Asha Bhosle, is an Indian playback singer. She is best known for her playback singing in Hindi cinema. Bhosle's career has spanned over six decades, she has done playback singing for over a thousand Bollywood movies. In addition, she has recorded several private albums and participated in numerous solo concerts in India and abroad. Bhosle is the sister of playback singer Lata Mangeshkar. Renowned for her voice range and credited for her versatility, Bhosle's work includes film music, ghazals, traditional Indian classical music, folk songs and Rabindra Sangeets. Apart from Hindi, she has sung in over 20 Indian and foreign languages. In 2006, Asha Bhosle stated that she had sung over 12,000 songs, a figure repeated by several other sources. In 2011, she was acknowledged by the Guinness Book of World Records as the most recorded artist in music history; the Government of India honoured her with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2000 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2008. In 2013, she made her debut as an actress in the film Mai, received critical acclaim for her performance.
Asha Bhosle was born in the small hamlet of Goar in Sangli in the salute princely state of Sangli, into the musical family of Master Deenanath Mangeshkar, who belongs to the Marathi-speaking Gomantak Maratha Samaj. Her father was an actor and classical singer on Marathi Musical stage; when she was nine years old, her father died. The family moved from Pune to Kolhapur and to Mumbai, she and her elder sister Lata Mangeshkar began acting in films to support their family. She sang her first film song'"Chala Chala Nav Bala" for the Marathi film Majha Bal; the music for the film was composed by Datta Davjekar. She made her Hindi film debut, her first solo Hindi film song was for the movie Raat Ki Raani. At the age of 16, she eloped with 31-year-old Ganpatrao Bhosle, marrying him against her family's wishes. In the early 1960s, prominent playback singers like Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum, Lata Mangeshkar dominated the singing for the female lead and the big films. Asha used to get the assignments they refused: singing for the bad girls and vamps, or songs in the second-grade movies.
In the 1950s, she sang more songs than most playback singers in Bollywood. Most of these were in low budget B- or C-grade films, her earliest songs were composed by A R Qureshi, Sajjad Hussain, Ghulam Mohammed, most of these songs failed to do well. Singing in Sangdil, composed by Sajjad Hussain, she got reasonable recognition. Film director Bimal Roy gave her a chance to sing in Parineeta. Raj Kapoor signed her to sing "Nanhe Munne Bachche" with Mohammed Rafi in Boot Polish, which gained popularity. O. P. Nayyar gave Asha a break in CID, she first achieved success in B. R. Chopra's Naya Daur, composed by him, her duets with Rafi like "Maang Ke Saath Tumhara", "Saathi Haath Badhana" and "Uden Jab Jab Zulfein Teri", penned by Sahir Ludhianvi, earned her recognition. It was the first time. Chopra approached her for several of his productions, including Gumrah, Hamraaz, Aadmi Aur Insaan and Dhund. Nayyar's future collaboration with Bhosle resulted in success, she established her status and received the patronage of such composers as Sachin Dev Burman and Ravi.
Bhosle and Nayyar had a personal parting of ways in the 1970s. In 1966, Bhosle's performances in the duets from one of music director R. D. Burman's first soundtracks, for the movie Teesri Manzil, won popular acclaim; when she first heard the dance number "Aaja Aaja", she felt she would not be able to sing this westernised tune. While Burman offered to change the music, she refused, she completed the song after ten days of rehearsals, "Aaja Aaja", along with such other songs as "O Haseena Zulfonwali" and "O Mere Sona Re", became successful. Shammi Kapoor, the film's leading actor, was once quoted as saying– "If I did not have Mohammad Rafi to sing for me, I would have got Asha Bhosle to do the job". Bhosle's collaboration with Burman resulted in a marriage. During the 1960-70s, she was the voice of Bollywood's actress and dancer, Helen, on whom "O Haseena Zulfon Wali" was picturised, it is said that Helen would attend her recording sessions so that she could understand the song better and plan dance steps accordingly.
Some of their other popular numbers include "Piya Tu Ab To Aaja" and "Yeh Mera Dil", among others. By the 1980s, although regarded for her abilities and versatility, had sometimes been stereotyped as a "cabaret singer" and a "pop crooner". In 1981 she attempted a different genre by singing several ghazals for the Rekha-starrer Umrao Jaan, including "Dil Cheez Kya Hai", "In Aankhon Ki Masti Ke", "Yeh Kya Jagah Hai Doston" and "Justaju Jiski Thi"; the film's music director Khayyam, had lowered her pitch by half a note. Bhosle herself expressed surprise; the ghazals won her the first National Film Award of her career. A few years she won another National Award for the song "Mera Kuchh Saamaan" from Ijaazat. In 1995, 62-year-old Bhosle sang for actress Urmila Matondkar in the movie Rangeela; the soundtrack featured songs like "Tanha Tanha" and "Rangeela Re" sung by her, composed by music director A. R. Rahman, who would go on to record several songs with her. During the 2000s, several of Bhosle's numbers became chartbusters, including "Radha Kaise Na Jale" from Lagaan, "Kambakht
Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer
Semmangudi Radhakrishna Srinivasa Iyer was a Carnatic vocalist. He was the youngest recipient of the Sangeetha Kalanidhi awarded by the Music Academy in 1947 and has received many awards including Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan from the Government of India, Sangeet Natak Academy award, Isai Perarignar from Government of Tamil Nadu and Kalidas Samman from Government of Madhya Pradesh, he was affectionately addressed as "Semmangudi Maama" by his disciples. He, along with his contemporaries G. N. Balasubramaniam and Madurai Mani Iyer, are referred to as the 20th century male trinity of Carnatic music, he was considered the "Pitamaha" or the grand sire of modern Carnatic Music. He was conferred with an honorary doctorate by University of Kerala in 1979, he was born in Tirukkodikaval, Tanjore district as the third son of Radhakrishna Iyer and Dharmasamvardhini Ammal. He lived with his maternal uncle Tirukkodikaval Krishna Iyer, a violin maestro, until the age of four and after his death, moved back to his parents' home in Semmangudi, Tiruvarur District.
At the age of eight he started learning music from his cousin Semmangudi Narayanaswamy Iyer. This was followed by some rigorous training under Thiruvadaimaruthur Sakharama Rao, a famous Gottuvadhyam exponent, an event considered by Semmangudi as a turning point in his life; this was followed by another training stint with Narayanaswamy Iyer, during which time he learnt a lot of varnams and keerthanams. He had a musical apprenticeship with Maharajapuram Viswanatha Iyer. In 1926, he performed his first music recital at Kumbakonam. In 1927 gave a concert in the Madras session of Indian National Congress, another event considered by Semmangudy as a turning point in his life, as it catapulted him into the big league of vidwans at that time, he was known for producing soulful music creative and yet orthodox, despite a recalcitrant voice. He was instrumental, along with Harikesanallur Muthiah Bhagavathar, for the work on the krithis of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma. After attending one of his concerts in 1934, Maharani Sethu Parvati Bai of Travancore was so impressed by his talent and scholarship that she invited him to come to Thiruvananthapuram to edit and popularise the compositions of Swati Tirunal.
He succeeded Harikesanallur Muthiah Bhagavathar as Principal of the Swathi Thirunal College of Music at Thiruvananthapuram, a post he held for 23 years, until the age of 55. At this age, he handed over his responsibilities to another Carnatic legend, G. N. Balasubramaniam and at the behest of the Government of India, became the Chief Producer of Carnatic music at All India Radio, Madras from 1957 to 1960. In life, he concentrated on concert performances and tutoring youngsters, he gave public concerts after the age of 90. Semmangudi was renowned for his virtuosity as a concert performer, he was famous for the meticulous planning that he put into every concert, including the choice of krithis and duration. He was widely acknowledged as a master of improvisation in the form of niravals. Semmangudi was noted for his choice of songs, speed in rendering swarams and his ability to combine choice and speed with Bhakti; some most memorable concerts over the years had geniuses in violin in accompaniment.
Palghat Mani Iyer, Mavelikkara Velukkutty Nair, Karraikudi Mani, Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman, Lalgudi Jayaraman, Nagercoil S Harihara Iyer, T. N. Krishnan, Nagercoil S. Ganesa Iyer, Trichy Sankaran, Guruvayur Dorai, T S Nandakumar and Vellore G. Ramabhadran; some of his famous renditions of kritis included Marubalka in Sri Ranjani raga, Chakkani Raja Margamu in Kharaharapriya, etc. Semmangudi was well known for his uncharacteristically nasal voice in an era when every prominent Carnatic singer had an impeccable voice. In his youth, famous kanjira performer, Dhakshinamurti Pillai commented to his brother and teacher, "His voice is as melodious as the noise created when a coconut shell is scraped on a rock. Don't bother to give him vocal training. Let him learn to play the violin." Despite such criticism, Semmangudi worked hard to improve his voice through practice and rigorous training. In the end, his natural talent for music emerged victorious over his deficient voice and he became a phenomenon in the Carnatic world.
His singing style has been followed, his prominent disciples include Sangeetha Kalanidhis, M. S. Subbulakshmi and her stepdaughter Radha Viswanathan, T. M. Thyagarajan and violinist, Prof. T. N. Krishnan, his senior disciples include Smt Parassala Ponnammal, Trivandrum G Seethalakshmi Ammal, Palai C. K. Ramachandran, Smt. Seetha Rajan, Mavelikkara Prabhakara Varma, Prof. Kumara Kerala Varma, K. J. Yesudas, P. S. NarayanaswamiVaigal. S. Gnanaskandhan, V. Subramaniam, Sri K. R. Kedaranathan, Smt. Meera Kedaranathan, Kadayanallur Venkataraman, V. R. Krishnan, Smt. Seethalakshmi Venkatesan, Smt. Radha Namboodri, Smt. Visalakshi Ramachandran. T. M. Krishna, a leading vocalist of the present day, has taken advanced training from him. At a young age, he was married to Thayyu ammal. Thayyu ammal, was a pivotal factor in the success of his career; the entire family was run with stream line precision by Thayyu ammal, when he had to travel for concerts and spend most of his time involved in music. Sons – Swaminathan, Radhakrishnan Daughters – Shantha, Dharma.
Grand Children – Jayaraman, Sreeraman, Yoga, Padma, Sankar, Srinivas, Vidya, Jagannath
Gangubai Hangal was an Indian singer of the khyal genre of Hindustani classical music, known for her deep and powerful voice. Hangal belonged to the Kirana gharana. Gangubai Hangal was born in Dharwad to Chikkurao Nadiger, an agriculturist and Ambabai, a vocalist of Carnatic music. Hangal received only elementary education and her family shifted to Hubli in 1928 so that Gangubai could study Hindustani music, she began to train formally aged 13 with Krishnacharya Hulgur, a kinnari player, studying Hindustani classical music. From Hulgur, Gangubai learned sixty compositions in one year before he stopped teaching her after an argument about his fees, she learned from Dattopant Desai before studying under Sawai Gandharva, a respected guru. Hangal could only study sporadically under Gandharva when he returned to his home, but she received an intensive training of three years after he relocated permanently to Hubli. Hangal's mother's family was considered to be of low social status and for women of her generation singing was not considered appropriate employment.
She performed all over India and for All India Radio stations until 1945. Hangal had performed light classical genres, including bhajan and thumri, but concentrated on khyal. However, she refused to sing light classical, saying she sang only ragas. Hangal served as honorary music professor of the Karnataka University, she gave her last concert in March 2006 to mark her 75th career year. She had overcome bone marrow cancer in 2003, died of cardiac arrest at the age of 96, on 21 July 2009, in Hubli, where she resided, she had her eyes donated to increase awareness for organ donation. Hangal married at age 16 to a Brahmin lawyer, they had two sons, Narayan Rao and Babu Rao, one daughter, who died from cancer in 2004, aged 75. Gangubai Hangal received a number of awards, which include: Karnataka Sangeet Nritya Academy Award, 1962 Padma Bhushan, 1971 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, 1973 Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, 1996 Padma Vibhushan, 2002The Karnataka state government declared two days of mourning for Hangal.
A state funeral was announced for 22 July in Hubli by the district commissioner of the Dharwad district. In 2008, The State Government of Karnataka decided to name the proposed Karnataka State Music University, Mysore after Gangubhai Hangal. Subsequently, the Karnataka State Dr. Gangubai Hangal Music and Performing Arts University Act, 2009 has been passed by the State Legislature. Presently the Karnataka State Dr. Gangubhai Hangal Music and Performing Arts University operates from Mysore, Karnataka. Gangothri — the birthplace of Gangubai Hangal — has been converted into a museum by the Government of Karnataka. Dr Gangubai Hangal Gurukul in Hubli trains artists in traditional Guru-Shishya parampara to become performing artists. Nanna Badukina Haadu, as told to Mr. N. K. Kulkarni, translated into English by G. N. Hangal, published by Hubli. Bhimsen Joshi Kundgol Hubli Dharwad Karnataka Gangubai Hangal at AllMusic Gangubai Hangal page at Vijaya Parrikar Library of Indian Classical Music Gangubai Hangal Detailed Biography Gangubai Hangal feted on her 94th birthday Gangubai Hangal auf culturebase.net
Plant breeding is the science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. It has been used to improve the quality of nutrition in products for animals. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to methods that make use of knowledge of genetics and chromosomes, to more complex molecular techniques. Genes in a plant are what determine what type of quantitative traits it will have. Plant breeders strive to create a specific outcome of plants and new plant varieties. Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since near the beginning of human civilization, it is practiced worldwide by individuals such as gardeners and farmers, by professional plant breeders employed by organizations such as government institutions, crop-specific industry associations or research centers. International development agencies believe that breeding new crops is important for ensuring food security by developing new varieties that are higher yielding, disease resistant, drought tolerant or regionally adapted to different environments and growing conditions.
Plant breeding started with sedentary agriculture and the domestication of the first agricultural plants, a practice, estimated to date back 9,000 to 11,000 years. Early farmers selected food plants with particular desirable characteristics, employed these as progenitors for subsequent generations, resulting in an accumulation of valuable traits over time. Grafting technology had been practiced in China before 2000 BCE. By 500 BCE grafting was well practiced. Gregor Mendel is considered the "father of modern genetics", his experiments with plant hybridization led to his establishing laws of inheritance. Genetics stimulated research to improve crop production through plant breeding. Modern plant breeding is applied genetics, but its scientific basis is broader, covering molecular biology, systematics, pathology, entomology and statistics, it has developed its own technology. One major technique of plant breeding is selection, the process of selectively propagating plants with desirable characteristics and eliminating or "culling" those with less desirable characteristics.
Another technique is the deliberate interbreeding of or distantly related individuals to produce new crop varieties or lines with desirable properties. Plants are crossbred to introduce traits/genes from one variety or line into a new genetic background. For example, a mildew-resistant pea may be crossed with a high-yielding but susceptible pea, the goal of the cross being to introduce mildew resistance without losing the high-yield characteristics. Progeny from the cross would be crossed with the high-yielding parent to ensure that the progeny were most like the high-yielding parent; the progeny from that cross would be tested for yield and mildew resistance and high-yielding resistant plants would be further developed. Plants may be crossed with themselves to produce inbred varieties for breeding. Pollinators may be excluded through the use of pollination bags. Classical breeding relies on homologous recombination between chromosomes to generate genetic diversity; the classical plant breeder may make use of a number of in vitro techniques such as protoplast fusion, embryo rescue or mutagenesis to generate diversity and produce hybrid plants that would not exist in nature.
Traits that breeders have tried to incorporate into crop plants include: Improved quality, such as increased nutrition, improved flavor, or greater beauty Increased yield of the crop Increased tolerance of environmental pressures Resistance to viruses and bacteria Increased tolerance to insect pests Increased tolerance of herbicides Longer storage period for the harvested crop Successful commercial plant breeding concerns were founded from the late 19th century. Gartons Agricultural Plant Breeders in England was established in the 1890s by John Garton, one of the first to commercialize new varieties of agricultural crops created through cross-pollination; the firm's first introduction was Abundance Oat, one of the first agricultural grain varieties bred from a controlled cross, introduced to commerce in 1892. In the early 20th century, plant breeders realized that Mendel's findings on the non-random nature of inheritance could be applied to seedling populations produced through deliberate pollinations to predict the frequencies of different types.
Wheat hybrids were bred to increase the crop production of Italy during the so-called "Battle for Grain". Heterosis was explained by George Harrison Shull, it describes the tendency of the progeny of a specific cross to outperform both parents. The detection of the usefulness of heterosis for plant breeding has led to the development of inbred lines that reveal a heterotic yield advantage when they are crossed. Maize was the first species where heterosis was used to produce hybrids. Statistical methods were developed to analyze gene action and distinguish heritable variation from variation caused by environment. In 1933 another important breeding technique, cytoplasmic male sterility, developed in maize, was described by Marcus Morton Rhoades. CMS is a maternally inherited trait; this enables the production of hybrids without the need for labor-intensive detasseling. These early breeding techniques resulted in large yield increase in the United States in the early 20th century. Similar yield i
Zubin Mehta is an Indian conductor of Western and Eastern classical music. He is music director of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and Conductor Emeritus of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Mehta's father was the founder of the Bombay Symphony Orchestra, from him, Mehta received his early musical education; when he was 18, he enrolled in the Vienna state music academy from which he graduated after three years with a diploma as a conductor. He began winning international competitions and conducted the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic at age 21. Beginning in the 1960s, Mehta gained experience by substituting for celebrated maestros throughout the world. Mehta was Music Director of the Montreal Symphony Orchestra from 1961 to 1967. In 1969, he was appointed Music Adviser to the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and in 1981, Mehta became its permanent Music Director for Life. From 1978 to 1991, he was Music Director of the New York Philharmonic. Since 1985, he has been chief conductor of the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence, Italy.
He is an honorary citizen of both Florence and Tel Aviv and was made an honorary member of the Vienna State Opera in 1997 and of the Bavarian State Opera in 2006. The title of "Honorary Conductor" was bestowed on him by numerous orchestras throughout the world. More Mehta made several tours with the Bavarian State Opera and kept up a busy schedule of guest conducting appearances until present times. In December 2006, he received the "Kennedy Center Honor" and in October 2008 was honored by the Japanese Imperial Family with the "Praemium Imperiale". In 2016, Zubin Mehta was appointed Honorary Conductor of Naples. Mehta was born into a Parsi family in Bombay, during the British Raj, the older son of Mehli and Tehmina Mehta, his native language is Gujarati. His father was a self-taught violinist and who founded and conducted the Bombay Symphony Orchestra and the American Youth Symphony, which he conducted for 33 years after moving to Los Angeles, his father had lived in New York in order to study under violinist Ivan Galamian, a noted teacher who taught Itzhak Perlman and Pinchas Zukerman.
His father returned to Bombay as an accomplished violinist of the Russian school. Mehta notes that on many occasions when he conducts throughout the U. S. someone approaches him to say, "You don't know how much I loved your father!". Mehta has described his childhood as being surrounded by music at home all the time, having learnt to speak Gujarati and sing around the same time, he recounts his father having had a strong influence on him, listening to his quartet daily after his father returned from USA after the Second World War. Mehta at age seven was first taught to play piano by his father; when he reached his early teens, his father allowed him to lead sectional rehearsals of the Bombay Symphony, at sixteen, he was conducting the full orchestra during rehearsals. Mehta graduated secondary school from St. Mary's School and went on to study medicine at St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, at the urging of his mother, who wanted him to take up a more "respectable" profession than music. At age eighteen, he dropped out after two years to move to Vienna, one of Europe's music centers, in order to study music under Hans Swarowsky at the state music academy.
He lived on $75 per month, was a contemporary of conductor Claudio Abbado and future conductor-pianist Daniel Barenboim. He remained at the academy for three years, during which time he studied the double bass, which he played in the Vienna Chamber Orchestra. Swarowsky recognized Mehta's abilities early on, describing him as a "demoniac conductor" who "had it all". While still a student, after the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, he organized a student orchestra in seven days and conducted it in a concert at a refugee camp outside Vienna, he graduated in 1957. In 1958 he entered the Liverpool International Conductor's Competition with a hundred contestants and took first prize; the prize included a year's contract as associate conductor of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, which he conducted in fourteen concerts, all of which received rave reviews. He was a 2nd-place prize-winner at the summer academy at the Tanglewood Music Center in Massachusetts. At that competition he attracted the notice of Charles Munch the conductor of the Boston Symphony, who would help his career.
In 1958, he boldly programmed an all-Schoenberg concert, which did so well that he accepted further bookings. That same year he married a Canadian voice student, Carmen Lasky, whom he met in Vienna. During the years of 1960 and 1961, Mehta was asked to substitute for celebrated maestros throughout the world, receiving high critical acclaim for most of those concerts. In 1960, he conducted a series for the Vienna Symphony Orchestra and that summer made his New York conducting debut leading the New York Philharmonic. In 1960, with the help of Charles Munch, Mehta became the chief conductor and Music Director of the Montreal Symphony Orchestra, a post he held until 1967. By 1961, he had conducted the Vienna and Israel Philharmonic Orchestras. In 1962, he took the Montreal Symphony on a concert tour to Russia and Vienna. Mehta was most apprehensive about his concert in Vienna, which he said was considered the "capital of Western music". However, his single concert there received a twenty-minute ovation, fourteen curtain calls, two encores.
In 1961, he was named assistant conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, although
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research is an autonomous body responsible for co-ordinating agricultural education and research in India. It reports to Education, Ministry of Agriculture; the Union Minister of Agriculture serves as its president. It is the largest network of agricultural education institutes in the world; the Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education has recommended setting up of a constitutional body — the National Commission for Higher Education and Research — which would be a unified supreme body to regulate all branches of higher education including agricultural education. Presently, regulation of agricultural education is the mandate of ICAR, Veterinary Council of India and Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education; the UPA government has included Yashpal Committee recommendations in its'100 days agenda'. Premier institute of agriculture in India As of July, 2006 it has developed a vaccine against bird flu; the vaccine was developed at the High Security Animal Disease Laboratory, the only facility in the country to conduct tests for the H5N1 variant of bird flu.
It was entrusted with the task of developing a vaccine by the ICAR after the Avian Influenza outbreak in February. The ICAR was provided Rs. 8 crore for the purpose. 2009: In December 2009, it announced that it was considering a policy to provide open access to its research. 2010: In March 2010, ICAR made its two flagship journals as Open Access Journals. 2013: On 13 September 2013, it announced the Open Access Policy and committed for making all the public funded scholarly research outputs available via open access repositories. ICAR scientists were the first in the world to sequence the pigeon pea genome, it was a purely indigenous effort by 31 scientists led by Nagendra Kumar Singh of NRCPB. The first draft of the sequence was published in J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol; as of October 2017, ICAR has following institutions: 6 Deemed Universities 64 ICAR Institutions 15 National Research Centres 6 National Bureaux 25 Directorates/Project Directorates Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Uttar Pradesh National Dairy Research Institute, Haryana Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Maharashtra Central Agroforestry Research Institute, Jhansi Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Old Goa, Goa Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hissar Central Institute for Research on Cattle, Uttar Pradesh Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom Central Institute for Women in Agriculture, Bhubaneshwar Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubneshwar Central Institute of Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai Central Institute of Sub Tropical Horticulture, Lucknow Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar Central Institute on Post harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasargod Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibers, Barrackpore Central Research Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Rajasthan Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Jharkhand Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi Indian Grassland and Fevener Research Institute, Jhansi Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Ranchi Indian Institute of Farming Systems Research, Modipuram Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru Indian Institute of Maize Research,New Delhi Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, Eluru Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad Indian Institute of Seed Research, Mau Indian Institute of Soil Sciences, Bhopal Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Dehradun Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneshwar Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal National Academy of Agricultural Research & Management, Hyderabad National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management, Maharashtra National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, New Delhi National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bengaluru National Institute of Biotic Stresses Management, Raipur National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, Kolkata National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Bengaluru National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack Sugarcane Breeding Institute
Muhammad Yusuf Khan, better known as Dilip Kumar, is an Indian film actor, producer and activist, known for his work in Hindi cinema. Popularly known as The Tragedy King and The First Khan, he has been credited with bringing realism to film acting since his first film and is regarded as one of the greatest actors of world cinema. Kumar debuted as an actor in the film Jwar Bhata, produced by Bombay Talkies. In a career spanning over six decades, Dilip Kumar worked in over 65 films. Kumar is known for roles in films such as the romantic Andaz, the heartwarming Babul, the impassioned Deedar, the swashbuckling Aan, social drama Daag, the dramatic Devdas, the comical Azaad, Naya Daur, Madhumati, the epic historical Mughal-e-Azam, the social dacoit crime drama Gunga Jamuna, the comedy Ram Aur Shyam. In 1976, Dilip Kumar took a five-year break from film performances and returned with a character role in the film Kranti and continued his career playing leading roles in films such as Shakti and Saudagar.
His last film was Qila. He is the first recipient of the Filmfare Best Actor Award. Critics have acclaimed him as one of the greatest actors in the history of Indian cinema. Dilip Kumar never married her, he married actress Saira Bano in 1966. He and his wife live in the Bandra suburb of Mumbai in the state of Maharashtra in India. Kumar was born Mohammad Yusuf Khan to Ayesha Begum and Lala Ghulam Sarwar Ali Khan in a Muslim Hindkowan-Punjabi Awan family of 12 children on 11 December 1922 at home in the Qissa Khawani Bazaar area of Peshawar, British India, his father was a fruit merchant who owned orchards in Peshawar and Deolali. Mohammad Yusuf Khan was schooled at Barnes School, Nashik, he grew up in the same religiously mixed neighbourhood as Raj Kapoor, his childhood friend, his colleague in the film industry. In 1940, while still in his teens and after an altercation with his father, Mohammad Yusuf Khan left home for Pune in Maharashtra. With the help of a Parsi café-owner and an elderly Anglo-Indian couple, Kumar met a canteen contractor.
Without letting on his family antecedents, he got the job on the merit of his knowledge of good written and spoken English. He set up a sandwich stall at the army club and when the contract ended, he headed home to Mumbai, having saved Rs. 5000. In 1942, anxious to start a venture to help his father with household finances, he met Dr. Masani at Churchgate Station, who asked him to accompany him to Bombay Talkies, in Malad. There he met actress Devika Rani, owner of Bombay Talkies, who asked him to sign up with the company on a salary of Rs. 1250 per month. There he met actor Ashok Kumar, who influenced his acting style by telling him to act "natural", he met Sashadhar Mukherjee, both of these people became close to Kumar over the years. Kumar helped out in the story-writing and scripting department because of his proficiency in Urdu language. Devika Rani requested him to change his name to Dilip Kumar, cast him in a lead role for Jwar Bhata, which marked Kumar's entry into the Hindi film industry.
Dilip Kumar's first film was Jwar Bhata in 1944. After a few more unsuccessful films, it was Jugnu, in which he starred alongside Noor Jehan, that became his first major hit at the box office, his next major hits were the 1948 films Mela. He got his breakthrough role in 1949 with Mehboob Khan's Andaz, in which he starred alongside Raj Kapoor and Nargis. Shabnam released that year was another box office hit Kumar went on to have success in the 1950s playing leading roles in several box office hits such as Jogan, Hulchul, Daag, Amar, Uran Khatola, Insaniyat in which he co-starred with Dev Anand, Naya Daur, Yahudi and Paigham; some of these films established his screen image as the "Tragedy King". Kumar suffered from depression due to portraying many tragic roles and on the advice of his psychiatrist, he took on light-hearted roles. Mehboob Khan's big-budget 1952 swashbuckling musical Aan featured him in one of his first lighter roles and marked his first film to be shot in technicolor and to have a wide release across Europe with a lavish premiere in London.
He had further success with lighter roles as a thief in the comedy Azaad, as a royal prince in the romantic musical Kohinoor He was the first actor to win the Filmfare Best Actor Award and went on to win it a further seven times. He formed popular on-screen pairings with many of the top actresses at the time including Madhubala, Nargis, Meena Kumari and Kamini Kaushal. 9 of his films in the 1950s were ranked in the Top 30 highest-grossing films of the decade. In the 1950s, Dilip Kumar became the first actor to charge ₹1 lakh per film. In 1960, he portrayed Prince Salim in K. Asif's big-budget epic historical film Mughal-e-Azam, the highest-grossing film in Indian film history for 11 years until it was surpassed by 1971 film Haathi Mere Saathi and by the 1975 film Sholay. If adjusted for inflation, Mughal-e-Azam was the highest-grossing Indian film through to the early 2010s, equivalent to over ₹1000 crore in 2011; the film told the story of Prince Salim, who revolts against his father Akbar, falls in love with a courtesan.
The film was most