The Androscoggin River is a river in the U. S. states of Maine and New Hampshire, in northern New England. It is 178 miles long and joins the Kennebec River at Merrymeeting Bay in Maine before its water empties into the Gulf of Maine on the Atlantic Ocean and its drainage basin is 3,530 square miles in area. The Anglicization of the Abenaki term is likely an analogical contamination with the colonial governor Edmund Andros, the Androscoggin begins in Errol, New Hampshire, where the Magalloway River joins the outlet of Umbagog Lake. Continuing east, the passes the towns of Bethel, Rumford. The river passes through the cities of Lewiston and Auburn, turns southeast, passes the community of Lisbon Falls. Merrymeeting Bay is a 10-mile-long freshwater estuary where the Androscoggin meets the Kennebec River nearly 20 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean. The Androscoggin was once polluted by a variety of textile mills, paper mills, and other industries located along its banks. One environmentalist group has cited the results in calling the Androscoggin one of the 20 most polluted rivers in America, one 14-mile stretch requires oxygen bubblers to prevent fish from suffocating.
As of May 2007, environmental groups had a lawsuit pending, the U. S. Geological Survey maintains four river flow gauges on the Androscoggin River. All four are below one or more dams, the first is at Errol, New Hampshire, where the watershed is 1,046 square miles. Flow here has ranged from 16,500 to 0 ft³/s, the mean annual flow between 1905 and 2005 is 1,919 ft³/s. The second is near Gorham, New Hampshire, where the watershed is 1,361 square miles, flow here has ranged from 21,900 to a mean daily low of 795 ft³/s. The mean annual flow between 1905 and 2005 is 2,512 ft³/s, the third is at Rumford, where the watershed is 2,068 square miles. Flow here has ranged from 74,000 to 625 ft³/s, the mean annual flow between 1905 and 2005 is 3,801 ft³/s. The fourth is at Auburn, where the watershed is 3,263 square miles, flow here has ranged from 135,000 to 340 ft³/s. The Androscoggin River is a fishing destination for anglers seeking brook and brown trout, as well as landlocked salmon. The upper reaches near Errol, New Hampshire, are popular with local, although the upper reaches contain some bass, the river warms as it flows into Maine, and smallmouth bass are the chief quarry in its lower reaches.
The ancient name for the river was Pescedona, which is Abenaki for a branch, maineRivers. org Androscoggin River profile Real-time flow data for the Errol, NH, Gorham, NH, Rumford, ME, and Auburn, ME gages
Brunswick is a town in Cumberland County in southeastern Maine, United States. The population was 20,278 at the 2010 United States Census and it is home to Mid Coast Hospital, one of Maines newest full-service hospitals, and Parkview Adventist Medical Center that closed in 2015 after filing for bankruptcy. It was home to Naval Air Station Brunswick which was closed on May 31,2011. Settled in 1628 by Thomas Purchase and other fishermen, the area was called by its Indian name, meaning the long, in 1639, Purchase placed his settlement under protection of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. During King Philips War in 1676, Pejepscot was burned and abandoned, during the war, in Major Benjamin Churchs second expedition a year later, he arrived on 11 September 1690 with 300 men at Casco Bay. He went up the Androscoggin River to the English Fort Pejepscot, from there he went 40 miles up-river and attacked a native village. Three or four men were shot in retreat, when Church discovered 5 English captives in the wigwams, six or seven prisoners were butchered as an example.
A few days later, in retaliation, the natives attacked Church at Cape Elizabeth on Purpooduc Point, killing 7 of his men, on September 26, Church returned to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The 1713 Treaty of Portsmouth brought peace to the region between the Abenaki Indians and the English colonists, in 1714, a consortium from Boston and Portsmouth bought the land, thereafter called the Pejepscot Purchase. The Massachusetts General Court constituted the township in 1717, naming it Brunswick in honor of the House of Brunswick and its scion, a stone fort called Fort George was built in 1715 near the falls. But during Dummers War on July 13,1722, Abenaki warriors from Norridgewock burned the village, Governor Samuel Shute declared war on the Abenakis. In 1724,208 English troops left Fort Richmond and sacked Norridgewock during Dummers War, Brunswick was rebuilt again in 1727, and in 1739 incorporated as a town. It became a seaport, where Bowdoin College was chartered in 1794. The Androscoggin River falls in three stages for a total vertical drop of 41 feet, providing water power for industry.
Brunswick became a producer of lumber, with as many as 25 sawmills. Some of the lumber went into shipbuilding, other firms produced paper, flour and granite work and harness, furniture and confections. The town was site of the first cotton mill in Maine, purchased in 1812, the mill was enlarged by the Maine Cotton & Woolen Factory Company. In 1857, the Cabot Manufacturing Company was established to make cotton textiles and it bought the failed Worumbo Mill and expanded the brick factory along the falls
King Philip's War
King Philips War was an armed conflict between American Indian inhabitants of present-day New England and English colonists and their Indian allies in 1675–78. The war is named for Metacomet, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the English name Philip due to the relations between his father and the Mayflower Pilgrims. The war continued in the most northern reaches of New England until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April 1678, Metacom was the second son of Wampanoag chief Massasoit, who had coexisted peacefully with the Pilgrims. Metacom succeeded his brother in 1662 and reacted against the European settlers continued encroaching onto Wampanoag lands, at Taunton in 1671, he was humiliated when colonists forced him to sign a new peace agreement that included the surrender of Indian guns. Officials in Plymouth Colony hanged three Wampanoags in 1675 for the murder of an Indian, and Metacoms followers and allies launched an assault on colonial towns throughout the region. Metacoms forces gained initial victories in the first year, but the Indian alliance began to unravel, by the end of the conflict, the Wampanoags and their Narragansett allies were almost completely destroyed.
Metacom anticipated their defeat and returned to his home at Mt. Hope. More than half of New Englands towns were attacked by Indians, King Philips War began the development of a greater European-American identity. The colonists trials, without significant English government support, gave them an identity separate. The Pilgrims who arrived on the Mayflower and founded Plymouth Plantation expended great effort in forging friendship and they traveled long distances to make peace with Chief Massasoit, and Governor William Bradford made a gift of his magnificent and prized red horse coat upon seeing that the chief admired it. By 1675, the efforts at friendship failed. Plymouth, Massachusetts was established in 1620 with significant early help from local Indians, particularly Squanto and Massasoit, the colonists progressively expanded throughout the territories of the several Algonquian-speaking tribes in the region. Prior to King Philips War, tensions fluctuated between Indian tribes and the colonists, but relations were generally peaceful, many of the neighboring tribes had been traditional competitors and enemies.
As the colonial population increased, the New Englanders expanded their settlements along the coastal plain. By 1675, they had established a few towns in the interior between Boston and the Connecticut River settlements. The Wampanoag tribe under Metacomets leadership had entered into an agreement with the Plymouth Colony, however, in the decades preceding the war it, became clear to them that the treaty did not mean that the Colonists were not allowed to settle in new territories. Metacomet became sachem of the Pokanoket and Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag Confederacy after the death in 1662 of his older brother, the latter had succeeded their father Massasoit as chief. Well known to the English before his ascension as paramount chief to the Wampanoag, the Plymouth colonists had put in place laws making it illegal to do commerce with the Wampanoags
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against ones nation or sovereign. Historically, treason covered the murder of specific social superiors, Treason against the king was known as high treason and treason against a lesser superior was petty treason. A person who commits treason is known in law as a traitor, orans Dictionary of the Law defines treason as a citizens actions to help a foreign government overthrow, make war against, or seriously injure the. In many nations, it is often considered treason to attempt or conspire to overthrow the government. At times, the term traitor has been used as a political epithet, in a civil war or insurrection, the winners may deem the losers to be traitors. In certain cases, as with the Dolchstoßlegende, the accusation of treason towards a group of people can be a unifying political message. Treason is considered to be different and on occasions a separate charge from treasonable felony in many parts of the world. In English law, high treason was punishable by being hanged and quartered or burnt at the stake and those penalties were abolished in 1814,1790 and 1973 respectively.
