International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Milngavie is a town in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It is on the Allander Water, at the northwestern edge of Greater Glasgow, about 6 miles from Glasgow city centre, it neighbours Bearsden. Milngavie is a commuter town, with much of its working population travelling to Glasgow to work or study; the town is served by Milngavie railway station on the North Clyde Line of the SPT rail network, which links it to Central Glasgow. The town was served by routes 13 and 14 of the once extensive Glasgow tramway system. Tramway services in Milngavie were withdrawn in 1956; the town is a popular retirement location, with an unusually high proportion of elderly. In the 2001 census the town had a population of 12,795 in 5,256 households; the Milngavie and Bearsden Herald, owned by Johnston Press, is a weekly newspaper that covers local events from the schools, town halls and government in the area. The paper is printed every Wednesday, to be sold on Thursdays; the town is best known as the start of the West Highland Way long distance footpath which runs northwards for 95 miles to the town of Fort William.
A granite obelisk in the town centre marks the official starting point of the footpath. The apparent mismatch between the town's written and pronounced names stems from the way its Gaelic name was adapted into English; the Gaelic name for the town is conjectured to have been Muileann Dhaibhidh, with Daibhidh shortened to Dàidh in common speech, yielding Muileann Dhàidh. The former may thus account for the spelling "-gavie", the latter for the pronunciation "-guy"; the stress placement is Gaelic, but the first part of the name may have been influenced by its Scots/English counterpart in both pronunciation and spelling, not just reduced. There are many Scots names for the town. In fact within single texts such as the Records of the Parliament of Scotland, different variants are used alongside each other. Joan Blaeu's Atlas of Scotland shows some Scots spellings for well-known places which indicate some of their origins: Milngavie is shown as Milgay meaning "Mill of Guy". An alternative suggestion is that the original translation meant "Gavin's Mill", indeed Gavin's Mill remains in the town centre to this day.
The most published name is Mulguy, although the author admits that while academically researched, some entries in his work on place names may be controversial. Although known today as a dormitory suburb of Glasgow, the town grew from a country village within the parish of New Kilpatrick to a minor industrial centre in the nineteenth century with paper mills and bleach works on the Allander River to the north east of the town centre; some remnants of this industry remain today on the Clober Industrial Estate. The land surrounding the village comprised several estates with tenant farms, amongst them Barloch, Craigton, Dougalston, Douglas Mains and South Mains. Stone built villas and semi detached houses were constructed for wealthy citizens to the east of the town centre and around Tannoch Loch when commuting to Glasgow was made possible by the opening of the railway which reached the town in 1863. After World War II a local authority housing scheme was built to the west of the town centre, housing many people relocated from Clydebank, badly bombed.
The town grew with the addition of private speculative housing developments of bungalows and semi-detached homes at South Mains to the south of the town centre and around Clober, to the west, in the 1950s and 1960s. The Fairways estate was continued into the 1980s; the town centre was redeveloped to improve pedestrian safety. The central commercial streets were pedestrianised starting in 1974 and many buildings replaced. A superstore was opened on the fringes of the town centre in the 1990s. Residents launched a "tongue in cheek" campaign to bring the Olympic games to Milngavie in 2020. Milngavie in Stirlingshire, was in an area that became an exclave of Dunbartonshire on the orders of King David II. In 1875, whilst remaining part of Dunbartonshire, it became a police burgh under the jurisdiction of the Stirlingshire constabulary and retained burgh status for 100 years until 1975 when it was absorbed into the newly created Strathclyde Region. Milngavie is located to the north of the neighbouring town of Bearsden.
Although the two are in close proximity, the social histories of these two towns differ significantly. Bearsden grew exclusively as a dormitory town of Glasgow for the wealthy and professional classes. In that sense both towns now fulfil a similar role; the two became a single local authority district in 1975, before Scottish Local Government reorganisation in the 1990s re-integrated them with Kirkintilloch and Bishopbriggs to form the East Dunbartonshire administrative area, although transport and social networks link the town much more with Glasgow itself. Certain properties in the locale can command some of the highest house prices in the greater Glasgow urban area; this has led to its reputation as an exclusive residential area and an aspirational destination for home buyers. Governmental and tax raising boundaries separate Milngavie and Bearsden, along with other wealthy dormitory towns like Newton Mearns and Giffnock, from the City of Glasgow unitary authority area. Little remains of the pre-nineteenth century village other t
Southport is a large seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England. Southport is fringed to the north by the Ribble estuary; the town is 16.7 miles north of Liverpool and 14.8 miles southwest of Preston. Part of Lancashire, the town was founded in 1792 when William Sutton, an innkeeper from Churchtown, built a bathing house at what is now the south end of Lord Street. At that time, the area, known as South Hawes, was sparsely populated and dominated by sand dunes. At the turn of the 19th century, the area became popular with tourists due to the easy access from the nearby Leeds and Liverpool Canal; the rapid growth of Southport coincided with the Industrial Revolution and the Victorian era. Town attractions include Southport Pier with its Southport Pier Tramway, the second longest seaside pleasure pier in the British Isles, Lord Street is an elegant tree-lined shopping street. Extensive sand dunes stretch for several miles from Woodvale to the south of the town.
The Ainsdale sand dunes have been designated as a Ramsar site. Local fauna include the Sand lizard; the town contains examples of Victorian architecture and town planning, on Lord Street and elsewhere. A particular feature of the town is the extensive tree planting; this was one of the conditions required by the Hesketh family when they made land available for development in the 19th century. Hesketh Park at the northern end of the town is named after them, having been built on land donated by Rev. Charles Hesketh. Southport today is still one of the most popular seaside resorts in the UK, it hosts various events, including an annual air show on and over the beach, the largest independent flower show in the UK and the British Musical Fireworks Championship. The town is at the centre of England's Golf Coast and has hosted the Open Championship at the Royal Birkdale Golf Club. There have been settlements in the area now comprising Southport since the Domesday Book, some parts of the town have names of Viking origin.
The earliest recorded human activity in the region was during the Middle Stone Age, when mesolithic hunter gatherers were attracted by the abundant red deer and elk population, as well as the availability of fish and woodland. Roman coins have been found at Halsall Moss and Crossens, although the Romans never settled southwest Lancashire; the first real evidence of an early settlement here is in the Domesday Book, in which the area is called Otergimele. The name is derived from Oddrgrimir meaning the son of Grimm and is linked to the Old Norse word melr meaning sandbank; the Domesday Book states that there were 50 huts in Otergimele, housing a population of 200. The population was scattered thinly across the region and it was at the northeast end of Otergimele, where blown sand gave way to alluvial deposits from the River Ribble estuary, that a small concentration of people occurred; the alluvium provided the river itself stocks of fish. It was here, it seems, that a primitive church was built, which gave the emerging village its name of Churchtown, the parish being North Meols.
A church called. With a booming fishing industry, the area grew and hamlets became part of the parish of North Meols. From south to north, these villages were South Hawes, Little London, Higher Blowick, Lower Blowick, Rowe-Lane, Marshside and Banks; as well as Churchtown, there were vicarages in Banks. Parts of the parish were completely surrounded by water until 1692 when Thomas Fleetwood of Bank Hall cut a channel to drain Martin Mere to the sea. From this point on, attempts at large-scale drainage of Martin Mere and other marshland continued until the 19th century, since when the water has been pumped away; this created a booming farming industry. In the late 18th century, it was becoming fashionable for the well-to-do to relinquish inland spa towns and visit the seaside to bathe in the salt sea waters. At that time, doctors recommended bathing in the sea to help cure pains. In 1792, William Sutton, the landlord of the Black Bull Inn in Churchtown and known to locals as "The Old Duke", realised the importance of the newly created canal systems across the UK and set up a bathing house in the uninhabited dunes at South Hawes by the seaside just four miles away from the newly constructed Leeds and Liverpool Canal and two miles southwest of Churchtown.
When a widow from Wigan built a cottage nearby in 1797 for seasonal lodgers, Sutton built a new inn on the site of the bathing house which he called the South Port Hotel, moving to live there the following season. The locals thought him mad and referred to the building as the Duke's Folly, but Sutton arranged transport links from the canal that ran through Scarisbrick, four miles from the hotel, trade was remarkably good; the hotel survived until 1854, when it was demolished to make way for traffic at the end of Lord Street, but its presence and the impact of its founder are marked by a plaque in the vicinity, by the name of one street at the intersection, namely Duke Street, by a hotel on Duke Street which bears the legacy name of Dukes Folly Hotel. Southport grew in the 19th century as it gained a reputation for being a more refined seaside resort than its neighbour-up-the-coast Blackpool. In fact Southport had a head start compared to all the other places on the Lancashire coast because it had easy
A passenger is a living being who travels in a vehicle but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination or otherwise operate the vehicle. Passengers are living beings who ride on buses, passenger trains, ships and other methods of transportation; the concept of the passenger has existed for as long as man has been able to create means of transportation capable of carrying more people than were needed to operate the vessel. Crew members, as well as the driver or pilot of the vehicle, are not considered to be passengers. For example, a flight attendant on an airline would not be considered a passenger while on duty and the same with those working in the kitchen or restaurant onboard a ship as well as cleaning staff, but an employee riding in a company car being driven by another person would be considered a passenger if the car was being driven on company business. In railway parlance, passenger, as well as being the end user of a service, is a categorisation of the type of rolling stock used.
In the British case, there are several categories of passenger train. These categories include: Express passenger, which constitutes long distance and high speed railway travel between major locations such as ports and cities. Semi-fast express passenger, a type of service, high speed, though stops at selected destinations of high population density en route. Local passenger, the lowest category of British passenger train, which provides a service that stops at all stations between major destinations, for the benefit of local populations. In transportation, a "no pax" trip is a trip without passengers. For example, no-pax flights are freight and positioning flights. In most jurisdictions, laws have been enacted that dictate the legal obligations of the owner of a vehicle or vessel, or of the driver or pilot of the same, towards the passengers. With respect to passengers riding in cars and vans, the driver may owe a duty of care to passengers where the passenger's presence in the vehicle can be seen to "confer some benefit on the driver other than the benefit of his or her company or the mere sharing of expenses".
In other situations, guest statutes may limit the ability of passengers to sue the driver of the vehicle over an accident. Many places require cars to be outfitted with measures for the protection of passengers, such as passenger-side air bags. With respect to passengers on commercial vehicles or vessels, both national laws and international treaties require that the carrier act with a certain standard of care; the number of passengers that a vehicle or vessel may carry is defined as its seating capacity. A revenue passenger is someone who has paid a transport operator for his trip; that excludes non-paying passengers such as airline employees flying on free or nearly-free passes and children who do not have a seat of their own, etc. However, passengers who paid for their trip with a frequent-flyer program mileage award are included; this term is used in the transportation industry, in particular in traffic measures such as revenue passenger kilometer and revenue passenger mile. Revenue passenger miles and revenue passenger kilometers are measures of traffic for an airline flight, bus, or train calculated by multiplying the number of revenue-paying passengers aboard the vehicle by the distance traveled.
On long-distance buses and trains, passengers may board and disembark at intermediate stops, in which case RPMs/RPKs have to be calculated for each segment if a careful total is needed. Revenue passenger miles can be considered the basic amount of "production"; the revenue passenger miles can be compared to the available seat miles over an airline's system to determine the overall passenger load factor. These measurements can further be used to measure unit revenues and unit costs. Media related to Passengers at Wikimedia Commons
East Dunbartonshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the north-west of the City of Glasgow and contains many of the suburbs of Glasgow as well as many of the city's commuter towns and villages. East Dunbartonshire shares borders with North Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire; the council area covers parts of the historic counties of Dunbartonshire and Stirlingshire. The council area was formed as a result of the Local Government etc.. Act 1994, from part of the former Bearsden and Milngavie and Strathkelvin districts of the wider Strathclyde region. East Dunbartonshire council area has low levels of deprivation, with low unemployment and low levels of crime; the population is both ageing. In a 2007 Reader's Digest poll, East Dunbartonshire was voted the best place in Britain to raise a family; the area continually tops the Halifax Bank Quality of Life list. In 2010 East Dunbartonshire ranked 3rd in Scotland and was the only Scottish area in the British Top 20 in 2008 A Legatum Prosperity Index published by the Legatum Institute in October 2016 showed East Dunbartonshire as the most prosperous council area in Scotland and the ninth most prosperous in the United Kingdom.
At the first election to East Dunbartonshire Council in April 1995, 26 councillors were elected for a four-year term. Labour gained an outright majority and formed a single-party administration, headed by Charles Kennedy and Michael McCarron as leader and depute leader, with John Dempsey and Ann Cameron taking the civic posts of Provost and Depute Provost. Cllr Kennedy was the leader of Strathkelvin District Council, continued to hold that post during the shadow year of East Dunbartonshire until the final abolition of the district council in April 1996; the Liberal Democrats and Conservatives were the only other parties represented on East Dunbartonshire Council and sat in opposition for the next four years. The number of councillors was reduced to 24 at the May 1999 election, when the Labour Party was again returned as the largest group, but without an overall majority. At the statutory meeting, Charles Kennedy and Rhondda Geekie were appointed as leader and depute leader of a minority Labour administration, but the Provost and Depute Provost roles were taken by Lib Dem councillor Robin McSkimming and Conservative councillor Anne Jarvis.
Within a few months, the Labour administration fell, with support from the Conservatives, the Lib Dem councillors Keith Moody and John Morrison took over as leader and depute leader of a new administration in which members of both the Lib Dem and Conservative groups held the various convenerships. At the May 2003 election, the Liberal Democrats further increased their representation on the council, securing 12 out of the 24 seats. With the reduced Labour group declining to put forward nominations, Lib Dem councillors Pat Steel and Cathy McInnes became Provost and Depute Provost, John Morrison and Fiona Risk leader and depute leader. For the next four years the Lib Dems ran a single party administration that relied, when necessary, on the casting vote of the chair. June 2004 saw the emergence of the East Dunbartonshire Independent Alliance, when Jack Young and former council leader Charles Kennedy, elected as Labour councillors the previous year, formed a fourth group on East Dunbartonshire Council.
As a result of the 2007 election, the Scottish Liberal Democrats were reduced to three councillors and lost control of East Dunbartonshire Council, with one of the primary grievances amongst the electorate being fortnightly waste collection, after the introduction of kerbside collections for recycling plastics, glass and paper. Although the SNP were elected as the largest group, the administration became a Labour/Conservative coalition due to no single party having overall control; the leader of the council was Labour councillor Rhondda Geekie and the position of provost was subsequently held by Lib Dem councillor Eric Gotts. The depute leader and depute provost were the Conservative councillors Billy Anne Jarvis. In December 2009, Lib Dem representation increased to 4, following Ashay Ghai's win in the Bearsden South by-election caused by the resignation of the Conservatives' Simon Hutchison. However, their numbers reverted to 3 in June 2011, when Lib Dem councillor Duncan Cumming resigned from the party citing issues relating to the Liberal Democrats' role in the UK coalition government, sitting thereafter as an independent.
The 2012 election, again returned a council where no single party had overall control, the administration became a three-way Labour/Lib-Dem/Conservative coalition. The leader of the council remained Rhondda Geekie; the depute leader and depute provost were the Lib Dem councillor Ashay Ghai and the Conservative councillor Anne Jarvis. EDIA councillor Charles Kennedy, of the Campsie and Kirkintilloch North ward, died on 13 July 2012; the subsequent by-election took place on 13 September. Thereafter the EDIA was voluntarily deregistered, its remaining councillor, Jack Young, continuing as an independent for the remainder of his term retiring from the council in May 2017. Following a disagreement between the Liberal Democrats and their administration colleagues, the ruling three-party coalition reverted to a minority two-party Labour/Conservative coalition in January 2016, the Conservatives' Billy Hendry resumed the role of depute council leader; the number of seats on the local council was reduced to 22 at the 2017 election
Pathé News was a producer of newsreels and documentaries from 1910 until 1970 in the United Kingdom. Its founder, Charles Pathé, was a pioneer of moving pictures in the silent era; the Pathé News archive is known today as British Pathé. Its collection of news film and movies is digitised and available online, its roots lie in 1896 Paris, when Société Pathé Frères was founded by Charles Pathé and his brothers, who pioneered the development of the moving image. Charles Pathé adopted the national emblem of the cockerel, as the trademark for his company. After the company, now called Compagnie Générale des Éstablissements Pathé Frère Phonographes & Cinématographes, invented the cinema newsreel with Pathé-Journal. French Pathé began its newsreel in 1908 and opened a newsreel office in Wardour Street, London in 1910; the newsreels were shown in the cinema and were silent until 1928. At first they ran for about four minutes, were issued biweekly. Though during the early days the camera shots were taken from a stationary position, the Pathé newsreels captured events such as Franz Reichelt's fatal parachute jump from the Eiffel Tower, suffragette Emily Davison's fatal injury by a racehorse at the 1913 Epsom Derby.
During the First World War, the cinema newsreels were called the Pathé Animated Gazettes, for the first time this provided newspapers with competition. After 1918, British Pathé started producing a series of cinemazines, in which the newsreels were much longer and more comprehensive. By 1930, British Pathé was covering news, sport and women's issues through programmes including the Pathétone Weekly, the Pathé Pictorial, the Gazette and Eve’s Film Review. In 1927, the company sold British Pathé to First National. Pathé changed hands again in 1933. In 1958, it was sold again to Warner Bros. and became Warner-Pathé. Pathé stopped producing the cinema newsreel in February 1970 as they could no longer compete with television. During the newsreels' run, the narrators included Bob Danvers-Walker, Dwight Weist, Dan Donaldson, André Baruch, Clem McCarthy, among others; the library itself was sold with Associated British Picture to EMI Films and others, including The Cannon Group and the Daily Mail and General Trust, before relaunching in its own right in 2009.
The feature film division is now part of StudioCanal, is not to be confused with Pathé, the French company and original parent of British Pathé. In 2002 funded by the UK National Lottery, the entire archive was digitised; the British Pathé archive now holds over 3,500 hours of filmed history, 90,000 individual items and 12 million stills. On February 7, 2009, British Pathé launched a YouTube channel of its newsreel archive. From March 2010, British Pathé relaunched its archive as an online entertainment site, making Pathé News a service for the public as well as the broadcasting industry. In May 2010 The Guardian was given access to the British Pathé archive, hosting topical videos on its website. In November 2010 the Daily Mail gave its readers free DVDs of the seven-part British Pathé series A Year To Remember: The War Years; the series comprised seven discs, each focusing on a different year from 1939–1945. In May 2012 British Pathé won the FOCAL International Award for Footage Library of the Year.
In April 2014 British Pathé uploaded the entire collection of 85,000 historic films to its YouTube channel as part of a drive to make the archive more accessible to viewers all over the world. British Pathé produced a number of programmes and series as well as newsreels, such as Pathé Eve and Astra Gazette. In 2010 BBC Four reversioned the 1950s Pathé series Time To Remember, narrated by the actor Stanley Holloway, broadcast it as a thematic 12-part series. British Pathé has been known under the following names: C. G. P. C. First National-Pathé, Associated British-Pathé, Warner-Pathé, British Pathé News, British Pathé; the British and American newsreel companies separated in 1921. In 1947, the film assets of the successor companies of Pathé News, Inc. were purchased by Warner Bros. from RKO Radio Pictures, which had acquired them in 1931. Warners, as had RKO before them, continued to produce the theatrical newsreel Pathé News, its title changing from RKO-Pathe News to Warner-Pathe News. Warners produced a series of 38 theatrical short subjects, 81 issues of the News Magazine of the Screen series, which added to the Pathé film properties and are now part of the company's extensive film library.
Producer/editor Robert Youngson was responsible for these series, won two Academy Awards for them. In 1956, Warner Bros. discontinued the production of the theatrical newsreel and sold the Pathé News film library, the 38 theatrical short subjects, the Pathé News Magazine of the Screen, the crowing rooster trade mark and the copyrights and other properties to Studio Films, Inc.—shortly thereafter named Pathé Pictures, Inc.—which subsequently relinquished the name and film properties of both companies to Pathé News, Inc. Other U. S. newsreel series included Paramount News, Fox Movietone News, Hearst Metrotone News/News of the Day, Universal Newsreel, The March of Time. Oliver G Pike – filmmaker for British Pathé Official website British Pathé History British Pathé's channel on YouTube "News Magazine of the Screen". Internet Archive. "News o