Pembroke College, Cambridge
Pembroke College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college is the third-oldest college of the university and has over seven hundred students and fellows. Physically, it is one of the university's larger colleges, with buildings from every century since its founding, as well as extensive gardens, its members are termed "Valencians". Pembroke has selective admissions rate and a level of academic performance among the highest of all the Cambridge colleges. Pembroke is home to the first chapel designed by Sir Christopher Wren and is one of the six Cambridge colleges to have educated a British prime minister, in Pembroke's case William Pitt the Younger; the college library, with a Victorian neo-gothic clock tower, is endowed with an original copy of the first encyclopaedia to contain printed diagrams. The college's current master is Baron Smith of Finsbury. Marie de St Pol, Countess of Pembroke founded Cambridge. On Christmas Eve 1347, Edward III granted Marie de St Pol, widow of the Earl of Pembroke, the licence for the foundation of a new educational establishment in the young university at Cambridge.
The Hall of Valence Mary, as it was known, was thus founded to house a body of students and fellows. The statutes were notable in that they both gave preference to students born in France who had studied elsewhere in England, that they required students to report fellow students if they indulged in excessive drinking or visited disreputable houses; the college was renamed Pembroke Hall, became Pembroke College in 1856. Marie was involved with College affairs in the thirty years up to her death in 1377, she seems to have been something of a disciplinarian: the original Foundation documents had strict penalties for drunkenness and lechery, required that all students’ debts were settled within two weeks of the end of term, gave strict limits on numbers at graduation parties. In 2015, the college received a bequest of £34 million from the estate of American inventor and Pembroke alumnus Ray Dolby, thought to be the largest single donation to a college in the history of Cambridge University; the first buildings comprised a single court containing all the component parts of a college – chapel, hall and buttery, master's lodgings, students' rooms – and the statutes provided for a manciple, a cook, a barber and a laundress.
Both the founding of the college and the building of the city's first college Chapel required the grant of a papal bull. The original court was the university's smallest at only 95 feet by 55 feet, but was enlarged to its current size in the nineteenth century by demolishing the south range; the college's gatehouse is the oldest in Cambridge. The original Chapel now forms the Old Library and has a striking seventeenth-century plaster ceiling, designed by Henry Doogood, showing birds flying overhead. Around the Civil War, one of Pembroke's fellows and Chaplain to the future Charles I, Matthew Wren, was imprisoned by Oliver Cromwell. On his release after eighteen years, he fulfilled a promise by hiring his nephew Christopher Wren to build a great Chapel in his former college; the resulting Chapel was consecrated on St Matthew's Day, 1665, the eastern end was extended by George Gilbert Scott in 1880, when it was consecrated on the Feast of the Annunciation. An increase in membership over the last 150 years saw a corresponding increase in building activity.
The Hall was rebuilt in 1875–6 to designs by Alfred Waterhouse after he had declared the medieval Hall unsafe. As well as the Hall, Waterhouse designed a new range of rooms, Red Buildings, in French Renaissance style, designed a new Master's Lodge on the site of Paschal Yard, pulled down the old Lodge and the south range of Old Court to open a vista to the Chapel, designed a new Library in the continental Gothic style; the construction of the new library was undertaken by Kett. Waterhouse was dismissed as architect in 1878 and succeeded by George Gilbert Scott, after extending the Chapel, provided additional accommodation with the construction of New Court in 1881, with letters on a series of shields along the string course above the first floor spelling out the text from Psalm 127:1, "Nisi Dominus aedificat domum…". Building work continued into the 20th century with W. D. Caröe as architect, he added Pitt Building between Ivy Court and Waterhouse's Lodge, extended New Court with the construction of O staircase on the other side of the Lodge.