The penalty was used by monarchs against people who could reasonably be called traitors, many of them would now just be considered dissidents. His treachery is considered so notorious that his name has long been synonymous with traitor, christian theology and political thinking until after the Enlightenment considered treason and blasphemy as synonymous, as it challenged both the state and the will of God. Kings were considered chosen by God, and to ones country was to do the work of Satan. Many nations laws mention various types of treason, Crimes Related to Insurrection is the internal treason, and may include a coup detat. Crimes Related to Foreign Aggression is the treason of cooperating with foreign aggression positively regardless of the national inside and outside, Crimes Related to inducement of Foreign Aggression is the crime of communicating with aliens secretly to cause foreign aggression or menace. Depending on a country, conspiracy is added to these, in Japan, the application of Crimes Related to Insurrection was considered about Aum Shinrikyo cult which caused religious terrorism. A person is not guilty of treason under paragraphs, or if their assistance or intended assistance is purely humanitarian in nature, the only permissible penalty for treason is life imprisonment.
Section 24AA of the Crimes Act 1914 creates the offence of treachery. The Treason Act 1351, the Treason Act 1795 and the Treason Act 1817 form part of the law of New South Wales, Section 16 provides that nothing in Part 2 repeals or affects anything enacted by the Treason Act 1351. This section reproduces section 6 of the Treason Felony Act 1848, the offence of treason was created by section 9A of the Crimes Act 1958
Falmouth is a town in Cumberland County, United States. The population was 11,185 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Portland–South Portland–Biddeford, Maine metropolitan statistical area. This northern suburb of Portland borders Casco Bay and offers one of the largest anchorages in Maine, the town is home to three private golf clubs and the Portland Yacht Club. Native Americans followed receding glaciers into Maine around 11,000 BCE, at the time of European contact in the sixteenth century, Algonquian speaking people inhabited present-day Falmouth. These people spoke the Eastern dialect of the Wabanaki language, captain John Smith observed a semi-autonomous band known as the Aucocisco inhabiting Casco Bay. English explorer Christopher Levett met with the Aucocisco Sagamore Skittery Gusset at his village at the Presumpscot Falls in 1623. The introduction of European wares in the 1500s reoriented long-standing Native trade relationships in the Gulf of Maine, warfare soon broke out among groups such as the Mikmaq and Penobscot who sought to subjugate their neighbors by monopolizing access to European goods.
The arrival of foreign pathogens only served to compound the upheaval in the region, a particularly notorious pandemic between 1614 and 1620 ravaged the population of coastal New England with mortality rates at upwards of 90 percent. Native peoples were not totally destroyed however, maintaining a presence in the Casco Bay area until King Georges War in the 1740s, falmouths original bounds encompassed the present day cities of Portland, South Portland and Cape Elizabeth. Today’s town was known as New Casco, and was only a neighborhood within the collection of communities around Casco Bay centered in what is downtown Portland. Falmouth’s early years were marked by violence as it lay on a borderland zone between Europeans and Native Americans. Casco Bay represented the northernmost point of English settlement on the east coast until 1713, numerous wars between 1675-1763 among the English and Native Americans rarely left Falmouth unscathed from the violence. The English twice abandoned Casco Bay altogether under pressure from French, the first European resident was Arthur Mackworth, who lived on the east bank of the Presumpscot River as early as 1630.
The former location of the fort can be found today opposite Pine Grove Cemetery on Route 88, Massachusetts built the fort at the behest of local Abenaki desiring a convenient place to trade and repair tools and weapons. A1701 meeting between the Abenaki-Pequawket and Massachusetts officials cemented an alliance between the two, a pair of stone cairns were erected to symbolize the new partnership. The nearby Two Brothers Islands received their name from this now long-forgotten monument, unfortunately this peace would last less than three years, with the inauguration of Queen Annes War in 1702. Governor Joseph Dudley held a conference at New Casco with representatives of the Abenaki tribes on June 20,1703, trying to convince them not to ally with the French. His efforts were unsuccessful, as the fort was besieged only two by Abenaki Sagamores Moxus, Wanungonet and their French Allies during the Northeast Coast Campaign
Fredericton is the capital of the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The city is situated in the portion of the province along the Saint John River. One of the urban centres in New Brunswick, the city had a population of 56,224 in the 2011 census. It is the third-largest city in the province after Moncton and Saint John, the city hosts the annual Harvest Jazz & Blues Festival, attracting regional and international jazz, blues and world artists. Fredericton is an important and vibrant center point for the regions top visual artists, many of New Brunswicks notable artists live, Fredericton has been home to some great historical Canadian painters as well, including Goodridge Roberts, and Molly and Bruno Bobak. As a provincial capital, its economy is tied to the sector, however. The city has the highest percentage of residents with an education in the province. The earliest known inhabitation of the dates back 12,000 years, according to archaeologists. Excavations unearthed a campsite with firepit and more than 600 artifacts including stone tool fragments, the area of the present-day city of Fredericton was first used for seasonal farming by the Maliseet peoples.
Maliseet cultivated food plants including, pumpkins, Jerusalem artichokes, ground nuts, in the mid-18th century their principal village of Aucpaque was located several kilometres upriver from the site of present-day Fredericton. The first European contact was by the French in the late 17th century, Joseph Robineau de Villebon received a land grant and was appointed governor of Acadia. During King Williams War, Villebon built Fort Nashwaak on the side of the Saint John River. For most of the war, Fort Nashwaak served as the capital of the French colony of Acadia and English hostilities continued along the border. Within weeks of an attack of French and Indigenous forces launched from Fort Nashwaak on Pemaquid, Maine, in 1696, an expedition under command of Major Benjamin Church set out to destroy Fort Nashwaak. Commander Villebon had been alerted and prepared his defences, on 18 October, the British troops arrived near the fort, landed three cannons, and assembled earthworks on the south bank of the Nashwaak River.
For two days gunfire was exchanged, with the advantage going to the better-sited Acadian guns. The New Englanders were defeated, with 8 soldiers killed and 17 wounded, the Acadians sustained losses of one killed and two wounded. After Villebons death in 1700 and a flood that destroyed several French farms in the area
United States Army Rangers
The United States Army Rangers are an elite military formation of the United States Army, that serve in designated U. S. Army Ranger units or are graduates from the U. S. Army Ranger School. The term ranger has been in use unofficially in a military context since the early 17th century, the first military company officially commissioned as rangers were English soldiers fighting in King Philips War and from there the term came into common official use in the French and Indian Wars. There have been American military companies officially called Rangers since the American Revolution, the 75th Ranger Regiment is an elite airborne light infantry combat formation within the United States Army Special Operations Command. The six battalions of the modern Rangers have been deployed in wars in Korea, Vietnam and Iraq, the Ranger Training Brigade —headquartered at Fort Benning—is an organization under the U. S. Armys Training and Doctrine Command and is separate from the 75th Ranger Regiment. It has been in service in various forms since World War II, the Ranger Training Brigade administrates Ranger School, the satisfactory completion of which is required to become Ranger qualified and to wear the Ranger Tab.
Rangers served in the 17th and 18th-century wars between colonists and Native American tribes, the British regulars were not accustomed to frontier warfare and so Ranger companies were developed. Rangers were full-time soldiers employed by governments to patrol between fixed frontier fortifications in reconnaissance providing early warning of raids. In offensive operations, they were scouts and guides, locating villages, in Colonial America, The earliest mention of Ranger operations comes from Capt. John Samuel Smith, who wrote in 1622, When I had ten men able to go abroad, our common wealth was very strong, Robert Black stated that, In 1622, after the Berkeley Plantation Massacre. Grim-faced men went forth to search out the Indian enemy, the American Ranger had been born. The father of American ranging is Colonel Benjamin Church and he was the captain of the first Ranger force in America. Church was commissioned by the Governor of the Plymouth Colony Josiah Winslow to form the first ranger company for King Philips War and he employed the company to raid Acadia during King Williams War and Queen Annes War.
Benjamin Church designed his force primarily to emulate Native American patterns of war, toward this end, Church endeavored to learn to fight like Native Americans from Native Americans. Americans became rangers exclusively under the tutelage of the Indian allies and his memoirs Entertaining Passages relating to Philips War is considered the first American military manual. Under Church served the father and grandfather of two famous rangers of the century, John Lovewell and John Gorham respectively. John Lovewell served during Dummers War and he lived in present-day Nashua, New Hampshire. He fought in Dummers War as a captain, leading three expeditions against the Abenaki Indians. John Lovewell became the most famous Ranger of the eighteenth century, during King Georges War, John Gorham established Gorhams Rangers
Queen Anne's War
The War of the Spanish Succession was primarily fought in Europe. In addition to the two combatants, the war involved numerous Native American tribes allied with each nation, and Spain. It was known as the Third Indian War or in French as the Second Intercolonial War, the English colonies of New England fought with French and Native American forces based in Acadia and Canada. Quebec City was repeatedly targeted by British expeditions, and the Acadian capital Port Royal was taken in 1710, the French and Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. Toward this end, they executed raids against targets in Massachusetts, on Newfoundland, English colonists based at St. Johns disputed control of the island with the French based at Plaisance. Most of the conflict consisted of destructive raids against the other sides settlements. The French successfully captured St. Johns in 1709, but the British quickly reoccupied it after the French abandoned it, following a preliminary peace in 1712, the Treaty of Utrecht ended the war in 1713.
It resulted in the French cession of claims to the territories of Hudson Bay, some of its terms were ambiguous, and concerns of various Native American tribes were not included in the treaty, setting the stage for future conflicts. In 1701, following the death in late 1700 of King Charles II, although the war was at first restricted to a few powers in Europe, in May 1702 it widened when England declared war on Spain and France. The hostilities in North America were further encouraged by existing frictions along the frontier areas separating the colonies of these powers, the total population of the English colonies at the time has been estimated at 250,000, with Virginia and New England dominating. The population centers of these colonies were concentrated along the coast, with small settlements inland, most European colonists knew very little of the interior of the continent, to the west of the Appalachians and south of the Great Lakes. This area was dominated by tribes, although French and English traders had penetrated the area.
Spanish missionaries in La Florida had established a network of missions to convert the inhabitants to Roman Catholicism. The Spanish population was small, and the native population they ministered to has been estimated to number 20,000. French explorers had located the mouth of the Mississippi River, near which they established a colonial presence in 1699 at Fort Maurepas. From there they began to trade routes into the interior, establishing friendly relations with the Choctaw. All of these populations had suffered to some degree from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases like smallpox by early explorers and traders and Spain, allies in this conflict, had been on opposite sides of the recently ended Nine Years War. To the north, the conflict held a strong component in addition to territorial disputes
The Wampanoag /ˈwɑːmpənɔːɡ/, called joto and rendered Wôpanâak, is a Native American people in North America. They were a loose confederacy made up of several tribes, many Wampanoag people today are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe and the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head, or four state-recognized tribes in Massachusetts. Their population numbered in the due to the richness of the environment and their cultivation of corn, beans. Three thousand Wampanoag lived on Marthas Vineyard alone, from 1615 to 1619 the Wampanoag suffered an epidemic, long suspected to be smallpox. Early twenty-first century research has suggested that it was leptospirosis, a bacterial infection known as Weils syndrome or 7-day fever. It caused a fatality rate and nearly destroyed the society. Researchers say that the losses from the epidemic were so large that English colonists were more able to found their settlements in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in years. More than 50 years later, the King Philips War of Indian allies against the English colonists resulted in the deaths of 40 percent of the surviving tribe, most of the male Wampanoag were sold into slavery in Bermuda or the West Indies.
Many women and children were enslaved by colonists in New England, while the tribe largely disappeared from historical records from the late 18th century, its people and descendants persisted. The project is working on curriculum and teacher development. Wampanoag means Easterners or literally People of the Dawn, the word Wapanoos was first documented on Adriaen Blocks 1614 map, which was the earliest-known European representation of Wampanoag territory. Other interpretations include Wapenock and exonym Philips Indians, in 1616, John Smith erroneously referred to the entire Wampanoag confederacy as the Pakanoket, one of the tribes. Pokanoket was used in the earliest colonial records and reports, the Pokanoket tribal seat was located near present-day Bristol, Rhode Island. Traditionally Wampanoag people have been semi-sedentary, with seasonal movements between fixed sites in present-day southern New England, the men often traveled far north and south along the Eastern seaboard for seasonal fishing expeditions, and sometimes stayed in those distant locations for weeks and months at a time.
The women cultivated varieties of the three sisters as the staples of their diet, supplemented by fish and game caught by the men. Each community had authority over a territory from which the people derived their livelihood through a seasonal round of fishing, harvesting. Because southern New England was thickly populated by peoples, hunting grounds had strictly defined boundaries. The Wampanoag, like many indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands, have a system, in which women controlled property
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years