent studies place that number closer to 200,000. Archaeological finds and testimonials by early European explorers describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety and suggesting people developed by regular regional routes of commerce; when Panama was colonized, the indigenous peoples fled into nearby islands. Scholars believe that infectious disease was the primary cause of the population decline of American natives; the indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity to diseases, chronic in Eurasian populations for centuries. Rodrigo de Bastidas sailed westward from Venezuela in 1501 in search of gold, became the first European to explore the isthmus of Panama. A year Christopher Columbus visited the isthmus, established a short-lived settlement in the Darien.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa's tortuous
27th United States Congress
The Twenty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. between March 4, 1841, March 4, 1843, during the one-month administration of U. S. President William Henry Harrison and the first two years of the presidency of his successor, John Tyler; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. Both chambers had a Whig majority. March 4, 1841: William Henry Harrison was inaugurated as President of the United States April 4, 1841: President Harrison died and Vice President John Tyler became President August 16, 1841: President Tyler's veto of a bill to re-establish the Second Bank of the United States led Whig Party members to riot outside the White House in the most violent demonstration on White House grounds in U. S. history. May 19, 1842: Dorr Rebellion April 19, 1841: Bankruptcy Act of 1841, ch.
9, 5 Stat. 440 September 4, 1841: Preemption Act of 1841, ch. 16, 5 Stat. 453 August 4, 1842: Armed Occupation Act, 5 Stat. 502 August 30, 1842: Tariff of 1842, ch. 270, 5 Stat. 548 August 9, 1842: Webster-Ashburton Treaty signed, establishing the United States–Canada border east of the Rocky Mountains. President: John Tyler, until April 4, 1841, thereafter vacant Presidents pro tempore: William R. King, elected March 4, 1841 Samuel L. Southard), elected March 11, 1841 Willie P. Mangum, elected May 31, 1842 Speaker: John D. White This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1844.
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 9 Democrats: no net change Whigs: no net change deaths: 2 resignations: 8 interim appointments: 0 vacancy: 1 Total seats with changes: 10 replacements: 17 Democrats: 3 seat net gain Whigs: 3 seat net loss deaths: 8 resignations: 12 contested election: 1 Total seats with changes: 20 Lists of committees and their party leaders. Agriculture Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Fiscal Corporation of the United States Foreign Relations Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents and the Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Printing Private Land Claims Public Buildings and Grounds Public Lands Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Tariff Regulation Whole Accounts Agriculture Apportionment of Representatives Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Memorial of the Agricultural Bank of Mississippi Mileage Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Secretary: Asbury Dickens of North Carolina elected December 12, 1836 Sergeant at Arms: Stephen Haight of New York, elected September 4, 1837 Edward Dyer of Maryland, elected March 8, 1841 Chaplain: George G. Cookman, elected December 31, 1839 Septimus Tustin, elected June 12, 1841 Clerk: Matthew St. Clair Clarke of Pennsylvania, elected May 31, 1841 Sergeant at Arms: Eleazor M. Townsend of Connecticut, elected June 8, 1841 Doorkeeper: Joseph Follansbee of Massachusetts, elected June 8, 1841 Postmaster: William J. McCormick, elected June 8, 1841 Chaplain: John W. French, elected May 31, 1841 John N. Maffit, elected December 6, 1841 Frederick T. Tiffany, elected December 5, 1842 Reading Clerks: United States elections, 1840 United States presidential election, 1840 United States Senate elections, 1840 and 1841 United States House of Representatives elections, 1840 United States elections, 1842 United States Senate elections, 1842 and 1843 United States House of Representatives elections, 1842 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists Congressional Directory for the 27th Congress, 1st Session
Luzerne County, Pennsylvania
Luzerne County is a county in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 906 square miles, of which 890 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water, it is Northeastern Pennsylvania's second-largest county by total area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 320,918, making it the most populous county in the northeastern part of the state; the county seat and largest city is Wilkes-Barre. Other populous communities include Hazleton, Kingston and Pittston. Luzerne County is included in the Scranton–Wilkes-Barre–Hazleton Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a total population of 555,426. On September 25, 1786, Luzerne County was formed from part of Northumberland County, it was named after a French soldier and diplomat during the 18th century. When it was founded, Luzerne County occupied a large portion of Northeastern Pennsylvania. From 1810 to 1878, it was divided into several smaller counties; the counties of Bradford, Lackawanna and Wyoming were all formed from parts of Luzerne County.
The county gained prominence in the 19th and 20th centuries as an active anthracite coal mining region, drawing a large portion of its labor force from European immigrants. At its peak, the county's population was 445,109. By the early 21st century, many factories and coal mines were closed. Like most counties in the Rust Belt, Luzerne witnessed urban decay; the Luzerne County Historical Society maintains the storehouse for the collective memory of Luzerne County and its environs. It records and interprets the history, events and cultures that have directed and molded life within the region. By the 1700s, the Wyoming Valley was inhabited by several Native American tribes. In the mid-18th century, Connecticut settlers ventured into the valley; these were the first recorded Europeans in the region. Some came to conduct missionary work with the Native Americans, while others came to farm the fertile land near the Susquehanna River; the violence of the French and Indian War drove these Connecticut settlers away.
The British colonies of Pennsylvania and Connecticut claimed the Wyoming Valley as their own. King Charles II of England had granted the land to the Colony of Connecticut in 1662, to William Penn in 1681; this led to a series of military skirmishes known as the Pennamite-Yankee Wars. By 1769, Yankee settlers from Connecticut returned to the valley and founded the town of Wilkes-Barre. However, they were not alone. Pennsylvanians were in the region; the armed bands of Pennsylvanians harassed the Connecticut settlers. While the land dispute continued, a much larger conflict began; the Thirteen Colonies were waging a war of independence against Great Britain. Both Pennsylvania and Connecticut were loyal to the cause of American independence. On June 30, 1778, British forces, under the command of Colonel John Butler, arrived in the Wyoming Valley to confront the American settlers; the following day — July 1 — the American militia at Fort Wintermute surrendered. Several miles away, Fort Jenkins capitulated.
It was burned to the ground. On July 3, the British spotted the American militia near Forty Fort. Butler wanted to lure the Americans away from their fortifications, he ordered for Fort Wintermute to be set ablaze. The Patriots, advanced rapidly. British soldiers, with the assistance of about 700 Native Americans, ambushed the oncoming American militia. In the end, nearly 300 Wyoming Valley settlers were killed in what would be known as the Wyoming Massacre. Today, in the Borough of Wyoming, a monument marks the gravesite of the victims from the battle. On July 4 — the following morning — the American colonel, Nathan Denison, agreed to surrender Forty Fort along with several other posts. A portion of Fort Pittston was destroyed. Two years the Americans stormed the fortification and recaptured it. From on, it was under Patriot control until the end of the war. In September 1778, revenge for the Wyoming defeat was taken by American Colonel Thomas Hartley, he and his 200 soldiers burned one dozen Native American villages along the Susquehanna River.
Two years in September 1780, reports of British activity in the region caused Captain Daniel Klader and a platoon of 40 to 50 Patriots to investigate. Captain Klader's men made it as far north as present-day Conyngham, when they were ambushed by the Seneca nation and the Tories. Eighteen of Klader's men were killed in; the American Revolutionary War ended three years with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. With the signing of the treaty, Great Britain recognized the sovereignty of the United States of America. Though the War of Independence had concluded, the land dispute between Pennsylvania and Connecticut continued. Connecticut established its own county in the Wyoming Valley. However, Pennsylvania insisted; the Congress of the Confederation was asked to resolve the matter. With the Decree of Trenton, on December 30, 1782, the confederation government decided that the region belonged to Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania ruled that the Connecticut settlers were not citizens of the Co
Bogotá Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D. C. and known as Santafé/Santa Fé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although erroneously thought of as part of Cundinamarca. Bogotá is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia, it is the political, economic and industrial center of the country. Bogotá was founded as the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada on August 6, 1538, by Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada after a harsh expedition into the Andes conquering the Muisca; the Muisca were the indigenous inhabitants of the region and called the settlement where Bogotá was founded Bacatá, which in the Chibcha language means "The Lady of the Andes." Further, the word'Andes' in the Aymara language means "shining mountain," thus rendering the full lexical signification of Bogotá as "The Lady of the shining mountain." After the Battle of Boyacá on August 7, 1819, Bogotá became the capital of the independent nation of Gran Colombia.
Since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire and during the formation of present-day Colombia, Bogotá has remained the capital of this territory. The city is located in the center of Colombia, on a high plateau known as the Bogotá savanna, part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes, it is the third-highest capital in South America and in the world after Quito and La Paz, at an average of 2,640 metres above sea level. Subdivided into 20 localities, Bogotá has an area of 1,587 square kilometres and a cool climate, constant through the year; the city is home to central offices of the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch of the Colombian government. Bogotá stands out for its economic strength and associated financial maturity, its attractiveness to global companies and the quality of human capital, it is the financial and commercial heart of Colombia, with the most business activity of any city in the country.
The capital hosts the main financial market in Colombia and the Andean natural region, is the leading destination for new foreign direct investment projects coming into Latin America and Colombia. It has the highest nominal GDP in the country, responsible for a quarter of the nation's total; the city's airport, El Dorado International Airport, named after the mythical El Dorado, handles the largest cargo volume in Latin America, is third in number of people. Bogotá is home to the largest number of universities and research centers in the country, is an important cultural center, with many theaters and museums, of which the Museo del Oro is the most important. Bogotá ranks 52nd on the Global Cities Index 2014, is considered a global city type "Alpha −" by GaWC; the area of modern Bogotá was first populated by groups of indigenous people who migrated south based on the relation with the other Chibcha languages. The civilisation built by the Muisca, who settled in the valleys and fertile highlands of and surrounding the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, was one of the four great civilisations in the Americas.
The name Muisca Confederation has been given to a loose egalitarian society of various chiefs who lived in small settlements of maximum 100 bohíos. The agriculture and salt-based society of the people was rich in goldworking and mummification; the religion of the Muisca consisted of various gods related to natural phenomena as the Sun and his wife, the Moon. Their complex luni-solar calendar, deciphered by Manuel Izquierdo based on work by Duquesne, followed three different sets of years, where the sidereal and synodic months were represented, their astronomical knowledge is represented in one of the few extant landmarks of the architecture of the Muisca in El Infiernito outside Villa de Leyva to the north of Bogotá. The first populations inhabiting the present-day Metropolitan Area of Bogotá, were hunter-gatherer people in the late Pleistocene; the oldest dated evidence thus far has been discovered in El Abra, north of Zipaquirá. Dated excavations in a rock shelter southwest of the city in Soacha provided ages of ~11,000 BP.
Since around 0 AD, the Muisca domesticated part of their meat diet. The people inhabiting the Bogotá savanna in the late 15th century were the Muisca, speaking Muysccubun, a member of the Chibcha language family. Muisca means "person", making "Muisca people", how they are called, a tautology. At the arrival of the conquerors, the population was estimated to be half a million indigenous people on the Bogotá savanna of up to two million in the Muisca Confederation, they occupied the highland and mild climate flanks between the Sumapaz Mountains to the southwest and Cocuy's snowy peak to the northeast, covering an approximate area of 25,000 km2, comprising Bogotá's high plain, the current Boyacá department portion and a small Santander region. Trade was the most important activity of the Muisca with other Chibcha-speaking neighbours, such as the Guane, Lache and U'wa and with Cariban groups as the Muzo or "Emerald People", their knowledge of salt pro
James B. Bowlin
James Butler Bowlin was a U. S. Representative from Missouri. Born near Fredericksburg, Bowlin took an apprenticeship to a trade, but abandoned it to teach at a school, he received a classical education and moved to Lewisburg, Virginia in 1825. Bowlin studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1822, commencing his practice in Greenbrier County, he continued the practice of law. Bowlin established the Farmers and Mechanics' Advocate. Bowlin served as Chief Clerk of the State House of Representatives in 1836, he served as member of the Missouri House of Representatives in 1836 and 1837, was appointed district attorney for St. Louis in 1837, was an unsuccessful candidate for the State House of Representatives in 1838. Bowlin was elected judge of the criminal court in 1839 and served until his resignation in 1842. Bowlin was elected as a Democrat to the three succeeding Congresses, he served as chairman of the Committee on Committee on Public Lands. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1850 to the Thirty-second Congress.
Bowlin was appointed Minister Resident to New Granada by President Pierce December 13, 1854. He was appointed commissioner to Paraguay by President Buchanan September 9, 1858, served until February 10, 1859. Afterwards, Bowlin resumed the practice of law, he died in St. Louis, July 19, 1874, was interred in Bellefontaine Cemetery. United States Congress. "James B. Bowlin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader