Aspen Mountain (Colorado)
Aspen Mountain is a mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 10,705-foot peak is located in White River National Forest, 1.4 miles south-southeast of downtown Aspen in Pitkin County, United States. The north face of the mountain is the location of the Aspen Mountain ski area, one of four adjacent ski areas operated collectively as Aspen/Snowmass. Aspen Mountain is not high, relative to other mountains in Colorado, but nonetheless looms over the town of Aspen because of the proximity of the town, founded as a silver mining camp in 1879 during the Colorado Silver Boom; the mountain flank was the site of intense mining activity in the late 1880s and early 1890s, with many remains of mining activity below and on the surface of the mountain. In the middle 20th century it became the site of recreational downhill skiing. In 1946, the newly formed Aspen Skiing Company, founded by Walter Paepcke, built the first chairlift to the top of the mountain and opened the ski area that bears the name of the mountain.
Nowadays, people use a modern gondola, to get to the top of the mountain. Aspen Mountain is alternatively called Ajax by the locals. List of Colorado mountain ranges List of Colorado mountain summits List of Colorado fourteeners List of Colorado 4000 meter prominent summits List of the most prominent summits of Colorado List of Colorado county high points
The Front Range is a mountain range of the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America located in the central portion of the U. S. State of Colorado, southeastern portion of the U. S. State of Wyoming, it is the first mountain range encountered as one goes westbound along the 40th parallel north across the Great Plains of North America. The Front Range runs north-south between Casper and Pueblo, Colorado and rises nearly 10,000 feet above the Great Plains. Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25 corridor; the area is a popular destination for mountain biking, hiking and camping during the warmer months and for skiing and snowboarding during winter. Millions of years ago, the present-day Front Range was home to ancient mountain ranges, deserts and oceans; the name "Front Range" is applied to the Front Range Urban Corridor, the populated region of Colorado and Wyoming just east of the mountain range and extending from Cheyenne, Wyoming south to Pueblo, Colorado.
This urban corridor benefits from the weather-moderating effect of the Front Range mountains, which help block prevailing storms. About 1 billion years ago, the earth was producing massive amounts of molten rock that would one day amalgamate, drift together and combine, to form the continents we live on today. In the Colorado region, this molten rock spewed and cooled, forming what we now know as the Precambrian Pikes Peak Granite. Over the next 500 million years, little is known about changes in the sedimentation after the granite was produced. However, at about 500–300 million years ago, the region began to sink and sediments began to deposit in the newly formed accommodation space. Eroded granite produced sand particles that began to form strata, layers of sediment, in the sinking basin. Sedimentation would continue to take place until about 300 million years ago. Around 300 million years ago, the sinking reversed, the sediment-covered granite began to uplift, giving rise to the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.
Over the next 150 million years, during uplift the mountains would continue to erode and cover themselves in their own sediment. Wind, rainwater and ice-melt supplied rivers that carved through the granite mountains and led to their end; the sediment from these mountains lies in the Fountain Formation today. Red Rocks Amphitheatre outside of Denver, Colorado, is set into the Fountain Formation. At 280 million years ago, sea levels were low and present-day Colorado was part of the super-continent Pangaea. Sand deserts covered most of the area spreading as dunes seen in the rock record, known today as the Lyons Sandstone; these dunes appear to be cross-bedded and show various fossil footprints and leaf imprints in many of the strata making up the section. 30 million years the sediment deposition was still taking place with the introduction of the Lykins Formation. This formation can be best attributed to its wavy layers of muddy limestone and signs of stromatolites that thrived in a smelly tidal flat at present-day Colorado.
250 million years ago, the Ancestral Rockies were burying themselves while the shoreline was present during the break-up of Pangaea. This formation began right after Earth's largest extinction 251 million years ago at the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Ninety percent of the planet's marine life was a great deal on land as well. After 100 million years of deposition, a new environment brought rise to a new formation, the sandstone Morrison Formation; the Morrison Formation contains some of the best fossils of the Late Jurassic. It is known for its sauropod tracks and sauropod bones among other dinosaur fossils; as identified by the fossil record, the environment was filled with various types of vegetation such as ferns and Zamites. While this time period boasts many types of plants, grass had not yet evolved; the Dakota Sandstone, deposited 100 million years ago towards Colorado's eastern coast, shows evidence of ferns, dinosaur tracks. Sheets of ripple marks can be seen on some of the strata. Over the next 30 million years, the region was taken over by a deep sea, the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, deposited mass amounts of shale over the area known as the Pierre Shale.
Both the thick section of shale and the marine life fossils found. Colorado drained from being at the bottom of an ocean to land again, giving yield to another fossiliferous rock layer, the Denver Formation. At about 68 million years ago, the Front Range began to rise again due to the Laramide Orogeny in the west; the Denver Formation contained fossils and bones from dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops. While the forests of vegetation and other organisms thrived, their reign would come to an end at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. In an instant, millions of species are obliterated from a meteor impact in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. While this extinction led to the demise of the dinosaurs and other organisms, some life did prevail to repopulate the earth as it recovered from this tremendous disaster; the uplifted Front Range continued to erode and, by 40 million years ago, the range was once again buried in its own rubble. 37 million years ago, a great volcanic eruption took place in the Collegiate Range and covered the landscape in molten hot ash that torched and consumed everything across the landscape.
An entire lush environment was capped in a matter of minutes with 20 feet of extr
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
The Book Cliffs are a series of desert mountains and cliffs in western Colorado and eastern Utah, in the western United States. They are so named because the cliffs of Cretaceous sandstone that cap many of the south-facing buttes appear similar to a shelf of books. Stretching nearly 200 miles from east to west, the Book Cliffs begin where the Colorado River descends south through De Beque Canyon into the Grand Valley to Price Canyon; the Book Cliffs appear along the southern and western edge of the Tavaputs Plateau. The cliffs are composed of sedimentary materials; the Book Cliffs are within the Colorado Plateau geologic province. In the Colorado stretch of the Book Cliffs, abandoned coal mines are present, as significant coal resources were present in the region; these mines are now capped for safety, but several fatalities of recreational hikers have occurred at these mines since 1989. In some places, "wild" horses can be found in the Book Cliffs, for example, a band of four was spotted near the abandoned Gearhart coal mine in Mesa County, Colorado.
The Book Cliffs are one of the world's best places to study sequence stratigraphy. In the 1980s, Exxon scientists used the Cretaceous strata of the Book Cliffs to develop the science of sequence stratigraphy; the Book Cliffs have preserved excellent strata of the foreland basin of the ancient Western Interior Seaway that stretched north from the Gulf of Mexico to the Yukon in the Cretaceous time. Components of deltaic and shallow marine reservoirs are well preserved in the Book Cliffs. Large mammals found in the Book Cliffs include coyotes, mountain lions, mule deer, black bears, American bison as an extension of the Henry Mountains bison herd and bighorn sheep. In January, 2009, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources officials transplanted 31 bison from the Henry Mountains bison herd to the Book Cliffs; the new group joined 14 animals released in August, 2008 from a private herd on the nearby Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. Since this herd is located 100 miles north of the Henry Mountains, across harsh, desert terrain, it should be considered as a separate herd, the Book Cliffs bison herd.
List of mountains in Colorado List of mountains in Utah "Book Cliffs". SummitPost.org. Cretaceous Paleogeography - Showing Western Interior Seaway The Soils of Western Colorado Mesa and Montrose Counties
Del Norte, Colorado
The Town of Del Norte is the Statutory Town, the county seat of Rio Grande County, United States. The town population was 1,705 at the 2000 census. Del Norte is named from the river Rio Grande del Norte, "grand river of the north"; the Utes were the first people to live here in the summers because of the abundance of wild game, plants and timber in the area. However, winters were too harsh for them to settle permanently. Under Mexican jurisdiction, some Hispanic families moved into the area in the early to mid-19th century as part of land grants to help the Mexican government occupy the territory, but no large-scale settlements could be established because the Utes were weary of settlement, would chase off many people who attempted to do so; the most successful early settlement was called'La Loma', established a few miles east of where the current town-site is today. This area was chosen because there was a particular section of the Rio Grande here where it could be crossed safely and easily.
American settlement began in the early 1870s by prospectors who were searching the nearby mountains for minerals such as gold and silver near Bennett Peak. The San Juan Mountains were one of the last regions in Colorado where miners were allowed to explore and prospect for minerals, but were able to do so after the Brunot Treaty was signed between the U. S. government and the Utes. Once the mines near Summitville proved profitable, Del Norte was established around 1874 in order to serve as a base camp for the mines not just in Summitville, but in nearby Creede and Lake City. Miners moved into the area, they were followed by ranchers and farmers - many of these original ranching families still operate and live in the Del Norte area to this day. After the Sherman Act was repealed in 1893, mining operations became unprofitable and ceased. The'glory days' of Del Norte ended as as they began, but the community still survived because of ranching and agriculture. There were talks in southern Colorado throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s to secede from the state of Colorado and create the state of San Juan, with Del Norte acting as this proposed state's capital city, however this secession movement died quickly.
Del Norte would see cycles of boom and bust throughout the 20th century, but has become a blossoming community due to the abundance of recreational activities provided by the area's unique geography. Del Norte is one of the communities which provides lodging for nearby Wolf Creek Ski Area. Grande Avenue, the main street through Del Norte, still has many of the facades on its store fronts from the 1800s, reminding its residents and tourists of the town's historic past. Del Norte is located at 37°40′44″N 106°21′11″W, where the Rio Grande leaves the San Juan Mountains and enters the San Luis Valley, near its confluences with Pinos Creek and San Francisco Creek, respectively. Del Norte is located on the western edge of the San Luis Valley, which means that a variety of climates, vegetation regions, ecosystems transition into each other at or near Del Norte. Lookout Mountain known to locals as'D' Mountain, overlooks Del Norte at an official elevation of 8,475 feet above sea level, is the most notable landmark of the town.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.9 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,705 people, 657 households, 446 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,004.4 people per square mile. There were 736 housing units at an average density of 865.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 66.86% White, 0.12% African American, 1.06% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 27.68% from other races, 3.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 57.36% of the population. There were 657 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.2% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $23,833, the median income for a family was $29,471. Males had a median income of $26,161 versus $21,406 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,751. About 22.1% of families and 25.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.5% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over. Alva B. Adams-US Senator representing Colorado. Kent Rominger-Astronaut attended Del Norte High School. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Rio Grande County, Colorado San Luis Valley Town of Del Norte contacts CDOT map of the Town of Del Norte SLV Dweller
Flat Tops (Colorado)
Flat Tops is a mountain range located in Colorado within the Routt and White River National Forests. The area is home to 110 Lakes. Much of the range is within the boundary of the Flat Tops Wilderness Area; the Flat Tops Wilderness Area can be accessed by Colorado Rd 7 through the town of Yampa, in Routt County Colorado. The Flat Tops range is home to a wide variety of plants and animals, including many large mammals such as Moose, Mule deer, Black bear, Cougars; this area has been affected by Yellow toadflax. Mountain ranges of Colorado U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: The Flat Tops
Treasure Mountain (Colorado)
Treasure Mountain, elevation 13,535 ft, is a summit in the Elk Mountains of western Colorado. The mountain is in the Raggeds Wilderness southeast of Marble; the massif has been a legend of lost French gold. Treasure Mountain forms a single massif with Treasury Mountain, elevation 13,462 feet, that rises on the southeast. Another Treasure Mountain, el. 11,834 feet is located in Mineral County, Colorado. Other peaks in the vicinity include elevation 11,975 feet; the Ruby Range extends southward from Treasury Mountain forming the east boundary of the Raggeds Wilderness. The Yule Lakes are a series of lakes situated on the southern slopes which drain into Yule Creek and feeds Beaver Lake east of Marble; the watershed is part of Crystal River basin which drains the northern slopes of Treasure Mountain and is the northeastern boundary of Raggeds Wilderness. Yule Pass, south of Treasury Mountain separates the Raggeds Wilderness of the Sopris Ranger District from the Gunnison Ranger District and leads to the southeast along the Slate River drainage.
Yule Pass is to the east of the headwaters of Yule Creek. The Colorado Yule marble comes from the Leadville Limestone of Mississippian age quarried near the mountain, it was formed by contact metamorphism in the Tertiary period following the intrusion and uplift of nearby granitic Treasure Mountain dome. Yule marble was used in the building of the Lincoln Memorial; the Yule marble quarry is at an elevation of 9,300 ft on the west side of Treasure Mountain along Yule Creek. The quality and durability of the Yule marble was questioned prior to the building of the Lincoln Memorial as was the opened quarry's ability to provide the quantity and size required for construction; the original name of the peak was Citadel Mountain. The current name came from an ill-fated French mining expedition described in folklore documented in the 1930s and 1940s; the folklore states that the expedition was organized in the late 1700s by Napoleon Bonaparte, who needed financing to fund his ambitions. The expedition was reported to have consisted of 450 horses.
They traveled through Leavenworth, Kansas en route to the Rocky Mountains. The folklore claims that a large amount of gold was discovered and amassed by the expedition near Wolf Creek Pass; the local Native Americans were initially friendly, but relations deteriorated. In the folklore, the French buried the gold and escaped from the area and hunted by warriors. One survivor, by the name of Le Blanc, made it back to Kansas, he was the expedition's historian and was reported to have made two maps of the hidden treasure. A expedition failed to find the treasure. William Yule, many years claimed to possess a copy of the original map and explored the area south and west of the mountain; the mountain was named after the legend of the missing treasure. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado