San Lorenzo in Damaso
The Minor Basilica of St. Lawrence in Damaso or San Lorenzo in Damaso is a parish and titular church in central Rome, Italy, dedicated to St. Lawrence and martyr, it is incorporated into the Palazzo della Cancelleria, which enjoys the extraterritoriality of the Holy See. Archaeological evidence suggests the site, like those of many churches in Rome, may have housed a pagan temple; the first documentary evidence of a church at this site is the reference in the synod of Pope Symmachus of AD 499 of a Titulus Damasi. According to tradition, in the AD 380s a basilica church was erected by Pope Damasus I in his own residence; this church is one of many in Rome dedicated to St. Lawrence, including the more ancient and extra-urban Basilica di San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura, rebuilt by the same Pope Damasus I; the original basilica of San Lorenzo in Damaso was demolished by Cardinal Raffaele Riario, a nephew of Pope Sixtus IV who commissioned the imposing Renaissance-style Palazzo della Cancelleria. The palace was built of spolia and stone from nearby ancient Roman buildings, including the Colosseum, enveloped the new basilica of San Lorenzo in Damaso under the right wing.
The architect of the basilica, like that of the Palace of the Chancellery, is unknown. The design of the Palace has been attributed to Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Baccio Pontelli, while Filippo Titi suggests Donato Bramante and other authors have cited Giuliano da Sangallo and Andrea Bregno. Titi independently attributed reconstruction of the basilica to Bramante; the last restoration was necessary after a fire damaged the basilica in 1944. The inscriptions in the basilica are valuable illustrations of the history of the Roman Catholic Church, were collected and published by Vincenzo Forcella; the Cardinal Priest of the Titulus S. Laurentii in Damaso is Antonio Rouco Varela, Archbishop of Madrid, Spain; the interior decoration was begun by commissions of the resident of the Palace, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, in the late 16th century. Cavaliere d'Arpino painted the walls of the right counter-facade; the main altar hosts the painting of Coronation of St. Mary by Federico Zuccari. Below the altar are the relics of Pope St. Eutychian and Pope St. Damasus I.
To the left of the altar is a copy of a statue of St. Hippolytus of Rome. Tradition holds; this copy was commissioned for the basilica by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. Vignola designed the portal. To the right of the entrance is the memorial to Alessandro Valtrini, a minister of Pope Urban VIII, that Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed in 1639; the second vestibule has statues of St. Charles Borromeo by Stefano Maderno. To the right of the entrance is a chapel designed by Nicola Salvi and commissioned by Cardinal Tommaso Ruffo in the late 18th century; the ceiling is frescoed with Glory of San Nicola by Corrado Giaquinto, the altarpiece of Virgin with Sts. Philip Neri and Nicolò was painted by Sebastiano Conca. To the left of the entrance is the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, commissioned by Cardinal Ottoboni and frescoed by Andrea Casali; the altarpiece is the Last Supper by Vincenzo Berrettini. Inside the basilica, the first chapel to the right of the nave has a 19th-century monument to Prince Camillo Massimi and his wife, by Filippo Gnaccarini and Pietro Tenerani, respectively.
The second chapel to the right has the tomb of Pellegrino Rossi, the last minister of the Papal States under Bl. Pope Pius IX, by Pietro Tenerani, his murder in 1848 in the adjacent Palace was one of the events that led to the ensconcement of the Pope in the Vatican City and the annexation of the Papal States to the Kingdom of Italy. The first chapel to the left has the tomb and funerary monument of Cardinal Ludovico Trevisan, Patriarch of Aquileia, with a recumbent statue by Paolo Romano; the second chapel to the left contains the tomb of Fra Annibal Caro by Giovanni Antonio Dosio. A chapel near the sacristy has an altarpiece depicting the Madonna delle Gioie by Nicolò Circignani, denominated "il Pomarancio", two silver statues of St. Lawrence and St. Damaso by Ciro Ferri. A further chapel is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of the Agonizing Jesus, contains a portrait of Pope Leo XIII proclaiming the statutes of the Pious Union of the Sacred Heart of Jesus by the chapel's 19th century architect Vincenzo De Rossi Re.
The founding of this fraternity was celebrated in the basilica in 1883. The Chapel of the Santissima Concezione was frescoed by a young Pietro da Cortona. Other works include the monument of Cardinal Trevisan. Pietro da Cortona, A Design for a Quarantore at San Lorenzo in Damaso, c. 1632
San Martino ai Monti
San Martino ai Monti known as Santi Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, is a minor basilica in Rome, Italy, in the Rione Monti neighbourhood. It is located near the edge of the Parco del Colle Oppio, near the corner of Via Equizia and Viale del Monte Oppio, about five to six blocks south of Santa Maria Maggiore; the current Cardinal Priest with title to the basilica is the Archbishop of Warsaw. Among the previous titulars are Alfonso de la Cueva, Saint Joseph Mary Tomasi, C. R. Pope Pius XI, Blessed Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O. S. B. and Gianbattista Montini Blessed Paul VI. The basilica was founded by Pope St. Sylvester I on a site donated by one Equitius in the 4th century. At the beginning it was an oratory devoted to all the martyrs, it is known that a meeting in preparation for the Council of Nicaea was held here in 324. The current church of San Martino ai Monti dates from the Carolingian era, but remains of a 3rd-century pillared hall have been located below and adjacent to it; some scholars have identified this earlier building with the Titulus Equitii, but according to Hugo Brandenburg, it is "most unlikely that it could have served as a place of worship for any larger community and its liturgy: The original purpose of this modest hall... was to serve as a storage space for commercial purposes."
In 500, the church was rebuilt and dedicated to Saints Martin of Tours and Pope Sylvester I by Pope Symmachus. On this occasion, the church was elevated and the first oratory became subterranean, it was reconstructed by Pope Hadrian I in 772 and by Pope Sergius II in 845. The structure of the present basilica follows the ancient church, many pieces had been re-used. During the Investiture Controversy and the Gregorian Reforms, the priest of San Martino, supported the Antipope Clement III; the inscriptions found in S. Martino ai Monti, a valuable source illustrating the history of the Basilica, have been collected and published by Vincenzo Forcella; the basilica is served by the Carmelite friars. It was granted to them in 1299 by Pope Boniface VIII; this basilica is the resting place of the Blessed Angelo Paoli, O. Carm. Who was revered throughout Rome for his service of the poor; the interior has two aisles, divided by ancient columns. A votive lamp, made in silver sheet and housed in the sacristy, was believed to be St. Sylvester's tiara.
Under the major altar are preserved the relics of Saints Artemius and Sisinnius, brought here from the Catacomb of Priscilla. A mosaic portraying Madonna with St Sylvester is from the 6th century. Further transformations were executed in the 17th century by Filippo Gagliardi. In the mid-17th century a series of frescoes, architectural additions, altarpieces were commissioned including series landscape and architectural frescoes of biblical scenes by Gaspar Dughet and Galgliardi. There is a fresco by Jan Miel of St Cyril baptizing a sultan. Fabrizio Chiari painted a Baptism of Christ. Giannangiolo Canini painted an altarpiece of Holy Trinity with Saints Bartholemew; the Mannerist painter Girolamo Muziano provided an altarpiece of St. Albert. Galeazzo Leoncino painted a fresco of Pope Silvester holding council of 324 in the church of San Martino, Pietro Testa the Vision of St Angelo the Carmelite in the Wilderness, Filippo Gherardi an altarpiece of San Carlo Borromeo. Cannini painted the Martydom of St. Stephen.
Chiari painted St Martin Sharing his Cloak with the Beggar. Giovanni Battista Crespi is the author of a Vision of St Teresa, while the altarpiece of Vision of Santa Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi was executed by Matteo Piccione. Paolo Naldini painted a series of Saints on the upper register of the nave. Daniele Latre painted a St. Anthony and John the Baptist on the southern wall, while Naldini painted a Peter and Paul. Emmanuele Boaga, "Il complesso titolare di S. Martino ai Monti in Roma," in: Mario Fois, Vincenzo Monachino, F. Litva, Dalla Chiesa antica alla Chiesa moderna. Miscellanea per il 50o della Facoltà di storia ecclesiastica della Pontificia Università Gregoriana pp. 1-17. Ancient Churches of Rome from the Fourth to the Seventh Century: The Dawn of Christian Architecture in the West, by Hugo Brandenburg, Brepols, 2005. Le chiese medievali di Roma, by Federico Gizzi, Newton Compton, Rome, 1994. Richard Krautheimer, Corpus Basilicarum Christianarum Romae: The Early Christian Basilicas of Rome Part 3, pp. 87 ff
Pope Stephen IX
Pope Stephen IX reigned from 3 August 1057 to his death in 1058. Christened Frederick, he was a younger brother of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine, part of the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty that would play a prominent role in the politics of the period, which included their strong ties to the abbey of St. Vanne. Frederick would be archdeacon of a cathedral church in Liege called St. Lambert, he was appointed Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica by Pope Leo IX, raised to the Cardinal-Presbyter of San Crisogono by Pope Victor II. In 1054, he discharged the function of one of three papal legates at Constantinople, participating in the events that led to the East-West Schism. In 1057, he was appointed abbot of Monte Cassino. Five days after the death of Pope Victor II, he was chosen to succeed him as Pope Stephen IX, he enforced the policies of the Gregorian Reform as to clerical celibacy. In regional politics, he was planning for the expulsion of the Normans from southern Italy, in order to achieve that he decided, at the beginning of 1058, to send a delegation to the new Byzantine Emperor Isaac I Komnenos.
Papal delegates departed from Rome, but when they reached Byzantine held Bari, news came that Stephen IX has died, mission was abandoned. At the beginning of 1058, he was planning the elevation of his brother to the imperial throne, when he was seized by a severe illness, from which he only and temporarily recovered. Stephen IX died at Florence on 29 March 1058 and is considered by the current-day Catholic Church to have been succeeded by Pope Nicholas II, though others consider his successor to be Pope Benedict X regarded as an antipope. List of popes Adapted from the 9th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Stephen X". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Bloch, Herbert. Monte Cassino in the Middle Ages. 1. Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura. Siecienski, Anthony Edward; the Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195372045
The erudite Augustinian Onofrio Panvinio or Onuphrius Panvinius was an Italian historian and antiquary, librarian to Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. Panvinio was born in Verona. At the age of eleven, he entered the order of Augustinian Hermits and in 1539 he went to Rome and became fascinated by the city, whose topography and inscriptions and medieval history and great papal families he would document through a spectacularly productive brief lifetime. After graduating in Rome as bachelor of arts in 1553 and teaching the novices of his order in Rome and Florence, in 1557 he obtained the degree of doctor of theology, he visited the libraries of Italy, pursuing historical research and went to Germany in 1559. Refusing the position of bishop, he accepted the more grateful office of corrector and reviser of the books of the Vatican Library in 1556, he died in Palermo while accompanying his friend and protector Cardinal Farnese to the Synod of Monreale, 1568. He was recognized as archaeologists of his time.
The scholarly printer Paulus Manutius called him antiquitatis helluo, Julius Caesar Scaliger styled him pater omnis historiae. His great archaeological map of ancient Rome was produced in 1565. About the same time he began to collaborate with the French engraver Étienne Dupérac, who continued to provide illustrations for posthumous printings of Panvinio's works. Not all of his numerous historical, theological and liturgical works were published posthumously, his portrait by Tintoretto is in the Galleria Colonna. De fasti et triumphi Romanorum a Romulo usque ad Carolum V, "Fasti and triumphs of the Romans from Romulus to Charles V". Max. Elogia et imagines". Julii Caesaris tempore usque ad imp. Maximilianum II. A posthumous publication with etchings by Dupérac that date to the 1560s. Epitome antiquitatum romanarum. Philip Jacks set his career in the context of early antiquarian investigations in The Antiquarian and the Myth of Antiquity: The Origins of Rome in Renaissance Thought. 1993. The only modern biography is Jean-Louis Ferrary's bibliographic study, Onofrio Panvinio et les antiquités romaines 1996.
Stefan Bauer:'Historiographical Transition from Renaissance to Counter-Reformation: The Case of Onofrio Panvinio'. Onofrio Panvinio, in Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, vol. 81, 2014, pp. 36-39. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Onofrio Panvinio". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. De ludis circensibus is located at the Special Collections/Digital Library in Falvey Memorial Library at Villanova University
Canossa is a comune and castle town in the Province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. It is the site where Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV did penance in 1077, standing three days bare-headed in the snow, in order to reverse his excommunication by Pope Gregory VII; the Walk to Canossa is sometimes used as a symbol of the changing relationship between the medieval Church and State. As of December 2014, Canossa has a population of 3,778, borders the comuni of Casina, Castelnovo ne' Monti, Neviano degli Arduini, San Polo d'Enza, Traversetolo and Vezzano sul Crostolo; the town was known as Ciano d'Enza, while Canossa was the name of only the castle, now in ruins, once belonging to Matilda of Tuscany, nearby hamlet, which lie some 8 km east of the town. The new name was decided in 1992. Canossa Castle was built before the middle of the 10th century by Adalbert Atto, son of Sigifred of Lucca. Adelaide of Italy, in the 10th century the daughter, daughter-in-law, widow in turn of three kings, was hard pressed by a local nobleman, Berengar of Ivrea, who declared himself king of Italy, abducted Adelaide, tried to legitimize his reign by forcing Adelaide to marry his son Adalbert.