He linked his two buildings with an arched stone screen, Caröe Bridge, along Pembroke Street in a late Baroque style, the principal function of, to act as a bridge by which undergraduates might cross the Master's forecourt at first-floor level from Pitt Building to New Court without leaving the College or trespassing in what was the Fellows' Garden. In 1926, as the Fellows had become disenchanted with Waterhouse's Hall, Maurice Webb was brought in to remove the open roof, put in a flat ceiling and add two storeys of sets above; the wall between the Hall and the Fellows' Parlour was taken down, the latter made into a High Table dais. A new Senior Parlour was created on the ground floor of Hitcham Building; the remodelling work was completed in 1949 when Murray Easton replaced the Gothic tracery of the windows with a simpler design in the style of the medieval Hall. In 1933 Maurice Webb built a new Master's Lodge in the south-east corner of the College gardens
Christ's College, Cambridge
Christ's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college includes the Master, the Fellows of the College, about 450 undergraduate and 170 graduate students; the college was founded by William Byngham in 1437 as God's House. In 1505, the college was granted a new royal charter, was given a substantial endowment by Lady Margaret Beaufort, changed its name to Christ's College, becoming the twelfth of the Cambridge colleges to be founded in its current form; the college is renowned for educating some of Cambridge's most famous alumni, including Charles Darwin and John Milton. Within Cambridge, Christ's has a reputation for highest academic standards and strong tutorial support, it has averaged 1st place on the Tompkins Table from 1980–2006 and third place from 2006 to 2013, returning to first place in 2018. Christ's College was founded by William Byngham in 1437 as God's House, on land, soon after sold to enable the enlargement of King's College. Byngham obtained the first royal licence for God's House in July 1439.
The college was founded to provide for the lack of grammar-school masters in England at the time, the college has been described as "the first secondary-school training college on record". The original site of Godshouse was surrendered in 1443 to King's College, about three quarters of King's College Chapel stands on the original site of God's House. After the original royal licence of 1439, three more licences, two in 1442 and one in 1446, were granted before in 1448 God's House received the charter upon which the college was in fact founded. In this charter, King Henry VI was named as the founder, in the same year the college moved to its current site. In 1505, the college was endowed by Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII, was given the name Christ's College at the suggestion of her confessor, the Bishop John Fisher; the expansion in the population of the college in the seventeenth century led to the building, in the 1640s, of the Fellows' Building in what is now Second Court.
The original 15th/16th century college buildings now form part of First Court, including the chapel, Master's Lodge and Great Gate tower. The gate itself is disproportionate: the bottom has been cut off to accommodate a rise in street level, which can be seen in the steps leading down to the foot of L staircase in the gate tower; the college hall built at the start of the 16th century, was restored in 1875–1879 by George Gilbert Scott the younger. The lawn of First Court is famously round, a wisteria sprawls up the front of the Master's lodge. Second Court is built up on only three sides, one of, formed by the 1640s Fellows' Building; the fourth side backs onto the Master's garden. The Stevenson Building in Third Court was designed by J. J. Stevenson in the 1880s and was extended in 1905 as part of the College's Quadcentenary. In 1947 Professor Albert Richardson designed a new cupola for the Stevenson building, a second building, the neo-Georgian Chancellor's Building, completed in 1950. Third Court's Memorial Building, a twin of the Chancellor's building by Richardson, was completed in 1953 at a cost of £80,000.
Third Court is noted for its display of irises in May and June, a gift to the college in 1946. The controversial tiered concrete New Court was designed in the Modernist style by Sir Denys Lasdun in 1966–70, was described as "superb" in Lasdun's obituary in the Guardian. Design critic Hugh Pearman comments "Lasdun had big trouble relating to the street at the overhanging rear", it appears distinctively in aerial photographs, forming part of the northern boundary of the college. An assortment of neighbouring buildings have been absorbed into the college, of which the most notable is The Todd Building Cambridge's County Hall. Through an arch in the Fellows' Building is the Fellows' Garden, it includes two mulberry trees, of which the older was planted in 1608, the same year as Milton's birth. Both trees have toppled sideways, the younger tree in the Great Storm of 1987, are now earthed up round the trunks, but continue to fruit every year. Christ's College is one of only 5 colleges in Cambridge to have its own swimming pool.
It is fed by water from Hobson's Conduit. Refurbished, it is now known as the'Malcolm Bowie Bathing Pool', is thought to be the oldest outdoor swimming pool in the UK, dating from the mid 17th century; the other four swimming pools within colleges belong to Girton College, Corpus Christi College, Emmanuel College and Clare Hall. With a deserved reputation within Cambridge for the highest academic standards, Christ's came first in the Tompkins Table's twentieth anniversary aggregate table, between 2001 and 2007, it had a mean position of third. Academic excellence continues at Christ's, with 91% of students in 2013 gaining a first class degree or an upper second; this is higher than the University average of 70%. Christ's is noted for educating two of Cambridge's most famous alumni, the poet John Milton and the naturalist Charles Darwin, during the celebrations for the 800th anniversary of the University, were both placed at the foreground as two of the four most iconic individuals in the University's history.
The college has educated Nobel Laureates including Martin Evans, James Meade, Alexander R. Todd, Baron Todd and Duncan Haldane, it is the University's 6th largest producer of Nobel Prize winners. Some of the college's other famous alumni include comedians Sacha Baron Cohen, John Oliver and Andy Parsons, Lord Louis Mountbatten of Burma, South African Prime Minister Jan Smuts, historian Simon S
Ipswich is a large historical town in Suffolk, located in East Anglia about 66 miles north east of London. It is the county town of Suffolk; the town has been continuously occupied since the Saxon period, its port has been one of England's most important for the whole of its history. Ipswich is a non-metropolitan district; the urban development of Ipswich overspills the borough boundaries with 75% of the town's population living within the borough at the time of the 2011 Census, when it was the fourth-largest urban area in the United Kingdom's East of England region, the 42nd-largest urban area in England and Wales. In 2011, the town of Ipswich was found to have a population of 133,384, while the Ipswich built-up area is estimated to have a population of 180,000 in 2011; the modern name is derived from the medieval name Gippeswic taken either from an Old Saxon personal name or from an earlier name of the Orwell estuary. It has been known as Gyppewicus and Yppswyche. Ipswich is one of England's oldest towns, if not the oldest.
At its core Ipswich was and is the oldest still continuing town to have been established and developed by the English. It has an unbroken history of community as a town since early Anglo-Saxon times. Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to rural towns and settlements via the rivers Orwell and Gipping. A large Roman fort, part of the coastal defences of Britain, stood at Walton near Felixstowe, the largest Roman villa in Suffolk stood at Castle Hill; the modern town took shape in Anglo-Saxon times around the Ipswich docks. As the coastal states of north-western Europe emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, essential North Sea trade and communication between eastern Britain and the continent passed through the former Roman ports of London and York. Gipeswic arose as the equivalent to these, serving the Kingdom of East Anglia, its early imported wares dating to the time of King Rædwald, supreme ruler of the English; the famous ship-burial and treasure at Sutton Hoo nearby is his grave.
The Ipswich Museum houses replicas of the Roman Sutton Hoo treasures. A gallery devoted to the town's origins includes Anglo-Saxon weapons and other artefacts; the seventh-century town was centred near the quay. Towards 700 AD, Frisian potters from the Netherlands area settled in Ipswich and set up the first large-scale potteries in England since Roman times, their wares were traded far across England, the industry was unique to Ipswich for 200 years. With growing prosperity, in about 720 AD a large new part of the town was laid out in the Buttermarket area. Ipswich was becoming a place of international importance. Parts of the ancient road plan still survive in its modern streets. After the invasion of 869 Ipswich fell under Viking rule; the earth ramparts circling the town centre were raised by Vikings in Ipswich around 900 to prevent its recapture by the English. They were unsuccessful; the town operated a mint under royal licence from King Edgar in the 970s, which continued through the Norman Conquest until the time of King John, in about 1215.
The abbreviation Gipes appears on the coins. King John granted the town its first charter in 1200, laying the medieval foundations of its modern civil government. Thenceforth Ipswich maintained its jurisdiction over the so-called Liberty, a region extending over about 35 square kilometres centred on the town. In the next four centuries it made the most of its wealth. Five large religious houses, including two Augustinian Priories, those of the Ipswich Greyfriars, Ipswich Whitefriars and Ipswich Blackfriars, stood in medieval Ipswich; the last Carmelite Prior of Ipswich was the celebrated John Bale, author of the oldest English historical verse-drama. There were several hospitals, including the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene, founded before 1199. During the Middle Ages the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Grace was a famous pilgrimage destination, attracted many pilgrims including Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon. At the Reformation the statue was taken away to London to be burned, though some claim that it survived and is preserved at Nettuno, Italy.
Around 1380, Geoffrey Chaucer satirised the merchants of Ipswich in the Canterbury Tales. Thomas Wolsey, the future cardinal, was born in Ipswich in 1473 as the son of a wealthy landowner. One of Henry VIII's closest political allies, he founded a college in the town in 1528, for its brief duration one of the homes of the Ipswich School, he remains one of the town's most famed figures. During the 14th to 17th centuries Ipswich was a kontor for the Hanseatic League, the port being used for imports and exports to the Baltic. In the time of Queen Mary the Ipswich Martyrs were burnt at the stake on the Cornhill for their Protestant beliefs. A monument commemorating this event now stands in Christchurch Park. From 1611 to 1634 Ipswich was a major centre for emigration to New England; this was encouraged by Samuel Ward. His brother Nathaniel Ward was first minister of Ipswich, where a promontory was named'Castle Hill' after the place of that name in north-wes
Simeon Ashe or Ash was an English nonconformist clergyman, a member of the Westminster Assembly and chaplain to the Parliamentary leader Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester. He was educated at Cambridge, he began his career as minister in Staffordshire, but was ejected from his living on account of his refusal to read the Book of Sports and to conform to other ceremonies. On his dismissal Sir John Burgoyne befriended him and allowed him the use of an'exempt' church at Wroxhall, he was a regular Sunday preacher at Warwick Castle, friend of Thomas Dugard. When the First English Civil War broke out, he became chaplain to the Earl of Manchester. At the close of the war he received the living of St. Austin, was one of the Cornhill lecturers, he was nominated to the Westminster assembly after the death in 1643 of Josias Shute. Although he had joined the side of the parliament, Ashe was opposed to the extreme party of the Cromwellians. Had he lived to see the passing of the act, he would have vacated his living.
Ashe was a man of some property, while he held the living of St. Austin, his house was always open to his clerical brethren. Walker charges him with exercising severity against the conforming clergy. In 1644 he joined with William Goode, another chaplain of the Earl of Manchester, in writing a pamphlet entitled A particular Relation of the most Remarkable Occurrences from the United Forces in the North; this was followed by another pamphlet, for which Ashe alone was responsible, entitled A True Relation of the most Chiefe Occurrences at and since the late Battell at Newbery. The writer's object in both cases was to vindicate the conduct of his patron. In John Vicars's Parliamentary Chronicle there is a letter of his, describing the proceedings of the Earl of Manchester in reducing several garrisons after the battle of Marston Moor. Ashe was the author of sermons, including'A Sermon on Ps. ix. 9,' preached before the House of Commons on 30 March 1642.'A Sermon before the House of Lords,' 26 Feb. 1644.'A Funeral Sermon on the Death of the Countess of Manchester,' 12 Oct. 1658, &c.
He edited some treatises of John Ball, John Brinsley, Ralph Robinson, others. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Ashe, Simeon". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London, England, its name, which derives from the neighbouring Westminster Abbey, may refer to either of two structures: the Old Palace, a medieval building-complex destroyed by fire in 1834, or its replacement, the New Palace that stands today. The palace is owned by the monarch in right of the Crown and, for ceremonial purposes, retains its original status as a royal residence. Committees appointed by both houses manage the building and report to the Speaker of the House of Commons and to the Lord Speaker; the first royal palace constructed on the site dated from the 11th century, Westminster became the primary residence of the Kings of England until fire destroyed much of the complex in 1512.
After that, it served as the home of the Parliament of England, which had met there since the 13th century, as the seat of the Royal Courts of Justice, based in and around Westminster Hall. In 1834 an greater fire ravaged the rebuilt Houses of Parliament, the only significant medieval structures to survive were Westminster Hall, the Cloisters of St Stephen's, the Chapel of St Mary Undercroft, the Jewel Tower. In the subsequent competition for the reconstruction of the Palace, the architect Charles Barry won with a design for new buildings in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the English Perpendicular Gothic style of the 14th–16th centuries; the remains of the Old Palace were incorporated into its much larger replacement, which contains over 1,100 rooms organised symmetrically around two series of courtyards and which has a floor area of 112,476 m2. Part of the New Palace's area of 3.24 hectares was reclaimed from the River Thames, the setting of its nearly 300-metre long façade, called the River Front.
Augustus Pugin, a leading authority on Gothic architecture and style, assisted Barry and designed the interior of the Palace. Construction started in 1840 and lasted for 30 years, suffering great delays and cost overruns, as well as the death of both leading architects. Major conservation work has taken place since to reverse the effects of London's air pollution, extensive repairs followed the Second World War, including the reconstruction of the Commons Chamber following its bombing in 1941; the Palace is one of the centres of political life in the United Kingdom. The Elizabeth Tower, in particular referred to by the name of its main bell, Big Ben, has become an iconic landmark of London and of the United Kingdom in general, one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city, an emblem of parliamentary democracy. Tsar Nicholas I of Russia called the new palace "a dream in stone"; the Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1970 and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.
The Palace of Westminster site was strategically important during the Middle Ages, as it was located on the banks of the River Thames. Known in medieval times as Thorney Island, the site may have been first-used for a royal residence by Canute the Great during his reign from 1016 to 1035. St Edward the Confessor, the penultimate Anglo-Saxon monarch of England, built a royal palace on Thorney Island just west of the City of London at about the same time as he built Westminster Abbey. Thorney Island and the surrounding area soon became known as Westminster. Neither the buildings used by the Anglo-Saxons nor those used by William I survive; the oldest existing part of the Palace dates from the reign of William I's successor, King William II. The Palace of Westminster was the monarch's principal residence in the late Medieval period; the predecessor of Parliament, the Curia Regis, met in Westminster Hall. Simon de Montfort's parliament, the first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265.
The "Model Parliament", the first official Parliament of England, met there in 1295, all subsequent English Parliaments and after 1707, all British Parliaments have met at the Palace. In 1512, during the early years of the reign of King Henry VIII, fire destroyed the royal residential area of the palace. In 1534, Henry VIII acquired York Place from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, a powerful minister who had lost the King's favour. Renaming it the Palace of Whitehall, Henry used it as his principal residence. Although Westminster remained a royal palace, it was used by the two Houses of Parliament and by the various royal law courts; because it was a royal residence, the Palace included no purpose-built chambers for the two Houses. Important state ceremonies were held in the Painted Chamber, built in the 13th century as the main bedchamber for King Henry III; the House of Lords met in the Queen's Chamber, a modest Medieval hall towards the southern end of the complex, with the adjoining Prince's Chamber used as the robing room for peers and for the monarch during state openings.
In 1801 the Upper House moved into the larger White Chamber.
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II; this followed the Interregnum called the Protectorate, that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The term Restoration is used to describe both the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, the period of several years afterwards in which a new political settlement was established, it is often used to cover the whole reign of Charles II and the brief reign of his younger brother James II. In certain contexts it may be used to cover the whole period of the Stuart monarchs as far as the death of Queen Anne and the accession of the Hanoverian George I in 1714; the Commonwealth, which preceded the English Restoration, might have continued if Oliver Cromwell's son Richard, made Lord Protector on his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies. Richard Cromwell's main weakness was. After seven months, an army faction known as the Wallingford House party removed him on 6 May 1659 and reinstalled the Rump Parliament.
Charles Fleetwood was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State, one of the seven commissioners for the army. On 9 June 1659, he was nominated lord-general of the army. However, his leadership was undermined in Parliament, which chose to disregard the army's authority in a similar fashion to the post-First Civil War Parliament. A royalist uprising was planned for 1 August 1659. However, Sir George Booth gained control of Cheshire. Booth held Cheshire until the end of August; the Commons, on 12 October 1659, cashiered General John Lambert and other officers, installed Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the Speaker. The next day Lambert ordered that the doors of the House be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a "Committee of Safety" was appointed, of which Lambert were members. Lambert was appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general; the Committee of Safety sent Lambert with a large force to meet George Monck, in command of the English forces in Scotland, either negotiate with him or force him to come to terms.
It was into this atmosphere that Monck, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland. Lambert's army began to desert him, he returned to London alone. Monck marched to London unopposed; the Presbyterian members, excluded in Pride's Purge of 1648, were recalled, on 24 December the army restored the Long Parliament. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to appear before Parliament to answer for his conduct. On 3 March 1660, Lambert was sent to the Tower of London, he tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill, but he was recaptured by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby, a participant in the regicide of Charles I who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody on Guernsey in 1694. On 4 April 1660, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda, in which he made several promises in relation to the reclamation of the crown of England.
Monck organised the Convention Parliament. On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649. "Constitutionally, it was as if the last nineteen years had never happened." Charles returned from exile, landing at Dover on 25 May. He entered London on his 30th birthday. To celebrate His Majesty's Return to his Parliament, 29 May was made a public holiday, popularly known as Oak Apple Day, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. Some contemporaries described the Restoration as "a divinely ordained miracle"; the sudden and unexpected deliverance from usurpation and tyranny was interpreted as a restoration of the natural and divine order. The Cavalier Parliament convened for the first time on 8 May 1661, it would endure for over 17 years being dissolved on 24 January 1679. Like its predecessor, it was overwhelmingly Royalist, it is known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King.
The leading political figure at the beginning of the Restoration was Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. It was the "skill and wisdom of Clarendon" which had "made the Restoration unconditional". Many Royalist exiles were rewarded. Prince Rupert of the Rhine returned to the service of England, became a member of the privy council, was provided with an annuity. George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, returned to be the Captain of the King's guard and received a pension. Marmaduke Langdale returned and was made "Baron Langdale". William Cavendish, Marquess of Newcastle and was able to regain the greater part of his estates, he was invested in 1666 with the Order of the Garter, was advanced to a dukedom on 16 March 1665. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act, which became law on 29 August 1660, pardoned all past treason against the crown, but excluded those involved in the trial and execution of Charles I. Thirty-one of the 59 commissioners (