A court painter was an artist who painted for the members of a royal or noble family, sometimes on a fixed salary and on an exclusive basis where the artist was not supposed to undertake other work. In the Late Middle Ages, they were given the office of valet de chambre, they were given a salary and formal title, a pension for life, though arrangements were variable. For the artist, a court appointment had the advantage of freeing them from the restriction of local painters' guilds, although in the Middle Ages and Renaissance they often had to spend large amounts of time doing decorative work about the palace, creating temporary works for court entertainments and displays. In England the role of Serjeant Painter was set up for this, leaving the "King's painter" free to paint portraits. See category of Italian art collectors for lists that included non-aristocratic patrons; some artists, like Jan van Eyck or Diego Velázquez, were used in other capacities at court, as diplomats, functionaries, or administrators.
In Islamic cultures between the 14th and 17th centuries, similar arrangements operated for miniaturists and artists in other media. In the Persian miniature, the shah and other rulers maintained a "court workshop" or "atelier", of calligraphers, miniaturists and other crafts managed by the royal librarian. More than in the West, the courts were the essential patrons of large-scale commissions, political changes, or changes in personal tastes, could have a significant effect on the development of a style; the name by which Riza Abbasi is known includes the honorific title "Abbasi", which he and others were given by Shah Abbas I of Persia to associate them with their patron. Abd as-Samad, a Persian painter who moved to the Mughal Empire, was given a number of significant administrative jobs, as indeed was his artist son; the court remained the focus of patronage of painting in the "sub-Mughal" princely courts of India, whether Muslim or Hindu. At many periods rulers owned or controlled royal workshops or factories making high-quality tapestries, porcelain or pottery and other types of object.
This was the case in China and in the Byzantine Empire. Court artists worked on the designs for these products; the same process can be better documented in 17th century France, where the court painter Charles Le Brun was director of the royal Gobelins Manufactory producing far more than just tapestries, designed the royal commissions from the private Savonnerie manufactory of carpets. Le Brun dominated, created, the style found throughout Louis XIV's palaces, hugely influential in France and throughout Europe. By the 20th century court painters was an obsolete position. More artists were granted permission by royalty who would sit for official portraits whether for private of patron purposes. Artists of the Tudor Court 21st Century Court Artists Michael Levey, Painting at Court, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1971
Prix de Rome
The Prix de Rome or Grand Prix de Rome was a French scholarship for arts students for painters and sculptors, established in 1663 during the reign of Louis XIV of France. Winners were awarded a bursary that allowed them to stay in Rome for three to five years at the expense of the state; the prize was extended to architecture in 1720, music in 1803, engraving in 1804. The prestigious award was abolished in 1968 by the Minister of Culture; the Prix de Rome was created for painters and sculptors in 1663 in France during the reign of Louis XIV. It was an annual bursary for promising artists having proved their talents by completing a difficult elimination contest; the prize, organised by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, was open to their students. From 1666, the award winner could win a stay of three to five years at the Palazzo Mancini in Rome at the expense of the King of France. In 1720, the Académie Royale d’Architecture began a prize in architecture. Six painters, four sculptors, two architects would be sent to the French Academy in Rome founded by Jean-Baptiste Colbert from 1666.
Expanded after 140 years into five categories, the contest started in 1663 as two categories: painting and sculpture. Architecture was added in 1720. In 1803, music was added, after 1804 there was a prix for engraving as well; the primary winner took the "First Grand Prize" and the "Second Prizes" were awarded to the runners-up. In 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte moved the French Academy in Rome to the Villa Medici with the intention of preserving an institution once threatened by the French Revolution. At first, the villa and its gardens were in a sad state, they had to be renovated in order to house the winners of the Prix de Rome. In this way, he hoped to retain for young French artists the opportunity to see and copy the masterpieces of antiquity and the Renaissance. Jacques-Louis David, having failed to win the prize three years in a row, considered suicide. Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Ernest Chausson and Maurice Ravel attempted the Prix de Rome, but did not gain recognition. Ravel tried a total of five times to win the prize, the last failed attempt in 1905 was so controversial that it led to a complete reorganization of the administration at the Paris Conservatory.
During World War II the prize winners were accommodated in the Villa Paradiso in Nice. The Prix de Rome was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux, Minister of Culture at the time. Since a number of contests have been created, the academies, together with the Institut de France, were merged by the State and the Minister of Culture. Selected residents now have an opportunity for study during an 18-month stay at The Academy of France in Rome, accommodated in the Villa Medici; the heyday of the Prix de Rome was during early nineteenth centuries. It was imitated by the Prix Abd-el-Tif and the Villa Abd-el-Tif in Algiers, 1907–1961, Prix d'Indochine including a bursary to visit the École des Beaux-Arts de l'Indochine in Hanoi, 1920–1939, bursary for residence at the Casa de Velázquez in Madrid, 1929–present; the Prix de Rome for Architecture was created in 1720. The engraving prize was created in 1804. List of all the winners of the Prix de Rome for musical composiiton A Prix de Rome was established in the Kingdom of Holland by Lodewijk Napoleon to award young artists and architects.
During the years 1807 -- 1810 prize winners were sent to onwards to Rome for study. In 1817, after the Netherlands had gained its independence, King Willem I restarted the prize. Suspended in 1851 it was reinstated in 1870 by William III of the Netherlands. Since the winners have been selected by the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam under the main headings of architecture and the visual arts; the Belgian Prix de Rome is an award for young artists, created in 1832, following the example of the original French Prix de Rome. The Royal Academy of Fine Arts Antwerp organised the prize until 1920, when the national government took over; the first prize is sometimes called the Grand Prix de Rome. There were distinct categories for architecture, painting and music. Académie de France Rome American Academy in Rome American School of Classical Studies at Athens American Schools of Oriental Research British School at Rome Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Rom Rome Prize The Prix de Rome Contests in Painting The Prix de Rome winners in Sculpture — Complete Prix de Rome winners
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
École des Beaux-Arts
An École des Beaux-Arts is one of a number of influential art schools in France. The most famous is the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, now located on the left bank in Paris, across the Seine from the Louvre, at 14 rue Bonaparte; the school has a history spanning more than 350 years, training many of the great artists in Europe. Beaux Arts style was modeled on classical "antiquities", preserving these idealized forms and passing the style on to future generations; the origins of the school go back to 1648 when the Académie des Beaux-Arts was founded by Cardinal Mazarin to educate the most talented students in drawing, sculpture, engraving and other media. Louis XIV was known to select graduates from the school to decorate the royal apartments at Versailles, in 1863 Napoleon III granted the school independence from the government, changing the name to "L'École des Beaux-Arts". Women were admitted beginning in 1897; the curriculum was divided into the "Academy of Painting and Sculpture" and the "Academy of Architecture".
Both programs focused on classical arts and architecture from Ancient Roman culture. All students were required to prove their skills with basic drawing tasks before advancing to figure drawing and painting; this culminated in a competition for the Grand Prix de Rome, awarding a full scholarship to study in Rome. The three trials to obtain the prize lasted for nearly three months. Many of the most famous artists in Europe were trained here, including Géricault, Delacroix, Ingres, Renoir, Seurat and Sisley. Rodin however, applied on three occasions but was refused entry; the buildings of the school are the creation of French architect Félix Duban, commissioned for the main building in 1830. His work realigned the campus, continued through 1861, completing an architectural program out towards the Quai Malaquais; the Paris school is the namesake and founding location of the Beaux Arts architectural movement in the early twentieth century. Known for demanding classwork and setting the highest standards for education, the École attracted students from around the world—including the United States, where students returned to design buildings that would influence the history of architecture in America, including the Boston Public Library, 1888–1895 and the New York Public Library, 1897–1911.
Architectural graduates in France, are granted the title élève. The architecture department was separated from the École after the May 1968 student strikes at the Sorbonne; the name was changed to École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts. Today, over 500 students make use of an extensive collection of classical art coupled with modern additions to the curriculum, including photography and hypermedia. ENSA École nationale des beaux arts de Dijon ENSA École nationale des beaux arts de Bourges ENSBA École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts Lyon European Academy of Art in Lorient, Rennes and Brest ESADMM École supérieure d'art et de design Marseille-Méditerranée ENSA École nationale des beaux arts de Nancy École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris ESAD École supérieure d'art et design de Valence, Valence Académie des Beaux-Arts Architecture of Paris Beaux-Arts architecture Comité des Étudiants Américains de l'École des Beaux-Arts Paris Paris Salon The Ecole des Beaux-Arts – Historical essay École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts – Official website École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts – History
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A masquerade ball is an event in which the participants attend in costume wearing a mask. Less formal "costume parties" may be a descendant of this tradition. A masquerade ball encompasses music and dancing; these nighttime events are used for entertainment and celebrations. Masquerade balls were a feature of the Carnival season in the 15th century, involved elaborate allegorical Royal Entries and triumphal processions celebrating marriages and other dynastic events of late medieval court life; the "Bal des Ardents" was held by Charles VI of France, intended as a Bal des sauvages, a form of costumed ball. It took place in celebration of the marriage of a lady-in-waiting of Charles VI of France's queen in Paris on January 28, 1393; the King and five courtiers dressed with costumes of flax and pitch. When they came too close to a torch, the dancers caught fire; such costumed dances were a special luxury of the Ducal Court of Burgundy. Masquerade balls were extended into costumed public festivities in Italy during the 16th century Renaissance.
They were elaborate dances held for members of the upper classes, were popular in Venice. They have been associated with the tradition of the Venetian Carnival. With the fall of the Venetian Republic at the end of the 18th century, the use and tradition of masks began to decline, until they disappeared altogether, they became popular throughout mainland Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, sometimes with fatal results. Gustav III of Sweden was assassinated at a masquerade ball by disgruntled nobleman Jacob Johan Anckarström, an event which Eugène Scribe and Daniel Auber turned into the opera Gustave III; the same event was the basis of Giuseppe Verdi's opera A Masked Ball, although the censors in the original production forced him to portray it as a fictional story set in Boston. Most masks came from countries like Italy. John James Heidegger, a Swiss count who arrived in Italy in 1708, is credited with introducing to London the Venetian fashion of a semi-public masquerade ball, to which one might subscribe, with the first being held at Haymarket Opera House.
London's public gardens, like Vauxhall Gardens, refurbished in 1732, Ranelagh Gardens, provided optimal outdoor settings, where characters masked and in fancy dress mingled with the crowds. The reputation for unseemly behavior, unescorted women and assignations motivated a change of name, to the Venetian ridotto, but as "The Man of Taste" observed in 1733. A standard item of masquerade dress was a "Vandyke", improvised on the costumes worn in the portraits of Van Dyck: Gainsborough's Blue Boy is the most familiar example, a reminder of the 18th-century popularity in England for portraits in fancy dress. Throughout the century, masquerade dances became popular in Colonial America, its prominence did not go unchallenged. The anti-masquerade writers held that the events encouraged immorality and "foreign influence." While they were sometimes able to persuade authorities to their views after the Lisbon earthquake of 1755, enforcement of measures designed to end masquerades was at best desultory, the masquerades went on as semi-private "subscriptions."
In the 1770s, fashionable Londoners went to the masquerades organized by Teresa Cornelys at Carlisle House in Soho Square, to the Pantheon. Masquerade balls were sometimes set as a game among the guests; the masked guests were dressed so as to be unidentifiable. This would create a type of game to see; this added a humorous effect to many masquerades and enabled a more enjoyable version of typical balls. One of the most noted masquerade balls of the 20th century was that held at Palazzo Labia in Venice on 3 September 1951, hosted by Carlos de Beistegui, it was dubbed "the party of the century."Another famous ball was The Black and White Ball. It held on November 1966 at the Plaza Hotel in New York City. Hosted by author Truman Capote, the ball was in honor of The Washington Post publisher Katharine Graham. Masquerade masks were worn delicately by the prosperous class at balls. Masquerade masks had many uses including hiding one's identity,and using different colour to express one's freedom of speech and voice one's emotions and opinions without judgement.
There were two types of base masquerade masks. Designs and patterns were created over the base, chosen; the main types of masks included masks with a stick, the head mask, the full-face mask, the half face mask. From classics like The Phantom of the Opera and Romeo and Juliet to The Lone Ranger and Gossip Girl, masquerade masks have been, are still used in many types of media today. Today, in French Guiana, throughout the Carnival period, masked, it is about Touloulous balls, where the Touloulous is disguised and unrecognizable, where this is the Tololos, disguised. A new resurgence of masquerade balls began in the late 1990s in North America. More the party atmosphere is emphasized and the formal dancing less prominent. In present times, masquerade masks are used for costumes during Halloween. Masquerade ma