A Bennett buggy was a term used in Canada during the Great Depression to describe a car which had its engine and sometimes frame work taken out and was pulled by a horse. In the United States, such vehicles were known as Hoover carts or Hoover wagons, named after then-President Herbert Hoover; the Canadian term was named after Richard Bennett, the Prime Minister of Canada from 1930 to 1935, blamed for the nation's poverty. Cars being pulled by horses became a common sight during the Depression. During the boom years of the 1920s, many Canadians had bought cheap vehicles for the first time, but during the depression, many found they did not have enough money to operate them; this was true in the hard-hit Prairie Provinces. The increased poverty played an important role; the price of gas increased. Gas taxes were one of the best sources of revenue for the provincial governments; when these provinces went into a deficit, they increased these taxes, making gas harder to buy. In Saskatchewan, badly hit by the depression, similar vehicles with an additional seat over the front axle were dubbed "Anderson carts" after Premier James T. M. Anderson.
University of Saskatchewan archives
Demet Demir is a Turkish LGBT activist. She was awarded the Felipa de Souza Award in 1997 for her activism. Demir was born in Yalova on March 12, 1961. After her parents divorced and her sister moved to Istanbul when Demir was five. Demir was assigned male at birth, but discovered her queer identity around the age of 17, on reading about Bülent Ersoy, her subsequent meetings with similar men over Taksim Gezi Park and nearby nightclubs, that were flocked with queer people, reinforced her preferences. In 1979, she became involved with Turkey's leftist movement and was arrested on 1 May, 1980 during a demonstration for Labour Day. All throughout, she used to hide her trans-sexuality to gain acceptance within the political movement. Post her arrest, she was tortured by police, before being sent to hospitals dealing with sexual diseases in a bid to cure her of homosexuality. After the 1980 coup in Turkey, Demir was sentenced to 15 months in prison for her political work, beginning 1982, but was released after 8 months.
During her imprisonment, fellow prisoners came to know of her non-hetero-normative identity and she was subject to isolation. After coming out of prison, she began to vocally assert of her sexual identity but did not engage in LGBT activism. According to Demir, the spans were oppressive for queer people, she was tortured in illegal government custody, three times in 1983 and witnessing raids by military police in nightclubs of Beyoğlu and ghettos of Cihangir, to rape homosexuals. She received little support from the leftist parties during these spans who considered trans-sexuality as a bourgeois disease and grew disillusioned. Thereafter, she joined the Radikal Demokratik Birlik, responsible for initiating the first movement in Turkey to eliminate discrimination and violence against LGBT people and other minorities, she grew more aware of the perpetuation of systemic violence by the state against minorities and learned about the concepts of feminism, militarism et al. In 1989, Demir joined Human Rights Association, where she contributed in the setting up of the Sexual Minorities Commission and other similar platforms with fellow feminists Ayşe Düzkan, Filiz Karakuş et al and became HRA's first transvestite delegate.
Her efforts were unsuccessful due to exclusion by the socialist majority. In the same year, she was subject to active discrimination, while attending a court trial on behalf of HRA, since her physical features did not align with her self-declared gender over the ID card. In 1991, Demir was again imprisoned for two months and tortured by Süleyman the “Hose” Ulusoy, the police chief of Beyoğlu, who had a fearsome reputation for his acts of violence against transvestites, she thus became the first person to qualify as an Amnesty prisoner of conscience and thereafter, Amnesty International included homosexuality on their list of political crimes. Whilst she tried to take legal action, she was unsuccessful. Demir stood up for the rights of transsexual sex workers in 1995, when they were being arrested in order to "clean up" the neighborhood to organise the United Nations Habitat Conference, thus bringing greater visibility to transgender rights in Turkey. In 1996, she underwent a sex reassignment surgery to get a woman identity card and subsequently freelanced at workshops and press studios, before joining a company to avail of future retirement benefits.
In 1997, OutRight Action International awarded Demir with the Felipa de Souza Award. Demir was again physically abused and arrested on 12 July 1997 when she tried to stop police from beating a girl, selling handkerchiefs, made by transgenders to earn a livelihood, outside of prostitution, she was coming out of a workshop, organized to promote employment skills of the transvestite and transsexual community. Demir noted it to be the culmination of the varied forms of hasslings, she was subject to, for her activism and subsequently, sued the Beyoğlu District Police Bureau; the case was postponed before the court ruled in her favor in 2003 and awarded a 21 year sentence to Ulusoy, vacated by the government under an amnesty provision. In 1999, Demir became a candidate at the Beyoğlu City Council elections for the Freedom and Solidarity Party, thus becoming the first transgender candidate to run in any general election in Turkey, she was unsuccessful. In 2007, she unsuccessfully ran for the position of deputy in Isparta.
In 2008, Demir and other transgender activists created LGBTT Istanbul. She has been vocal about the discriminatory and harsh attitude of police towards the transgender community and of the community being compelled to embrace prostitution for earning a livelihood, she has criticized about the lack of media-space allotted to individuals from the queer spectrum. She was responsible for printing and distributing the first pink triangle badges in Turkey and had campaigned for repealing of gender discriminatory laws. Demir has been the subject of a video-exhibition by noted artist Kutluğ Ataman. AI Turkey - a history of trans Istanbul
The Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics is a research institute located in Garching, just north of Munich, Germany. It is one of many scientific research institutes belonging to the Max Planck Society; the MPA is considered to be one of the leading institutions in the world for theoretical astrophysics research. According to Thomson Reuters, from 1999-2009 the Max Planck Society as a whole published more papers and accumulated more citations in the fields of physics and space science than any other research organization in the world; the Max Planck Society was founded on 26 February 1948. It replaced the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science, dissolved after World War II; the society is named after Max one of the founders of quantum theory. The MPA was founded as the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in 1958 and split into the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and the Max Planck Institute for Physics in 1991. In 1995, the numerical relativity group moved to the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics.
The MPA is one of several Max Planck Institutes. Others are the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Göttingen, the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Golm; the institute is located next-door to the MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, as well as the headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. It enjoys close working relationships with the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and Technical University Munich. At any given time, the institute employs 50 scientists, instructs over 30 PhD students, hosts about 20 visiting scientists; as of 2018, the four directors of the MPA are Guinevere Kauffmann, Eiichiro Komatsu, Volker Springel, Simon White. Focusing on theoretical investigations, the MPA covers a wide range of topics in astrophysics; these include: Cosmology, in particular galaxy formation and evolution and the cosmic microwave background.
The MPA works to disseminate its findings to the public. These activities include popular science articles written by MPA scientists, events hosting school groups, events open to the general public, monthly research highlights written for a general audience; the International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics is a graduate program offering a PhD in astrophysics. The school is a cooperation with the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and Technical University Munich. Homepage of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics Homepage of the International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics