Joseph Priestley was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, liberal political theorist who published over 150 works. He has been credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier have strong claims to the discovery. During his lifetime, Priestley's considerable scientific reputation rested on his invention of soda water, his writings on electricity, his discovery of several "airs", the most famous being what Priestley dubbed "dephlogisticated air". However, Priestley's determination to defend phlogiston theory and to reject what would become the chemical revolution left him isolated within the scientific community. Priestley's science was integral to his theology, he tried to fuse Enlightenment rationalism with Christian theism. In his metaphysical texts, Priestley attempted to combine theism and determinism, a project, called "audacious and original".
He believed that a proper understanding of the natural world would promote human progress and bring about the Christian millennium. Priestley, who believed in the free and open exchange of ideas, advocated toleration and equal rights for religious Dissenters, which led him to help found Unitarianism in England; the controversial nature of Priestley's publications, combined with his outspoken support of the French Revolution, aroused public and governmental suspicion. He spent his last ten years in Pennsylvania. A scholar and teacher throughout his life, Priestley made significant contributions to pedagogy, including the publication of a seminal work on English grammar and books on history, he prepared some of the most influential early timelines; these educational writings were among Priestley's most popular works. It was his metaphysical works, that had the most lasting influence, being considered primary sources for utilitarianism by philosophers such as Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer.
Priestley was born to an established English Dissenting family in Birstall, near Batley in the West Riding of Yorkshire. He was the oldest of six children born to a finisher of cloth. To ease his mother's burdens, Priestley was sent to live with his grandfather around the age of one, he returned home, five years after his mother died. When his father remarried in 1741, Priestley went to live with his aunt and uncle, the wealthy and childless Sarah and John Keighley, 3 miles from Fieldhead; because Priestley was precocious—at the age of four he could flawlessly recite all 107 questions and answers of the Westminster Shorter Catechism—his aunt sought the best education for the boy, intending him for the ministry. During his youth, Priestley attended local schools where he learned Greek and Hebrew. Around 1749, Priestley became ill and believed he was dying. Raised as a devout Calvinist, he believed a conversion experience was necessary for salvation, but doubted he had had one; this emotional distress led him to question his theological upbringing, causing him to reject election and to accept universal salvation.
As a result, the elders of his home church, the Independent Upper Chapel of Heckmondwike, refused him admission as a full member. Priestley's illness left him with a permanent stutter and he gave up any thoughts of entering the ministry at that time. In preparation for joining a relative in trade in Lisbon, he studied French and German in addition to Aramaic, Arabic, he was tutored by the Reverend George Haggerstone, who first introduced him to higher mathematics, natural philosophy and metaphysics through the works of Isaac Watts, Willem's Gravesande, John Locke. Priestley decided to return to his theological studies and, in 1752, matriculated at Daventry, a Dissenting academy; because he had read Priestley was allowed to skip the first two years of coursework. He continued his intense study. Abhorring dogma and religious mysticism, Rational Dissenters emphasised the rational analysis of the natural world and the Bible. Priestley wrote that the book that influenced him the most, save the Bible, was David Hartley's Observations on Man.
Hartley's psychological and theological treatise postulated a material theory of mind. Hartley aimed to construct a Christian philosophy in which both religious and moral "facts" could be scientifically proven, a goal that would occupy Priestley for his entire life. In his third year at Daventry, Priestley committed himself to the ministry, which he described as "the noblest of all professions". Robert Schofield, Priestley's major modern biographer, describes his first "call" in 1755 to the Dissenting parish in Needham Market, Suffolk, as a "mistake" for both Priestley and the congregation. Priestley yearned for urban life and theological debate, whereas Needham Market was a small, rural town with a congregation wedded to tradition. Attendance and donations dropped when they discovered the extent of his heterodoxy. Although Priestley's aunt had promised her support if he became a minister, she refused any further assistance when she realised he was no longer a Calvinist. To earn extra money, Priestley proposed opening a school, but l
A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most engage the subject with the viewer. Most early representations that are intended to show an individual are of rulers, tend to follow idealizing artistic conventions, rather than the individual features of the subject's body, though when there is no other evidence as to the ruler's appearance the degree of idealization can be hard to assess. Nonetheless, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features; the 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c. 2144–2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality.
Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypt's Fayum district. These are the only paintings from the classical world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures and portraits on coins have fared better. Although the appearance of the figures differs they are idealized, all show young people, making it uncertain whether they were painted from life; the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits unflattering ones. During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of an idealized symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are generalized. True portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings.
Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations. These works represent anatomical features in great detail; the individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a written reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the ruling elite, priests and distinguished artisans, they were represented during several stages of their lives. The faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found. There is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. What has been claimed as the world's oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old; when the artist creates a portrait of him- or herself, it is called a self-portrait. Identifiable examples become numerous in the late Middle Ages.
But if the definition is extended, the first was by the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten's sculptor Bak, who carved a representation of himself and his wife Taheri c. 1365 BC. However, it seems that self-portraits go back to the cave paintings, the earliest representational art, literature records several classical examples that are now lost; the official portrait is a photographic production of record and dissemination of important personalities, notably kings and governors. It is decorated with official colors and symbols such as flag, presidential stripes and coat of arms of countries, states or municipalities. There is connotation as an image of events and meetings. Portrait photography is a popular commercial industry all over the world. Many people enjoy having professionally made family portraits to hang in their homes, or special portraits to commemorate certain events, such as graduations or weddings. Since the dawn of photography, people have made portraits; the popularity of the daguerreotype in the middle of the 19th century was due in large part to the demand for inexpensive portraiture.
Studios sprang up in cities around the world, some cranking out more than 500 plates a day. The style of these early works reflected the technical challenges associated with 30-second exposure times and the painterly aesthetic of the time. Subjects were seated against plain backgrounds and lit with the soft light of an overhead window and whatever else could be reflected with mirrors; as photographic techniques developed, an intrepid group of photographers took their talents out of the studio and onto battlefields, across oceans and into remote wilderness. William Shew's Daguerreotype Saloon, Roger Fenton's Photographic Van and Mathew Brady's What-is-it? Wagon set the standards for making other photographs in the field. In politics, portraits of the leader are used as a symbol of the state. In most countries it is common protocol for a portrait of the head of state to appear in important government buildings. Excessive use of a leader's portrait, such as that done of Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, or Mao Zedong, can be indicative of a personality cult.
In literature the term portrait refers to analysis of a person or thing. A written portrait gives deep insight, offers an analysis that goes far beyond the superficial. For example, American author Patricia Cornwell wrote a best-selling book entitled Portrait of a Killer about
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was an Italian physicist, a pioneer of electricity and power, credited as the inventor of the electric battery and the discoverer of methane. He invented the Voltaic pile in 1799, reported the results of his experiments in 1800 in a two-part letter to the President of the Royal Society. With this invention Volta proved that electricity could be generated chemically and debunked the prevalent theory that electricity was generated by living beings. Volta's invention sparked a great amount of scientific excitement and led others to conduct similar experiments which led to the development of the field of electrochemistry. Alessandro Volta drew admiration from Napoleon Bonaparte for his invention, was invited to the Institute of France to demonstrate his invention to the members of the Institute. Volta enjoyed a certain amount of closeness with the Emperor throughout his life and he was conferred numerous honours by him. Alessandro Volta held the chair of experimental physics at the University of Pavia for nearly 40 years and was idolised by his students.
Despite his professional success, Volta tended to be a person inclined towards domestic life and this was more apparent in his years. At this time he tended to live secluded from public life and more for the sake of his family until his eventual death in 1827 from a series of illnesses which began in 1823; the SI unit of electric potential is named in his honour as the volt. Volta was born in Como, a town in present-day northern Italy, on 18 February 1745. In 1794, Volta married an aristocratic lady from Como, Teresa Peregrini, with whom he raised three sons: Zanino and Luigi, his father, Filippo Volta, was of noble lineage. His mother, Donna Maddalena, came from the family of the Inzaghis. In 1774, he became a professor of physics at the Royal School in Como. A year he improved and popularised the electrophorus, a device that produced static electricity, his promotion of it was so extensive that he is credited with its invention though a machine operating on the same principle was described in 1762 by the Swedish experimenter Johan Wilcke.
In 1777, he travelled through Switzerland. There he befriended H. B. de Saussure. In the years between 1776 and 1778, Volta studied the chemistry of gases, he researched and discovered methane after reading a paper by Benjamin Franklin of the United States on "flammable air". In November 1776, he found methane at Lake Maggiore, by 1778 he managed to isolate methane, he devised experiments such as the ignition of methane by an electric spark in a closed vessel. Volta studied what we now call electrical capacitance, developing separate means to study both electrical potential and charge, discovering that for a given object, they are proportional; this is called Volta's Law of Capacitance, it was for this work the unit of electrical potential has been named the volt. In 1779 he became a professor of experimental physics at the University of Pavia, a chair that he occupied for 40 years. Luigi Galvani, an Italian physicist, discovered something he named, "animal electricity" when two different metals were connected in series with a frog's leg and to one another.
Volta realised that the frog's leg served as both a conductor of electricity and as a detector of electricity. He replaced the frog's leg with brine-soaked paper, detected the flow of electricity by other means familiar to him from his previous studies. In this way he discovered the electrochemical series, the law that the electromotive force of a galvanic cell, consisting of a pair of metal electrodes separated by electrolyte, is the difference between their two electrode potentials; this may be called Volta's Law of the electrochemical series. In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Galvani, Volta invented the voltaic pile, an early electric battery, which produced a steady electric current. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and copper, he experimented with individual cells in series, each cell being a wine goblet filled with brine into which the two dissimilar electrodes were dipped.
The voltaic pile replaced the goblets with cardboard soaked in brine. In announcing his discovery of the voltaic pile, Volta paid tribute to the influences of William Nicholson, Tiberius Cavallo, Abraham Bennet; the battery made by Volta is credited as one of the first electrochemical cells. It consists of two electrodes: one made of zinc, the other of copper; the electrolyte is either sulfuric acid mixed with a form of saltwater brine. The electrolyte exists in the form 2H+ and SO42−; the zinc, higher in the electrochemical series than both copper and hydrogen, reacts with the negatively charged sulfate. The positively charged hydrogen ions capture electrons from the copper, forming bubbles of hydrogen gas, H2; this makes the copper rod the positive electrode. Thus, there are two terminals, an electric current will flow if they are connected; the chemical reactions in this voltaic cell are as follows: Zinc: Zn → Zn2+ + 2e−Sulfuric acid: 2H+ + 2e− → H2The copper does not react, but rather it functions as an electrode for the electric current.
However, this cell has some disadvantages. It is unsafe to handle, since sulfuric acid if diluted, can be hazardous; the power of the cell diminishes over time because the hydrogen gas is not released. Instead, it accumulates on the surface of
William Hogarth FRSA was an English painter, pictorial satirist, social critic, editorial cartoonist. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects" best known being his moral series A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress and Marriage A-la-Mode. Knowledge of his work is so pervasive that satirical political illustrations in this style are referred to as "Hogarthian". Hogarth was born in London to a lower middle-class family. In his youth he took up an apprenticeship, his father underwent periods of mixed fortune, was at one time imprisoned in lieu of outstanding debts. Influenced by French and Italian painting and engraving, Hogarth's works are satirical caricatures, sometimes bawdily sexual of the first rank of realistic portraiture, they became popular and mass-produced via prints in his lifetime, he was by far the most significant English artist of his generation. William Hogarth was born at Bartholomew Close in London to Richard Hogarth, a poor Latin school teacher and textbook writer, Anne Gibbons.
In his youth he was apprenticed to the engraver Ellis Gamble in Leicester Fields, where he learned to engrave trade cards and similar products. Young Hogarth took a lively interest in the street life of the metropolis and the London fairs, amused himself by sketching the characters he saw. Around the same time, his father, who had opened an unsuccessful Latin-speaking coffee house at St John's Gate, was imprisoned for debt in Fleet Prison for five years. Hogarth never spoke of his father's imprisonment. Hogarth became a member of the Rose and Crown Club, with Peter Tillemans, George Vertue, Michael Dahl, other artists and connoisseurs. By April 1720, Hogarth was an engraver in his own right, at first engraving coats of arms, shop bills, designing plates for booksellers. In 1727, he was hired by Joshua Morris, a tapestry worker, to prepare a design for the Element of Earth. Morris heard that he was "an engraver, no painter", declined the work when completed. Hogarth accordingly sued him for the money in the Westminster Court, where the case was decided in his favour on 28 May 1728.
In 1757 he was appointed Serjeant Painter to the King. Early satirical works included an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme, about the disastrous stock market crash of 1720 known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money. In the bottom left corner, he shows Protestant and Jewish figures gambling, while in the middle there is a huge machine, like a merry-go-round, which people are boarding. At the top is a goat, written below, "Who'l Ride"; the people are scattered around the picture with a sense of disorder, while the progress of the well dressed people towards the ride in the middle shows the foolishness of the crowd in buying stock in the South Sea Company, which spent more time issuing stock than anything else. Other early works include The Lottery; the latter is a satire on contemporary follies, such as the masquerades of the Swiss impresario John James Heidegger, the popular Italian opera singers, John Rich's pantomimes at Lincoln's Inn Fields, the exaggerated popularity of Lord Burlington's protégé, the architect and painter William Kent.
He continued that theme with the Large Masquerade Ticket. In 1726 Hogarth prepared twelve large engravings for Samuel Butler's Hudibras; these he himself valued and they are among his best book illustrations. In the following years he turned his attention to the production of small "conversation pieces". Among his efforts in oil between 1728 and 1732 were The Fountaine Family, The Assembly at Wanstead House, The House of Commons examining Bambridge, several pictures of the chief actors in John Gay's popular The Beggar's Opera. One of his real low-life and real-life subjects was Sarah Malcolm whom he sketched two days before her execution. One of Hogarth's masterpieces of this period is the depiction of an amateur performance by children of John Dryden's The Indian Emperor, or The Conquest of Mexico at the home of John Conduitt, master of the mint, in St George's Street, Hanover Square. Hogarth's other works in the 1730s include A Midnight Modern Conversation, Southwark Fair, The Sleeping Congregation and After, Scholars at a Lecture, The Company of Undertakers, The Distrest Poet, The Four Times of the Day, Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn.
He might have printed Burlington Gate, evoked by Alexander Pope's Epistle to Lord Burlington, defending Lord Chandos, therein satirized. This print gave great offence, was suppressed. However, modern authorities such as Ronald Paulson no longer attribute it to Hogarth. In 1731 Hogarth completed the earliest of his series of moral works, a body of work that led to significant recognition; the collection of six scenes was entitled A Harlot's Progress and appeared first as paintings before being published as engravings. A Harlot's Progress depicts the fate of a country girl who begins prostituting – the six scenes are chronological, starting with a meeting with a bawd and ending with a funeral ceremony that follows the character's death from venereal disease; the inau
John Ellis (naturalist)
John Ellis was a British linen merchant and naturalist. Ellis was the first to have a published written description of the Venus flytrap and its botanical name. Ellis specialised in the study of corals, he was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1754 and in the following year published An essay towards the Natural History of the Corallines. He was awarded the Copley Medal in 1767, his A Natural History of Many Uncommon and Curious Zoophytes, written with Daniel Solander, was published posthumously in 1776. Ellis was appointed Royal Agent for British West Florida in 1764, for British Dominica in 1770, he exported many seeds and native plants from North America to England. He corresponded including Carl Linnaeus. A royal botanist, William Young imported living plants of the Venus flytrap to England, they were shown to Ellis. In 1769, he wrote a description of the plant discovery from North Carolina to send to the Father of Taxonomy, Carl Linnaeus. Ellis gave it the scientific name of "Dionaea muscipula".
His essay Directions for bringing over seeds and plants, from the East Indies included the first illustration of a Venus Flytrap plant. Arthur Dobbs Peter Collinson Ellis, John Directions for bringing over seeds and plants, from the East-Indies and other distant countries - digital facsimile from Linda Hall Library
Richard Brompton, was an English portrait painter. Brompton was a pupil of Benjamin Wilson, he went to Italy, spent some time in Rome, where he had lessons with Raphael Mengs. He was introduced to the patronage of the Earl of Northampton, accompanied the earl to Venice when he was appointed ambassador to the republic. At Venice Brompton painted a conversation-piece, in which he introduced the portraits of the Duke of York and several English gentlemen on their travels; the picture was afterwards exhibited at the rooms in Spring Gardens in 1763, at which time he returned to England, for some years practised portrait painting. Extravagant living brought him to the King's Bench, but he was rescued by the Empress of Russia, at whose request he went to St. Petersburg, where he was appointed portrait painter to the empress, where he met with much employment, he died in that city in 1782. Among his best works are: The Prince of Wales in the Robes of the Garter, in 1772. Prince Frederick in the Robes of the Bath.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, 1772 Admiral Saunders. "Brompton, Richard". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 6. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 405. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bryan, Michael. "Brompton, Richard". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons. Works by Richard Brompton at Faded Page
York is a historic walled city in North Yorkshire, England. At the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, it is the historic county town of the historic county of Yorkshire. York Minster and a variety of cultural and sporting activities make it a popular tourist destination; the city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, of the kingdoms of Deira, Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained. In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre; the economy of York is now dominated by services. The University of York and National Health Service are major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy; the City of York local government district includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries.
In 2011, it had a population of 198,051. The word York is derived from the Brittonic name Eburākon, a combination of eburos "yew-tree" and a suffix of appurtenance *-āko "belonging to-, place of-" meaning either "place of the yew trees"; the name Eboracum became the Anglian Eoforwic in the 7th century: a compound of Eofor-, from the old name, -wic a village by conflation of the element Ebor- with a Germanic root *eburaz. When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík; the Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as "Everwic" in works such as Wace's Roman de Rou. Jórvík, meanwhile reduced to York in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the Middle English Yerk in the 14th century through Yourke in the 16th century to Yarke in the 17th century; the form York was first recorded in the 13th century. Many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Latinised Brittonic, Roman name; the 12th‑century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his fictional account of the prehistoric kings of Britain, Historia Regum Britanniae, suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus.
The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature. Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes; the Brigantian tribal area became a Roman client state, but its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the Humber into Brigantian territory. The city was founded in 71 AD, when the Ninth Legion conquered the Brigantes and constructed a wooden military fortress on flat ground above the River Ouse close to its confluence with the River Foss; the fortress, whose walls were rebuilt in stone by the VI legion based there subsequent to the IX legion, covered an area of 50 acres and was inhabited by 6,000 legionary soldiers. The site of the principia of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster, excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns.
The Emperors Hadrian, Septimius Severus and Constantius I all held court in York during their various campaigns. During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, it is that it was he who granted York the privileges of a'colonia' or city. Constantius I died in 306 AD during his stay in York, his son Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress. In 314 AD a bishop from York attended the Council at Arles to represent Christians from the province. While the Roman colonia and fortress were located on high ground, by 400 AD the town was victim to occasional flooding from the Rivers Ouse and Foss, the population reduced. York declined in the post-Roman era, was taken and settled by the Angles in the 5th century. Reclamation of parts of the town was initiated in the 7th century under King Edwin of Northumbria, York became his chief city; the first wooden minster church was built in York for the baptism of Edwin in 627, according to the Venerable Bede.
Edwin ordered the small wooden church be rebuilt in stone. In the following century, Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York, he had a long career as a teacher and scholar, first at the school at York now known as St Peter's School, founded in 627 AD, as Charlemagne's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs. In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York. Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe; the last ruler of an independent Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe, was driven from the city in 954 AD by King Eadred in his successful attempt to complete the unification