Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Detroit is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the fourth-largest city in the Midwest and the largest city on the United States–Canada border. It is the seat of Wayne County, the most populous county in the state, the municipality of Detroit had a 2015 estimated population of 677,116, making it the 21st-most populous city in the United States. Roughly one-half of Michigans population lives in Metro Detroit alone, the Detroit–Windsor area, a commercial link straddling the Canada–U. S. Border, has a population of about 5.7 million. Detroit is a port on the Detroit River, a strait that connects the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States, the City of Detroit anchors the second-largest economic region in the Midwest, behind Chicago, and the thirteenth-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and various bridges, Detroit was founded on July 24,1701 by the French explorer and adventurer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and a party of settlers.
During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region, with expansion of the American automobile industry in the early 20th century, the Detroit area emerged as a significant metropolitan region within the United States. The city became the fourth-largest in the country for a period, in the 1950s and 1960s, suburban expansion continued with construction of a regional freeway system. A great portion of Detroits public transport was abandoned in favour of becoming a city in the post-war period. Due to industrial restructuring and loss of jobs in the auto industry, between 2000 and 2010 the citys population fell by 25 percent, changing its ranking from the nations 10th-largest city to 18th. In 2010, the city had a population of 713,777 and this resulted from suburbanization, industrial restructuring and the decline of Detroits auto industry. In 2013, the state of Michigan declared an emergency for the city. Detroit has experienced urban decay as its population and jobs have shifted to its suburbs or elsewhere, conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces since the 2000s and allowed several large-scale revitalisations.
More recently, the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago. In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Potawatomi, for the next hundred years, virtually no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois likely response. When the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, the 1798 raids and resultant 1799 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began almost immediately, and by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400, by 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec
River Raisin National Battlefield Park
The park is located in the city of Monroe in Monroe County, Michigan. It was designated as a Michigan Historic Site on February 18,1956 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 10,1982. It officially began operation as a park unit on October 22,2010 and, of the four National Battlefield Parks in the country. The area was the site of the costly Battle of Frenchtown, in which 397 Americans were killed and 547 taken prisoner after surrender to the British Army, the fighting took place from January 18–23,1813. The first engagement, sometimes referred to as the “first” Battle of the River Raisin, was a success for the American forces against the British and Indian alliance. Angered by their retreat, the British and Native Americans counterattacked the unsuspecting American forces four days on January 22 in the same location along the River Raisin. Many of the Americans were inexperienced troops from Kentucky, they were ill-prepared and were unable to retreat from the ambush, during the Battle of Frenchtown, American brigadier general James Winchester reported that only 33 of his approximate 1,000 men escaped the battlefield.
397 were killed, and 547 were taken prisoner, which marked the deadliest conflict ever on Michigan soil and the worst single defeat the Americans suffered in the entire War of 1812. The day after the battle, dozens of defenseless and wounded Americans were killed on January 23 by the Native Americans, mostly Potawatomi, the total casualties among the British and Native American alliance are unknown. Surviving prisoners were forced to march toward Detroit, and those who could not keep up were killed along the way. The River Raisin Battlefield Site was listed as a Michigan Historic Site on February 18,1956, the location of the site is bounded by North Dixie Highway, the River Raisin, Detroit Avenue, and Mason Run Creek. While the Battle of Frenchtown is so named because it took place within what was called Frenchtown township, the area of conflict extended during the three days of battle several miles to the north and south of the current park site. The current park area encompasses some 40 acres of undeveloped land on Monroe’s east side approximately one-quarter mile east of Interstate 75, the area contains houses on the outer fringe along East Elm Avenue, and much of the area is occupied by urban development.
The River Raisin Paper Company built a paper mill on the site around 1911. The site was recognized nationally when it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 10,1982 and it was officially listed as the River Raisin Battlefield Site. In July 1990, the Monroe County Historic Commission and the Monroe County Historic Society opened the River Raisin Battlefield Visitor Center within the site at 1403 East Elm Avenue, the museum contains a few relics from the original battle that were discovered during archeological investigations. Expansion to the park boundaries commenced in 1995 with closure of the paper mill. The City, Historical Society, and property owner negotiated and facilitated clean up the paper mill property
The Hunters of Kentucky
In both 1824 and 1828 Jackson used the song as his campaign song during his presidential campaigns. Hunters of Kentucky was written in 1821 by Samuel Woodworth, whose fame rest on Hunters and The Old Oaken Bucket, one-fourth of Jacksons men at the Battle of New Orleans were from Kentucky. It was sung the way Irish singers told stories in narrative form and it was first sung in New Orleans in 1822 by Noah M. Ludlow. Throughout the term of Andrew Jackson, Hunters of Kentucky proved to be a popular song and this is ironic as Jacksons fieriest rival, Henry Clay, was the one from Kentucky, Jackson was actually from Tennessee, near Nashville. However, Americans who entered Canada in 1837 and 1838 did sing the song, Hunters of Kentucky propagated various beliefs about the war. One of them was calling the Pennsylvania Rifle the Kentucky Rifle, another was crediting the riflemen with the victory of the Battle of New Orleans, when it could be said it was Jacksons artillery that was actually responsible for the win.
Finally, one said that the British planned to ransack New Orleans. This song was covered in the musical Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson as the closing number, bivouac of the Dead Faragher, John Mack. Daniel Boone, The Life and Legend of an American Pioneer, Donald R. Dont Give Up the Ship. Myths of the War of 1812, Harry L. Andrew Jackson Vs. Henry Clay
The Frankfort Cemetery is located on East Main Street in Frankfort, Kentucky. The cemetery is the burial site of Daniel Boone and contains the graves of other famous Americans including seventeen Kentucky governors. It was created by Judge Mason Brown, son of statesman John Brown, Brown enlisted other Frankfort civic leaders and on February 27,1844 the Kentucky General Assembly approved the cemeterys incorporation. The 32-acre property, called Hunters Garden, was purchased in 1845 for $3,801, additional land was purchased in 1858 and in 1911 for a total of 100 acres. Brown hired Scottish-born landscape architect Robert Carmichael to design the cemetery, the cemetery is designed in a style similar to Mount Auburn, with curving lanes, terraces and a circle of vaults. Carmichael imported flowers from around the state, intending the cemetery to double as an arboretum in a time when residents could not easily travel to see mountain flowers not native to the region. A central feature is the State Mound, featuring a Kentucky War Memorial designed by Robert E.
Launitz, the cemetery has views of the Kentucky River, which forms its western boundary. A bluff overlooking the river gives a view of downtown, south Frankfort, the most visited resting place in this cemetery is pioneer Daniel Boone. The cemetery contains the graves of seventeen Governors of the Commonwealth, some notable interments include, William T. Barry, U. S. Senator and United States Postmaster General George M. Bibb, U. S, senator and United States Secretary of the Treasury John Brown, statesman Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. U. S. Army General, World War II Henry Clay, Jr. S. Theodore OHara, newspaperman, soldier Thomas H. Paynter, morrow Charles Scott Augustus O. Stanley Lawrence Wetherby Simeon Willis Gravestones and Memorials in Frankfort Cemetery L. F. Johnson, History of Frankfort Cemetery. Frankfort Cemetery Map & Photos Find a grave famous burials Frankfort cemetery Daniel Boones Grave
War of 1812
Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but the British often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. By the wars end in early 1815, the key issues had been resolved, the view was shared in much of New England and for that reason the war was widely referred to there as Mr. Madison’s War. As a result, the primary British war goal was to defend their North American colonies, the war was fought in three theatres. Second and naval battles were fought on the U. S. –Canadian frontier, large-scale battles were fought in the Southern United States and Gulf Coast. With the majority of its land and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars, early victories over poorly-led U. S. armies demonstrated that the conquest of the Canadas would prove more difficult than anticipated. Despite this, the U. S. was able to inflict serious defeats on Britains Native American allies, both governments were eager for a return to normality and peace negotiations began in Ghent in August 1814.
This brought an Era of Good Feelings in which partisan animosity nearly vanished in the face of strengthened American nationalism, the war was a major turning point in the development of the U. S. military, with militia being increasingly replaced by a more professional force. The U. S. acquired permanent ownership of Spains Mobile District, the government of Canada declared a three-year commemoration of the War of 1812 in 2012, intended to offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border. At the conclusion of the commemorations in 2014, a new national War of 1812 Monument was unveiled in Ottawa. The war is remembered in Britain primarily as a footnote in the much larger Napoleonic Wars occurring in Europe, historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812. This section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States, as Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair.
The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was vindication of American identity. Americans at the time and historians since often called it the United States Second War of Independence, in 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law, the American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton, the British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition. The United States view was that Britains restrictions violated its right to trade with others, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man. The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become U. S.
citizens and this meant that in addition to recovering naval deserters, it considered any United States citizens who were born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the reluctance of the United States to issue formal naturalization papers and it was estimated by the Admiralty that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
The Pottawatomi /ˌpɑːtəˈwɑːtəmiː/, spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi, are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River and Western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family, the Potawatomi called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi were part of an alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe. In the 19th century, they were pushed to the west by European/American encroachment in the late 18th century, under Indian Removal, they eventually ceded many of their lands, and most of the Potawatomi relocated to Nebraska and Indian Territory, now in Oklahoma. Some bands survived in the Midwest and today are recognized as tribes. In Canada, some bands are recognized by the government as First Nations, the English Potawatomi is derived from the Ojibwe Boodewaadamii. The Potawatomi name for themselves is Bodéwadmi, a cognate of the Ojibwe form and their name means those who keep/tend the hearth-fire, which refers to the hearth of the Council of Three Fires.
The word comes from to keep/tend the hearth-fire, which is bodewadm in the Potawatomi language, the Potawatomi call themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of Ojibwe Anishinaabe, meaning Original People. The Potawatomi are first mentioned in French records, which suggest that in the early 17th century, during the Beaver Wars they fled to the area around Green Bay to escape attacks by both the Iroquois and the Neutral Nation, who were seeking expanded hunting grounds. As an important part of Tecumsehs Confederacy, Potawatomi warriors took part in Tecumsehs War, the War of 1812 and their alliances switched repeatedly between Great Britain and the United States as power relations shifted between the nations, and they calculated effects on their trade and land interests. At the time of the War of 1812, a band of Potawatomi inhabited the area near Fort Dearborn, george Ronan, the first graduate of West Point to be killed in combat, died in this ambush. The incident is referred to as the Fort Dearborn Massacre, a Potawatomi chief named Mucktypoke, counseled his fellow warriors against the attack.
Later he saved some of the captives who were being ransomed by the Potawatomi. The French period of contact began with early explorers who reached the Potawatomi in western Michigan and they found the tribe located along the Door Peninsula of Wisconsin. By the end of the French period, the Potawatomi had begun a move to the Detroit area, leaving the large communities in Wisconsin. Madouche during the Fox Wars Millouisillyny Onanghisse at Green Bay Otchik at Detroit The British period of contact began when France ceded its lands after the defeat in the French, pontiacs Rebellion was an attempt by Native Americans to push the British and other European settlers out of their territory. The Potawatomi captured every British frontier garrison but the one at Detroit, the Potawatomi nation continued to grow and expanded westward from Detroit, most notably in the development of the St. Joseph villages adjacent to the Miami in southwestern Michigan. The Wisconsin communities continued and moved south along the Lake Michigan shoreline, nanaquiba at Detroit Ninivois at Detroit Peshibon at St.
Joseph Washee at St
James Johnson (Kentucky)
Representative from Kentucky, brother of Richard Mentor Johnson and John Telemachus Johnson and uncle of Robert Ward Johnson. Born in Orange County, Johnson moved with his father to Kentucky in 1779 and he was a member of the State senate in 1808. He served as lieutenant colonel in the War of 1812, contractor for furnishing supplies to troops on the western frontier in 1819 and 1820. He served as presidential elector on the ticket of Monroe and Tompkins in 1820, Johnson was elected as a Jacksonian to the Nineteenth Congress and served from March 4,1825, until his death in Washington, D. C. He was interred in the cemetery, Great Crossings, Kentucky. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress and this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http, //bioguide. congress. gov
Graves County, Kentucky
Graves County is a county located in the U. S. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,121, the county was formed in 1824 and was named for Major Benjamin Franklin Graves, a politician and fallen soldier in the War of 1812. Graves County comprises the Mayfield, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Paducah-Mayfield, Graves County is a limited dry county, meaning that sale of alcohol in the county is prohibited except for wine and beer. The city of Mayfield has full service in both bars and restaurants. He disappeared while being forced by Potawatomi to walk to the British Fort Malden in Amherstburg, the Indians killed prisoners who could not keep up. Nearly 400 Kentuckians died in the January 22 battle, the highest fatality of any battle during the war. Graves is one of Kentuckys largest counties, the fertile land attracted early settlers from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee, who brought with them education, and a fierce determination to succeed.
They put down roots to blend a political and social environment unique, tobacco was important the local economy. Graves County developed the dark-fired and dark-air-cured leaf tobacco used in tobacco farming. A woolen mill began operating before the Civil War and continued to expand with the clothing market. Several clothing manufacturing companies were added in the area, the county seats minor league baseball team was named the Mayfield Clothiers for this historical connection. Graves County made national news in September 2011 for jailing several Amish men who refused to use orange safety triangles on their buggies for religious reasons, the Old Order Swartzentruber Amish used reflective tape instead. They said it was against their religion to use loud colors and they did not succeed in their appeal of their 2008 convictions. Menno Zook, Danny Byler, Mose Yoder, Levi Hostetler, David Zook, all served sentences ranging from three to 10 days. Jail officials accommodated them by not forcing them to wear the typical orange county jail uniforms, among note county natives have been a US Vice President, four US Congressmen, famous heroes and songwriters, and noted writers.
The county has numerous historic sites, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 557 square miles, of which 552 square miles is land and 5.0 square miles is water. The population density was 67 per square mile, there were 16,340 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92. 73% White,4. 44% Black or African American,0. 20% Native American,0. 20% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,1. 30% from other races, and 1. 11% from two or more races
Isaac Shelby was the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also, a soldier in Lord Dunmores War, the American Revolutionary War, while governor, he led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action, that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinsons The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto United we stand, divided we fall. Issac Shelbys military service began, when he served as second-in-command to his father at the Battle of Point Pleasant and he gained the reputation of an expert woodsman and surveyor and spent the early part of the Revolutionary War gathering supplies for the Continental Army. Later in the war he and John Sevier led expeditions over the Appalachian Mountains against the British forces in North Carolina and he played a pivotal role in the British defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain.
For his service, Shelby was presented with a sword and a pair of pistols, by the North Carolina legislature. Following the war, Isaac Shelby relocated to Kentucky, on lands awarded to him for his military service and his heroism made him popular with the states citizens and the Kentucky electoral college unanimously elected him governor in 1792. He secured Kentucky, from Indian attacks and organized its first government and he used the Citizen Genet affair to convince the Washington administration to make an agreement with the Spanish for free trade on the Mississippi River. At the end of his term, Isaac Shelby retired from public life. Kentuckians urged Shelby to run for governor again and lead them through the anticipated conflict and he was elected easily, and at the request of General William Henry Harrison, commanded troops from Kentucky at the Battle of the Thames. After the war, he declined President James Monroes offer to become Secretary of War, in his last act of public service and Andrew Jackson acted as commissioners to negotiate the Jackson Purchase from the Chickasaw Indian tribe.
Isaac Shelby died, at his estate in Lincoln County, Isaac Shelby was born in the Province of Maryland on December 11,1750, near Hagerstown in Frederick County. He was the child and second son of Evan and Letitia Shelby. Though the family had been loyal to the Church of England, they became Presbyterians after coming to British America, Shelby was educated at the local schools in his native colony. He worked on his fathers plantation and occasionally work as a surveyor. At age eighteen he was appointed deputy sheriff of Frederick County, Shelbys father lost a great deal of money when Pontiacs Rebellion disrupted his lucrative fur trade business, and two years later, the business records were destroyed in a house fire. Consequently, in December 1770 the family moved to the area near Bristol, where they built a fort, here and his father worked for three years herding cattle
Fort Malden, formally known as Fort Amherstburg, is a defence fortification located in Amherstburg, Ontario. It was built in 1795 by Britain in order to ensure the security of British North America against any threat of American Invasion. Throughout its history, it is most known for its military application during the War of 1812 as Sir Isaac Brock, the Fort had an important role in securing Upper Canadas border with Detroit during the Upper Canada Rebellion. However, Fort Malden has rich and diverse history aside from its military applications, for example, it was the setting for the British Pensioner Scheme and would become an Ontario Provincial Asylum in 1859. After the Asylum was closed, Fort Malden was surveyed and privatized until the mid-nineteenth century, the Historic Designation of the Fort came after several decades of local residents advocating for the preservation of the Fort to the federal government. Officially recognized in 1921, the complex of Fort Malden as it is today was brought together in 1946 with the purchase of the Hough House.
Today, the Fort remains open and accessible to the public under the supervision of Parks Canada, visitors are able to see for themselves a wide array of Fort Maldens history as all of the buildings on the complex represent different time periods within that history. In his book Fort Malden and the Old Fort Days, Rev. Thomas Nattress asserts that, prior to the land grant, the British forces based at Fort Detroit had to be evacuated following the 1795 Jay Treaty and were assigned to Fort Malden. This title has never been formally changed, because the fort lay in the township of Malden, its inhabitants and the locals came to commonly and colloquially refer to it as Fort Malden. The name Fort Malden has remained ever since, Fort Maldens involvement in the War of 1812 began on July 2,1812, when British forces at Amherstburg captured the American schooner Cuyahoga. Hull had chartered the Cuyahoga to transport goods and army records, officers wives, in the deep water channel of the Detroit River, the Cuyahoga was captured by the British brig HMS Hunter.
General Hull’s reaction came on July 12 when, under his command, American forces crossed the Detroit River at Sandwich, Sandwich was to be used as a base of operations for the American advance into Upper Canada, with General Hull commandeering the Francois Baby House as his headquarters. On July 13, Hull issued this proclamation to the residents of Upper Canada, after thirty years of PEACE & prosperity, the UNITED STATES have been driven to Arms. The injuries & aggressions, the insults & indignities of Great Britain have once more left them no alternative, the ARMY under my command has invaded your country, & the Standard of the UNION now waves over the Territory of CANADA. To the peaceable unoffending inhabitant, it brings neither danger nor difficulty, I come to find enemies, not to snake them. I come to protect, not to injure you, if the barbarous & savage policy of Great Britain be pursued, and the savages are let loose to murder our citizens, & butcher our women and children, the war, will be a war of extermination.
The first stroke of the Tomahawk, the first attempt with the scalping knife, no white man found fighting by the side of an Indian, will be taken prisoner. Instant destruction will be his lot, the UNITED STATES offer you peace and security