The Cherokee Flash
The Cherokee Flash is a 1945 American Western directed by Thomas Carr. The film is a Sunset Carson serial Western. In the film, Sunset Carson works to free his father and clear the family name from a crime his father did not commit. Lawyer Butler, wanting Jeff Carson's ranch, has the Sheriff and his gang frame the bank holdup on him, they kill a witness that could free Carson and blame the murder on his son Sunset. But Sunset escapes, frees his father, sets a trap to catch the real killers. Sunset Carson as Sunset Carson Linda Stirling as Joan Mason Tom London as Utah Roy Barcroft as Jeff Carson John Merton as Mark "Blackie" Butler Bud Geary as Sheriff Baldwin Frank Jaquet as Doc Mason Fred Graham as Tom Stanton Joe McGuinn as Deputy Green Pierce Lyden as Clint Hawkins James Linn as Henchman Rand The Cherokee Flash on IMDb
The Border Patrolman
The Border Patrolman is a 1936 American Western film directed by David Howard. George O'Brien as Bob Wallace Polly Ann Young as Patricia Huntley Smiley Burnette as Chuck Owens LeRoy Mason as Courtney Haybrook Mary Doran as Myra Al Hill as Frank Adams William P. Carleton as Jeremiah Huntley Tom London as Johnson Frank Campeau as Capt. Stevens Charles Coleman as Collins, a Servant Fay McKenzie Lester Dorr as Garage Attendant Martin Garralaga as Carlos, the Cantina Proprietor Lloyd Ingraham as Man at Swimming Pool George MacQuarrie as Jim Riker Chris-Pin Martin as Mexican Giving Directions Gertrude Messinger as Telephone Operator Cyril Ring as Ed Hendricks John St. Polis as Manning The Border Patrolman on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie The Border Patrolman is available for free download at the Internet Archive
Cheyenne (1929 film)
Cheyenne is a lost 1929 American Western film directed by Albert S. Rogell and written by Bennett Cohen, Marion Jackson and Don Ryan; the film stars Gladys McConnell, James Bradbury Jr.. Billy Franey and Slim Whitaker; the film was released by Warner Bros. on February 3, 1929. Ken Maynard as Cal Roberts Gladys McConnell as Violet Wentworth James Bradbury Jr. as Slim Billy Franey as Judge Boggs Slim Whitaker as Klaxton Cheyenne on IMDb
Trinidad is a Home Rule Municipality, the county seat and the most populous city of Las Animas County, United States. The population was 9,096 as of the 2010 census, up from 9,078 in 2000; the estimate as of 2012 was 8,771. Trinidad lies 21 mi north of Raton, New Mexico, 195 mi south of Denver. Trinidad is situated on the historic Santa Fe Trail. Trinidad was first explored by Spanish and Mexican traders, who liked its proximity to the Santa Fe Trail, it was founded in 1862. This led to an influx of immigrants. By the late 1860s, the town had about 1,200 residents. Trinidad was incorporated in 1876, just a few months before Colorado became a state. An important milestone for the town occurred in 1878, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reached Trinidad, making it easier for goods to be shipped from distant locations. In the 1880s, Trinidad became home to a number of well-known people, including Bat Masterson, who served as the town's marshal in 1882. By 1900, the population of Trinidad had grown to 7,500.
It was now home to two English-language newspapers, one, published in Spanish. In the early 1900s, Trinidad became nationally known for having the first woman sports editor of a newspaper, Ina Eloise Young, her expertise was in baseball, in 1908, she was the only woman sportswriter to cover the World Series. During the same time, Trinidad was home to a popular semiprofessional baseball team, coached by Damon Runyon. Ina Eloise Young is thought to be sitting in the center of the front row, above the white dog, with her mother and father seated on her left; this was a good location to report on the game. Although no byline is used, Ina Eloise Young, as sporting editor wrote the article that appeared in The Chronicle-News on September 3, 1907, about the three-game series. Damon Runyon is standing on the far left with the other dignitaries in the front-center of the photograph; this event illustrates the popularity of baseball in Colorado at the time and shows Young and Runyon right in the middle of it.
On August 7, 1902, the Bowen Town coal mine, six miles north of Trinidad, experienced a horrific gas explosion, killing 13 miners. At the time, it was one of the worst mining disasters in the state. At one point in late 1903, an estimated 3,000 miners, members of the United Mine Workers of America, went out on strike. In, 1904, Trinidad experienced several disasters. In mid-January, a fire destroyed two blocks of the business section of the town, causing more than $75,000 in damages. In late September, the Trinidad area and the region along the Las Animas River endured an unusually heavy rainstorm, leading to severe flooding; as Trinidad continued to grow, this was a time when a number of new construction projects began in the downtown area, including a new library, a new city hall, an opera house, a new hotel. On April 20, 1914, just 18 mi north of town was the site of the Ludlow Massacre. Trinidad was dubbed the "Sex Change Capital of the World", because a local doctor had an international reputation for performing sex reassignment surgery.
In the 1960s, Dr. Stanley Biber, a veteran surgeon returning from Korea, decided to move to Trinidad because he had heard that the town needed a surgeon. In 1969, a local social worker asked him if he would perform the surgery for her, which he learned by consulting diagrams and a New York surgeon. Biber attained a reputation as a good surgeon at a time when few doctors were performing sex-change operations. At his peak, Biber was performing four sex-change operations a day, the term "taking a trip to Trinidad" became a euphemism for some seeking the procedures he offered. Biber was featured in an episode of South Park, in which elementary school teacher Mr. Garrison undergoes a sex-change operation. Biber's surgical practice was taken over in 2003 by Marci Bowers. Dr. Bowers has since moved the practice to California; the 2008 documentary Trinidad focuses on two of her patients. Drop City, a counterculture artists' community, was formed in 1965 on land about 4 mi north of Trinidad. Founded by art students and filmmakers from the University of Kansas and University of Colorado at Boulder, Drop City became known as the first rural "hippie commune", received national attention from Life and Time, as well as from reporters around the world.
Drop City was abandoned by the early 1970s, but influenced subsequent alternative-living projects across the country. In 2015 the town started to experience a new boom, the city is thriving today due to the marijuana industry. CNN asks the question "Did pot money save small town from'abyss of nothingness'?". The answer is a resounding "yes" with the town experiencing a new found $4.4 million in tax revenue from $44 million in annual sales of the recreational drug, representing about 5.13% of the states total sales. In 2018 High Times called the town "Weed Town, USA" noting the 23 licensed retail marijuana dispensaries servicing less than 10k people works out to one dispensary per 352 people; the article states "In one downtown block alone along Commercial Street, there are eight dispensaries in a section of town some locals jokingly refer to as the Trinidad'weed mall'." For many years, Trinidad housed the miners who worked in the coal mines of the Raton Basin south and west of the town. The coal mines are now closed, but since the 1980s, companies have been dr
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog