The Norse–Gaels were a people of mixed Gaelic and Norse ancestry and culture. They emerged in the Viking Age, when Vikings who settled in Ireland and in Scotland adopted Gaelic culture and intermarried with Gaels; the Norse–Gaels dominated much of the Irish Sea and Scottish Sea regions from the 9th to 12th centuries. They founded the Kingdom of the Isles, the Kingdom of Dublin, the Lordship of Galloway, ruled the Kingdom of York for a time; the most powerful Norse–Gaelic dynasty were the Uí Ímair or House of Ivar. Over time, the Norse–Gaels became more Gaelicized and disappeared as a distinct group. However, they left a lasting influence in the Isle of Man and Outer Hebrides, where most placenames are of Norse–Gaelic origin. Several Scottish clans have Norse–Gaelic roots, such as Clan MacDonald, Clan MacDougall, Clan Ruaidhrí, Clan Morrison and Clan MacLeod; the elite mercenary warriors known as the gallowglass emerged from these Norse–Gaelic clans and became an important part of Irish warfare.
The Viking longship influenced the Gaelic birlinn or longa fada, which were used extensively until the 17th century. Norse–Gaelic surnames survive today and include MacIvor, MacAskill, MacAuley and Lawley; the meaning of Gall-Goídil is "foreigner Gaels" or "foreign Gaels" and although it can in theory mean any Gael of foreign origin, it was always used of Gaels with some kind of Norse identity. This term is subject to a large range of variations depending on chronological and geographical differences in the Gaelic language, e.g. Gall Gaidel, Gall Gaidhel, Gall Gaidheal, Gall Gaedil, Gall Gaedhil, Gall Gaedhel, Gall Goidel, Gall Ghaedheil etc; the modern term in Irish is Gall-Ghaeil or Gall-Ghaedheil, while the Scottish Gaelic is Gall-Ghàidheil. The Norse–Gaels called themselves Ostmen or Austmen, meaning East-men, a name preserved in a corrupted form in the Dublin area known as Oxmantown which comes from Austmanna-tún. In contrast, they called Gaels Vestmenn; the Norse–Gaels are sometimes called the Norse-Irish and Norse-Scots.
The Norse–Gaels originated in Viking colonies of Ireland and Scotland, the descendants of intermarriage between Norse immigrants and the Gaels. As early as the 9th century, many colonists intermarried with native Gaels and adopted the Gaelic language as well as many Gaelic customs. Many left their original worship of Norse gods and converted to Christianity, this contributed to the Gaelicisation. Gaelicised Scandinavians dominated the region of the Irish Sea until the Norman era of the 12th century, they founded long-lasting kingdoms, such as the Kingdoms of Man and Galloway, as well as taking control of the Norse colony at York. The Norse are first recorded in Ireland in 795. Sporadic raids continued until 832, after which they began to build fortified settlements throughout the country. Norse raids continued throughout the 10th century; the Norse established independent kingdoms in Dublin, Wexford and Limerick. These kingdoms did not survive the subsequent Norman invasions, but the towns continued to grow and prosper.
The term Ostmen was used between the 12th and 14th centuries by the English in Ireland to refer to Norse–Gaelic people living in Ireland. Meaning "the men from the east", the term came from the Old Norse word austr or "east"; the Ostmen were regarded as a separate group from the English and Irish and were accorded privileges and rights to which the Irish were not entitled. They lived in distinct localities, it was once thought that their settlement had been established by Norse–Gaels, forced out of Dublin by the English but this is now known not to be the case. Other groups of Ostmen lived in Waterford. Many were merchants or lived a rural lifestyle, pursuing fishing, craft-working and cattle raising, their roles in Ireland's economy made them valuable subjects and the English Crown granted them special legal protections. These fell out of use as the Ostmen assimilated into the English settler community throughout the 13th and 14th centuries; the Lords of the Isles, whose sway lasted until the 16th century, as well as many other Gaelic rulers of Scotland and Ireland, traced their descent from Norse–Gaels settlements in northwest Scotland, concentrated in the Hebrides.
The Hebrides are to this day known in Scottish Gaelic as Innse Gall, "the islands of foreigners". It is recorded in the Landnámabók that there were culdees in Iceland before the Norse; this appears to tie in with comments of Dicuil and is given further weight by recent archaeological discoveries. The settlement of Iceland and the Faroe Islands by the Norse would have included many Norse–Gael settlers, as well as slaves and servants, they were called Vestmen, the name is retained in Vestmanna in the Faroes and the Vestmannaeyjar off the Icelandic mainland. A number of Icelandic personal names are of Gaelic origin, including Njál, Brján, Kjartan and Kormakr. Patreksfjörður, an Icelandic village, was named after Saint Patrick. A number of placenames named after the papar exist on Iceland and the Faroes. According to so
State College, Pennsylvania
State College is a home rule municipality in Centre County in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is the largest designated borough in Pennsylvania, it is the principal borough of the six municipalities that make up the State College area, the largest settlement in Centre County and one of the principal cities of the greater State College-DuBois Combined Statistical Area with a combined population of 236,577 as of the 2010 United States Census. In the 2010 census, the borough population was 42,034 with 105,000 living in the borough plus the surrounding townships referred to locally as the "Centre Region." Many of these Centre Region communities carry a "State College, PA" address although are not part of the borough of State College. State College is a college town, dominated economically and demographically by the presence of the University Park campus of the Pennsylvania State University. Lion Country is another used term to refer to the State College area, the term includes the borough and the townships of College, Harris and Ferguson.
When including college and graduate students, State College is the third most populous city in Pennsylvania, after Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. State College evolved from a village to a town in order to serve the needs of the Pennsylvania State College, founded as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania in 1855. State College was incorporated as a borough on August 29, 1896, has grown with the college, renamed The Pennsylvania State University in 1953. In 1973 State College adopted a home rule charter which took effect in 1976; the university has a post office address of Pennsylvania. When Penn State changed its name from College to University in 1953, its president, Milton S. Eisenhower, sought to persuade the town to change its name as well. A referendum failed to yield a majority for any of the choices for a new name, so the town remains State College. After this, Penn State requested a new name for its on-campus post office in the HUB-Robeson Center from the U. S. Post Office Department; the post office, which has since moved across an alley to the McAllister Building, is the official home of ZIP code 16802.
State College is situated at an elevation of 1,200 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 4.5 square miles, all of it land. It is surrounded by large tracts of farmland, an expanse of Appalachian Mountain ranges and forests. Nittany Mountain is part of Pennsylvania's geologic ridge-and-valley province of the Appalachian Mountains, it is the geographic center of Pennsylvania, as a result, Penn State University was founded in State College. State College is one of the densest cities of its population in the United States aided by the presence of numerous high rises downtown along Beaver and College Avenues; the 2010 have seen a construction boom downtown, with several mixed-use towers being developed, including the Rise, Frazer Centre, a 15-floor tower on Garner Street, among many other projects. Unlike most older towers, many of the new buildings will be mixed-use, with retail on the ground floor, offices on the next couple floors up, apartments on the top floors.
This high rise building boom has drawn debate in the local area. Some see it as a boon to increase foot traffic downtown and reduce congestion on the arterial roads leading into the city. Others, are skeptical of the developments as they are causing eyesores, may lose some of SC's charm. State College has a humid continental climate. Temperatures average 72.1 °F in July. Annual precipitation averages 39.8 inches, with 45.9 inches of annual snowfall on average. With a period of record dating back to 1893, the lowest temperature recorded was −20 °F on February 10, 1899 and the highest was 102 °F on July 17, 1988, July 9, 1936. According to the 2010 census, there are 42,034 people, 12,610 households, 3,069 families residing in the borough; the population density was 9,258.6 people per square mile. There were 13,007 housing units at an average density of 2,865.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 83.2% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 9.8% Asian, 1.0% Other, 2.0% from two or more races.
3.9% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. 22,681 or 54.0% of borough residents were males and 19,353 or 46.0% were females. A 2014 estimate had the racial makeup of the borough as 78.9% Non-Hispanic White, 5.6% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American and Alaska Native, 11.5% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 0.8% Some other race, 2.2% two or more races. 4.4 % were Latino. Of the 12,610 households, 9.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 18.2% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 75.6% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.71. The age distribution of the borough, overwhelmingly influenced by its student population, was 5.1% under the age of 18, 70.6% from 18 to 24, 13.1% from 25 to 44, 6.5% from 45 to 64, 4.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 22 years. The median income for a household in the borough was $23,513, the median income for a family was $
Worcester College, Oxford
Worcester College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The college was founded in 1714 by the benefaction of Sir Thomas Cookes, a Worcestershire baronet, with the college gaining its name from the county of Worcestershire, its predecessor, Gloucester College, had been an institution of learning on the same site since the late 13th century until the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539. Founded as a men's college, Worcester has been coeducational since 1979; as of July 2016, Worcester College had a financial endowment of £73 million. Notable alumni of the college include the media mogul Rupert Murdoch, television producer and screenwriter Russell T Davies, US Supreme Court justice Elena Kagan, novelist Richard Adams; the buildings are diverse in the main quadrangle: looking down into the main quadrangle from the entrance through the main building, to the right is an imposing eighteenth century building in the neo-classical style. These cottages are the most substantial surviving part of Gloucester College, Worcester's predecessor on the same site: this was a college for Benedictine monks, founded in 1283 and dissolved with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in about 1539.
After a lapse of 20 years, the buildings of the old Gloucester College were used in the foundation of Gloucester Hall, in around 1560. The penultimate principal, Benjamin Woodroffe, attempted to establish there a'Greek College' for Greek Orthodox students to come to Oxford, part of a scheme to make ecumenical links with the Church of England; this was a going concern from 1699 to 1705. In 1714, thanks to a fortunate benefaction from a Worcestershire baronet, Sir Thomas Cookes, Gloucester Hall was transformed into Worcester College. There were only sufficient funds to rebuild the Chapel and Library and the north side of the Front Quad, known as the Terrace; the designs were by Dr. George Clarke. In 1736, Clarke generously left to the College his great collection of manuscripts; these included the papers of his father William Clarke and a large proportion of the surviving drawings of Inigo Jones. Owing to lack of funds, Worcester's eighteenth-century building programme proceeded by fits and starts.
The west end of the Terrace and the Provost's Lodgings were added in 1773–76. The medieval cottages were to have been replaced by a further classical range, but survived because money for this purpose was never available; the College Chapel was built in the 18th century. Dr George Clarke, Henry Keene and James Wyatt were responsible for different stages of its lengthy construction, owing to shortage of funds; the interior columns and pilasters, the dome and the delicate foliage plastering are all Wyatt's work. His classical interior was insufficiently emphatic for the tastes of militant Victorian churchmen, between 1864 and 1866 the chapel was redecorated by William Burges, it is unusual and decorative. Its stained glass windows were to have been designed by John Everett Millais, but Burges rejected his designs and entrusted the work to Henry Holiday. Oscar Wilde said of the Chapel, "As a piece of simple decorative and beautiful art it is perfect, the windows artistic." Worcester is unique among the Oxford colleges in that it has not one, but two chapel choirs of equal status, which share out the weekly services between them.
There is a mixed-voice choir constituted of auditioned choral scholars and volunteers, which sings twice a week: weekly on Thursday and on alternating Sunday and Monday evenings. The Boys' Choir consists of trebles from Christ Church Cathedral School and alto and bass choral scholars; this choir sings twice weekly. These choirs are run on a day-to-day basis by Worcester’s three Organ Scholars alongside the Director of Music. Burges started the redecoration of the Hall in 1877, but the work remained uncompleted at his death, in 1966 Wyatt's designs were restored. In more recent years several new residential blocks for undergraduates and graduates have been added, thanks in part to a series of generous benefactions; the latest of these include the Earl building, Sainsbury Building, Linbury Building, Canal Building, Ruskin Lane Building, the Franks Building. A modern addition to Worcester College, the Canal Building, sits next to the north entrance to the college and, as the name suggests, beside the Oxford Canal.
It houses 50 students in large en-suite single rooms. The accommodation is reserved for third and fourth year undergraduates. Although Worcester is near the centre of Oxford today, it was on the edge of the city in the eighteenth century; this has proved a benefit in the long run, since it has allowed the college to retain extensive gardens and, uniquely among Oxford colleges, contiguous playing fields. The gardens have won numerous awards, including the Oxford in Bloom college award every time they have been entered for the competition. Extensive work on the gardens was carried out between 1817 and 1820, they may have been laid out in the Picturesque style by Richard Greswell in 1827
University College Dublin
University College Dublin is a research university in Dublin, Ireland. It has over 1,482 faculty and 32,000 students, it is Ireland's largest university. Rooted in Roman Catholicism, UCD originates in a body founded in 1854, which opened as the Catholic University of Ireland on the Feast of Saint Malachy and with John Henry Newman as its first rector; the Universities Act, 1997 renamed the constituent university as the "National University of Ireland, Dublin", a ministerial order of 1998 renamed the institution as "University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin". In locations across Dublin city, all faculties have since relocated to a 133-hectare campus at Belfield, four kilometres to the south of the city centre; the 2019 QS World University Rankings rates UCD as the second highest ranked irish university. A report published in May 2015 showed the economic output generated by UCD and its students in Ireland amounted to €1.3 billion annually. UCD is ranked among the top universities in Europe.
Five Nobel Laureates are among current and former staff. UCD can trace its history to the institution founded in 1854 as the Catholic University of Ireland, was established as UCD in 1880 under the auspices of the Royal University of Ireland, received its charter in 1908. After the Catholic Emancipation period of Irish history, a movement led by Paul Cullen, Archbishop of Armagh attempted to provide for the first time in Ireland higher-level education both accessible to followesr of Roman Catholicism and taught by such people. In the 19th century, the question of denominational education in Ireland was a contentious one. For many years it had divided the Young Ireland Movement; the Catholic Hierarchy demanded a Catholic alternative to the University of Dublin's Trinity College, whose Anglican origins the Hierarchy refused to overlook. The Hierarchy wanted to counteract the "Godless Colleges" of the Queen's University of Ireland - established in the cities of Galway and Cork; the University of Dublin had since the 1780s admitted Catholics to study.
Thus, in 1850 at the Synod of Thurles, it was decided to open in Dublin - for Catholics - a rival institution to that city's University. As a result of these efforts, a new "Catholic University of Ireland" opened in 1854, with John Henry Newman appointed as its first rector. Newman had been an integral figure in the Oxford Movement in the 19th century; the Catholic University opened its doors on the feast of St Malachy, 3 November 1854. On that day the names of seventeen students were entered on the register and Newman gave the students an address "What are we here for" and prophesied that in years they would look back with pride on the day; the Catholic University opened with three houses: 86 St Stephen's Green, known as St Patrick's or University House, under the care of The Rev. Michael Flannery. To prepare students for entry to the new Catholic University, a feeder school under the guidance of Bartholomew Woodlock and Cardinal Newman, referred to as the Catholic University School, was established.
Among the first students enrolled were the grandson of Daniel O'Connell. Another included William O'Shea who would go on to become a Captain in the British Army and was central to the divorce crises which brought down Charles Stewart Parnell's career in trying to establish Home Rule for Ireland. O'Shea, clashed with Newman and found the Catholic University insufficiently inspiring, so departed after one year to instead attend Trinity. Of the eight original students in Newman's own home, two were Irish, two English, two Scottish and two French. Among them were a French viscount, Irish baronet Sir Reginald Barnewall, the son of a French countess, the grandson of a Scottish marquis, the son of an English lord. Were added to his care two Belgian princes and a Polish count. Many were attracted to the Catholic University on the basis of the reputation of Newman; as a private university, the Catholic University was never given a royal charter, so was unable to award recognized degrees and suffered from chronic financial difficulties.
Newman left the university in 1857. Bartholomew Woodlock was appointed Rector and served until he became Bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnoise in 1879. In this period he attempted to secure a site of 34 acres at Clonliffe West but the scheme collapsed when expansion of the railway system on the north side of Dublin cut across the site, he turned his attention to expanding along St Stephen's Green and over these years bought from No. 82 to 87. The decline was halted in 1880 with the establishment of the Royal University of Ireland; the Royal Universities charter entitled all Irish students to sit the Universities examinations and receive its degrees. Although in many respects the Catholic University can be viewed as a failure, UCD would inherit substantial assets from it including a successful medical school and two beautiful buildings, Newman House on St Stephen's Green and the adjoining University Ch
High Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 and lasted until around 1250. The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and were followed by the Late Middle Ages, which ended around 1500. Key historical trends of the High Middle Ages include the increasing population of Europe, which brought about great social and political change from the preceding era, the Renaissance of the 12th century, including the first developments of rural exodus and of urbanization. By 1250, the robust population increase had benefited the European economy, which reached levels that would not be seen again in some areas until the 19th century; that trend faltered during the Late Middle Ages because of a series of calamities, most notably the Black Death, but numerous wars as well as economic stagnation. From around 780, Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasions and became more and politically organized; the Carolingian Renaissance led to philosophical activity in Northern Europe.
The first universities started operating in Bologna, Paris and Modena. The Vikings settled in the British Isles and elsewhere, Norse Christian kingdoms started developing in their Scandinavian homelands; the Magyars ceased their expansion in the 10th century, by the year 1000, a Christian Kingdom of Hungary had become a recognized state in Central Europe, forming alliances with regional powers. With the brief exception of the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, major nomadic incursions ceased; the powerful Byzantine Empire of the Macedonian and the Komnenos dynasties gave way to the resurrected Serbia and Bulgaria and to a successor crusader state, which countered the continuous threat of the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor. In the 11th century, populations north of the Alps began a more intensive settlement, targeting "new" lands, some of which areas had reverted to wilderness after the end of the Roman Empire. In what is known as the "great clearances", Europeans cleared and cultivated some of the vast forests and marshes that lay across of the continent.
At the same time, some settlers moved beyond the traditional boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new frontiers beyond the Elbe River, which tripled the size of Germany in the process. The Catholic Church, which reached the peak of its political power around called armies from across Europe to a series of Crusades against the Seljuk Turks; the crusaders founded the Crusader States in the Levant. Other wars led to the Northern Crusades; the Christian kingdoms took much of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim control, the Normans conquered southern Italy, all part of the major population increases and the resettlement patterns of the era. The High Middle Ages produced many different forms of intellectual and artistic works; the age saw the rise of ethnocentrism, which evolved into modern civic nationalisms in most of Europe, the ascent of the great Italian city-states and the rise and fall of the Muslim civilization of Al-Andalus. The rediscovery of the works of Aristotle led Thomas Aquinas and other thinkers of the period to expand Scholasticism, a combination of Catholicism and ancient philosophy.
For much of this period, Constantinople remained Europe's most populous city, Byzantine art reached a peak in the 12th century. In architecture, many of the most notable Gothic cathedrals were built or completed around this period; the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages began at the start of the 14th century and marked the end of the period. In England, the Norman Conquest of 1066 resulted in a kingdom ruled by a Francophone nobility; the Normans invaded Ireland by force in 1169 and soon established themselves throughout most of the country, although their stronghold was the southeast. Scotland and Wales were subdued to vassalage at about the same time, though Scotland asserted its independence and Wales remained under the rule of independent native princes until the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in 1282; the Exchequer was founded in the 12th century under King Henry I, the first parliaments were convened. In 1215, after the loss of Normandy, King John signed the Magna Carta into law, which limited the power of English monarchs.
Much of the Iberian peninsula had been occupied by the Moors after 711, although the northernmost portion was divided between several Christian states. In the 11th century, again in the thirteenth, the Christian kingdoms of the north drove the Muslims from central and most of southern Iberia. In Italy, independent city states grew affluent on eastern maritime trade; these were in particular the thalassocracies of Pisa, Amalfi and Venice. From the mid-tenth to the mid-11th centuries, the Scandinavian kingdoms were unified and Christianized, resulting in an end of Viking raids, greater involvement in European politics. King Cnut of Denmark ruled over both Norway. After Cnut's death in 1035, England and Norway were lost, with the defeat of Valdemar II in 1227, Danish predominance in the region came to an end. Meanwhile, Norway extended its Atlantic possessions, ranging from Greenland to the Isle of Man, while Sweden, under Birger Jarl, built up a power-base in the Baltic Sea. However, the Norwegian influence started to decline in the same period, marked by the Treaty of Perth of 1266.
Civil wars raged in Norway between 1130 and 1240. By the time of the High Middle Ages, the Carolingian Empire had been divided and replaced by separate successor kingdoms called France and Germany, although not with their modern boundaries. Germany was under the banner of the Holy Roman Empire, which reached its high-water mark of unit