National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbia County, Pennsylvania
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbia County, Pennsylvania. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Columbia County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 31 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Another property has been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania National Register of Historic Places listings in Pennsylvania List of Pennsylvania state historical markers in Columbia County
Thomas Sully was an American portrait painter. Born in Great Britain, he lived most of his life in Pennsylvania, he painted in the style of Thomas Lawrence. His subjects included national political leaders, such as presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Quincy Adams, General Marquis de Lafayette, many leading musicians and composers. In addition to portraits of wealthy patrons, he painted landscapes and historical pieces such as Passage of the Delaware, his work was adapted for use on United States coinage. Sully was born in Horncastle, England in 1783, to the actors Matthew Sully and Sarah Chester. In March 1792, the Sullys and their nine children emigrated to Charleston, South Carolina, where Thomas’s uncle managed a theater. Sully made his first appearance in the theater as a tumbler at the age of 11 in Charleston. After a brief apprenticeship to an insurance broker, who recognized his artistic talent, at about age 12 Sully began painting, he studied with his brother-in-law Jean Belzons, a French miniaturist, until they had a falling-out in 1799.
He returned to Richmond to learn "miniature and device painting" from his elder brother Lawrence Sully. After Lawrence's death, Thomas Sully married Sarah Sully, he took on the rearing of Lawrence's children. He and Sarah had an additional nine children together. Among the children were Alfred Sully, Mary Chester Sully, Jane Cooper Sully, Blanche Sully, Rosalie Sully, Thomas Wilcocks Sully. Sully was one of the founding members of The Musical Fund Society, he painted the portraits of many of the musicians and composers who were members. Sully became a professional painter at age 18 in 1801, he studied portrait painting under Gilbert Stuart in Boston for three weeks. After some time in Virginia with his brother Lawrence, Sully moved to New York, he settled in Philadelphia in 1806. In 1809 Sully traveled to London for nine months of study under the American Benjamin West, who had established his painting career in Great Britain. Sully's 1824 portraits of John Quincy Adams, who became President within the year, the general Marquis de Lafayette, appear to have brought him widespread recognition.
His Adams portrait is held in the National Gallery of Washington. Many notable Americans of the day had their portraits painted by him. In 1837–1838 he was in London to paint Queen Victoria at the request of Philadelphia's St. George's Society, his daughter Blanche assisted him as the Queen's "stand-in", modeling the Queen's costume when she was not available. One of Sully's portraits of Thomas Jefferson is owned by the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society at the University of Virginia and hangs in that school's rotunda. Another Jefferson portrait, this one head-to-toe, hangs at West Point, as does his portrait of General Alexander Macomb. Sully's records say that he produced 2,631 paintings from 1801, most of which are in the United States, his style resembles that of Thomas Lawrence. Though best known as a portrait painter, Sully made historical pieces and landscapes. An example of the former is the 1819 Passage of the Delaware, now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; the Sully painting, Portrait of Anna and Harriet Coleman, was sold on September 28, 2013 for $145,000 by John M. Hess Auction Service Inc. of Manheim, Pennsylvania.
Sully died in Philadelphia on November 5, 1872. He is buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery there, his book Hints to Young Painters was published posthumously after his death. His paintings are displayed permanently in many of the world's leading art museums. Several of Sully's portraits hang in the chambers of the Dialectic and Philanthropic societies of the University of North Carolina. Portraits, including that of President James K. Polk, were commissioned of notable alumni from the Societies; the obverse design of the United States Seated Liberty coinage, which began with the Gobrecht dollar in 1836 and lasted until 1891, was based on his work. His son, Alfred Sully, served as a brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Through Alfred, Thomas Sully is the great-grandfather of Ella Deloria, the noted Yankton Sioux ethnologist and writer. Standing Rock Sioux scholar and author of Custer Died For Your Sins, an American Indian civil-rights manifesto. Sully was a great-uncle of the New Orleans-based architect.
Charles Henry Lanneau of South Carolina was his student. Murray, P. & L.. Dictionary of art and artists. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051300-0. Carrie Rebora Barratt, Queen Victoria and Thomas Sully. Exhibition catalogue. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000 The Winterthur Library Overview of the archival collection on Thomas Sully. Thomas Sully at Find a Grave "Washington's Crossing as Docudrama", Wall Street Journal, Retrieved 03/19/2001 "Thomas Sully and Queen Victoria". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
National Register of Historic Places listings in Bedford County, Pennsylvania
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Bedford County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 32 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Three sites are further designated as National Historic Landmarks. Another 2 properties have been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania National Register of Historic Places listings in Pennsylvania List of Pennsylvania state historical markers in Bedford County
National Register of Historic Places listings in northern Chester County, Pennsylvania
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in northern Chester County, Pennsylvania. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in northern Chester County, United States. Northern Chester County is defined for this list as being the municipalities north of the Pennsylvania Main Line and west of a line extending from Phoenixville to Exton; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 319 properties and districts listed on the Register in Chester County, including 7 National Historic Landmarks. Northern Chester County includes 88 properties and districts, including 2 National Historic Landmarks. One district, the Middle Pickering Rural Historic District, is split between northern and eastern Chester County, is thus included on both lists; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019
Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1864, Swarthmore was one of the earliest coeducational colleges in the United States, it was established to be a college "...under the care of Friends, at which an education may be obtained equal to that of the best institutions of learning in our country." By 1906, Swarthmore had dropped its religious affiliation and became non-sectarian. Swarthmore is a member of the Tri-College Consortium along with Bryn Mawr and Haverford College, a cooperative academic arrangement between the three schools. Swarthmore is affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania through the Quaker Consortium, which allows for students to cross-register for classes at all four institutions. Swarthmore offers over 600 courses a year in more than 40 areas of study, including an ABET accredited engineering program which culminates with a Bachelor of Science in engineering. Swarthmore has a variety of sporting teams with a total of 22 Division III Varsity Intercollegiate Sports Teams and competes in the Centennial Conference, a group of private colleges in Pennsylvania and Maryland.
Despite the school's small size, Swarthmore alumni have attained prominence in a broad range of fields. Graduates include five Nobel Prize winners, 11 MacArthur Foundation fellows, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 27 Truman Scholars, 10 Marshall Scholars, 201 Fulbright Grantees, many noteworthy figures in law, science, business and other fields. Swarthmore counts 49 alumni as members of the National Academies of Science and Medicine. Swarthmore is ranked 3rd best liberal arts college in the country by U. S. News and World Report; the name "Swarthmore" has its roots in early Quaker history. In England, Swarthmoor Hall near the town of Ulverston, was the home of Thomas and Margaret Fell in 1652 when George Fox, fresh from his epiphany atop Pendle Hill in 1651, came to visit; the visitation turned into a long association, as Fox persuaded Thomas and Margaret Fell of his views. Swarthmoor was used for the first meetings of; the College was founded in 1864 by a committee of Quakers who were members of the Philadelphia, New York and Baltimore Yearly Meetings of the Religious Society of Friends.
Edward Parrish was its first president. Lucretia Mott and Martha Ellicott Tyson were among those Friends, who insisted that the new college of Swarthmore be coeducational. Edward Hicks Magill, the second president, served for 17 years, his daughter, Helen Magill, was in the first class to graduate in 1873. In the early 1900s, the College had a major collegiate American football program during the formation period of the soon-to-be nationwide sport, an active fraternity and sorority life; the 1921 appointment of Frank Aydelotte as President began the development of the school's current academic focus with his vision for the Honors program based on his experience as a Rhodes Scholar. During World War II, Swarthmore was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a U. S. Navy commission. Wolfgang Köhler, Hans Wallach and Solomon Asch were noted psychologists who became professors at Swarthmore, a center for Gestalt psychology.
Both Wallach, Jewish, Köhler, not, had left Nazi Germany because of its discriminatory policies against Jews. Köhler came to Swarthmore in 1935 and served until his retirement in 1958. Wallach came in 1936, first as a researcher, teaching from 1942 until 1975. Asch, Polish-American and had immigrated as a child to the US in 1920, joined the faculty in 1947 and served until 1966, conducting his noted conformity experiments at Swarthmore; the 1960s and 1970s saw the construction of new buildings – the Sharples Dining Hall in 1964, the Worth Health Center in 1965, the Dana/Hallowell Residence Halls in 1967, the Lang Music Building in 1973. They saw a 1967 review of the college initiated by President Courtney Smith, a 1969 black protest movement, in which African-American students conducted an eight-day sit-in in the admissions office to demand increased black enrollment, the establishment of the Black Cultural Center and the Women's Resource Center; the Environmental Studies program and the Intercultural Center were established in 1992, in 1993 the Lang Performing Arts Center was opened.
In 1999 the college began purchasing renewable energy credits in the form of wind power, in the 2002–2003 academic year it constructed its first green roof. In 2008, Swarthmore's first mascot, Phineas the Phoenix, made its debut. Swarthmore's Oxbridge tutorial-inspired Honors Program allows students to take double-credit seminars from their third year and write honors theses. Seminars are composed of four to eight students. Students in seminars will write at least three ten-page papers per seminar, one of these papers is expanded into a 20–30 page paper by the end of the seminar. At the end of their final year, Honors students take oral and written examinations conducted by outside experts in their field. One student in each discipline is awarded
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
Rembrandt Peale was an American artist and museum keeper. A prolific portrait painter, he was acclaimed for his likenesses of presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Peale's style was influenced by French Neoclassicism after a stay in Paris in his early thirties. Rembrandt Peale was born the third of six surviving children to his mother, Rachel Brewer, father, Charles Willson Peale in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, on February 22, 1778; the father, Charles a notable artist, named him after the noted 17th-century Dutch painter and engraver Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn. His father taught all of his children, including Raphaelle Peale, Rubens Peale and Titian Peale, to paint scenery and portraiture, tutored Rembrandt in the arts and sciences. Rembrandt began drawing at the age of 8. A year after his mother's death and the remarriage of his father, Peale left the school of the arts, completed his first self-portrait at the age of 13; the canvas displays the young artist's early mastery. The clothes, give the notion that Peale exaggerated what a 13-year-old would look like, Peale's hair curls like the hair of a Renaissance angel.
In his life, Peale "often showed this painting to young beginners, to encourage them to go from'bad' to better..."In July 1787, Charles Willson Peale introduced his son Rembrandt to George Washington, the young aspirant artist watched his father paint the future president. In 1795, at the age of 17, Rembrandt painted an aging Washington, making him appear far more aged than in reality; the portrait was well received, Rembrandt had made his debut. At the age of 20, Peale married 22-year-old Eleanor May Short at St. Joseph's Catholic Church in Philadelphia. During their marriage and Short had nine children: Rosalba, Michael Angelo and Emma Clara among them. In 1840, he married one of his pupils and an artist in her own right. In 1822, Peale moved to New York City, where he embarked on an attempt to paint what he hoped would become the "standard likeness" of Washington, he studied portraits by other artists including John Trumbull, Gilbert Stuart and his own father, as well as his own 1795 picture which had never satisfied him.
His resulting work Patriae Pater, completed in 1824, depicts Washington through an oval window, is considered by many to be second only to Gilbert Stuart's iconic Athenaeum painting of the first president. Peale subsequently attempted to capitalize on the success of what became known as his "Porthole" picture. Patriae Pater was purchased by Congress in 1832 for $2,000, it hangs in the Old Senate Chamber. In 1826 he helped. Peale went on to create over 70 detailed replicas, including one of Washington in full military uniform that hangs in the Oval Office. Peale continued to paint other noted portraits, such as those of the third president Thomas Jefferson while he was in office, on a portrait of Chief Justice John Marshall. Noted for his "itinerant" nature, Peale visited Europe several times to study art. Throughout his life, Peale traveled across the Western Hemisphere in search of inspiration and opportunities as an artist, his father helped pay his way to Paris, where he stayed from June to September 1808, again from October 1809 to November 1810.
In Paris, Peale studied the works of Jacques-Louis David, which influenced him to paint in the Neoclassical style. He painted the famous explorer Alexander von Humboldt and several other noted patrons such as Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and François André Michaux. After his successes in France, Peale returned to Philadelphia in 1810, his efforts to establish his knowledge and mastery of art were displayed in his painting The Roman Daughter. The painting was deemed too "sensational" by the people of Philadelphia, who were unsympathetic to his endeavors toward “improving the state of fine arts in America” in the 19th century. Amid the economic hardship of the War of 1812, President Jefferson—who promised to buy the 1795 portrait of Washington, but could not keep his promise—instead encouraged Peale to go to Europe, as "we have genius among us but no unemployed wealth to reward it". Motivated by his father's establishment of the American Museum of Philadelphia and having been unsuccessful in Philadelphia, Rembrandt Peale assumed his father's role in another city.
On August 15, 1814, Peale launched his first museum as soon as he arrived in the municipality of Baltimore, Maryland on Holliday Street between East Saratoga and Lexington Streets, first building constructed in America to serve as a museum (later served as second Baltimore City Hall, 1830–75, an African-American school and restored in 1931 as Municipal Museum. Renovated and restored again in 1981, it was reopened as the Peale Museum; the museum merged with Baltimore City Life Museums system in 1985 and closed in 1997. Premeditated as an Arts and Sciences museum, Peale decided to display only works of art and manufactured products instead; the museum was elaborately illuminated by gas light, following the example of his brother Rubens in Philadelphia. This innovation made a great impression. Peale had acquired an important gas lighting patent, with some associates founded the successful Gas Light Company of Baltimore. Having poor business sense, though, he did little to manage the company and was forced out after a few years due to the War of 1812.
In 1828, an ambitious Peale raised funds and tried earning money for his previous paintings, in order to travel to Rome. He took along his 15-year-old son, Michael Angelo, a determined young artist who copied his father's paintings in