From the rocca of Canossa she called for German intervention. Canossa was inherited by Matilda of Tuscany, the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII, in 1052. Matilda invited Pope Gregory VII to take refuge in Canossa Castle in 1076/77 during the dispute with Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor. In the end their joint fears proved groundless when Henry appeared in the guise of a penitent and begged for forgiveness and reinstatement in the church. After three days of waiting at the castle gates, Henry was forgiven. Matilda died in 1115 in Mantuan territory; the fortress was destroyed by invaders from Reggio Emilia in 1256. The church of San Apollonio, within the castle walls and contemporary with the castle, was destroyed. Only the christening font remains, preserved in the Naborre Campanini national museum next to the remains of the wall. Perched on top of the white cliffs of the Apennines, the castle is a ruin today. More than 30,000 tourists come here each year from Germany; the nearby Tempietto del Petrarca, Canossa celebrates the refuge of Petrarch offered here by a local warlord.
Saint Magdalen of Canossa is an Italian saint of the early 19th century, who founded the Institute of the Daughters of Charity and in whose name Canossian schools have been established in many countries. She is known for her deep faith in God. Walk to Canossa Matilda of Tuscany Terre Matildiche
Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II, born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099. Urban II was a native of France, he was a descendant of a noble family in Châtillon-sur-Marne. Reims was the nearby cathedral school that Urban, at that time Eudes, began his studies at 1050. Before his papacy he was the abbot of Bishop of Ostia under the name Eudes; as the Pope he would have to deal with many issues including the antipope Clement III, infighting of various christian nations, the Muslim incursions into Europe. He is best known for initiating the First Crusade and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia in the manner of a royal ecclesiastical court to help run the Church, he promised forgiveness and pardon for all of the past sins of those who would fight to reclaim the holy land, free the eastern churches. This pardon would apply to those that would fight the Moors in Spain. Urban, baptized Eudes, was born to a family of Châtillon-sur-Marne, he was prior of the abbey of Cluny Pope Gregory VII named him cardinal-bishop of Ostia c. 1080.
He was one of the most prominent and active supporters of the Gregorian reforms as legate in the Holy Roman Empire in 1084. He was among the three. Desiderius, the abbot of Monte Cassino, was chosen to follow Gregory in 1085 but, after his short reign as Victor III, Odo was elected by acclamation at a small meeting of cardinals and other prelates held in Terracina in March 1088. From the outset, Urban had to reckon with the presence of Guibert, the former bishop of Ravenna who held Rome as the antipope "Clement III". Gregory had clashed with the emperor Henry IV over papal authority. Despite the Walk to Canossa, Gregory had backed the rebel Duke of Swabia and again excommunicated the emperor. Henry took Rome in 1084 and installed Clement III in his place. Urban took up the policies of Pope Gregory VII and, while pursuing them with determination, showed greater flexibility and diplomatic finesse. Kept away from Rome, Urban toured northern Italy and France. A series of well-attended synods held in Rome, Amalfi and Troia supported him in renewed declarations against simony, lay investitures, clerical marriages, the emperor and his antipope.
He facilitated the marriage of Matilda, countess of Tuscany, with duke of Bavaria. He supported the rebellion of Prince Conrad against his father and bestowed the office of groom on Conrad at Cremona in 1095. While there, he helped arrange the marriage between Conrad and Maximilla, the daughter of Count Roger of Sicily, which occurred that year at Pisa; the Empress Adelaide was encouraged in her charges of sexual coercion against her husband, Henry IV. He supported the theological and ecclesiastical work of Anselm, negotiating a solution to the cleric's impasse with King William II of England and receiving England's support against the Imperial pope in Rome. Urban maintained vigorous support for his predecessors' reforms and did not shy from supporting Anselm when the new archbishop of Canterbury fled England. Despite the importance of French support for his cause, he upheld his legate Hugh of Die's excommunication of King Philip over his doubly bigamous marriage with Bertrade de Montfort, wife of the Count of Anjou.
The Pope's movement took its first public shape at the Council of Piacenza, where, in March 1095, Urban II received an ambassador from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos asking for help against the Muslim Seljuk Turks who had taken over most of Byzantine Anatolia. A great council met, attended by numerous Italian and French bishops in such vast numbers it had to be held in the open air outside the city of Clermont. Though the Council of Clermont held in November of the same year was focused on reforms within the church hierarchy, Urban II gave a speech on 27 November 1095 to a broader audience. Urban II's sermon proved effective, as he summoned the attending nobility and the people to wrest the Holy Land, the eastern churches from the control of the Seljuk Turks. There exists no exact transcription of the speech; the five extant versions of the speech were written down some time and they differ from one another. All versions of the speech except that by Fulcher of Chartres were influenced by the chronicle account of the First Crusade called the Gesta Francorum, which includes a version of it.
Fulcher of Chartres was present at the Council, though he did not start writing his history of the crusade, including a version of the speech until c. 1101. Robert the Monk may have been present, but his version dates from about 1106; the five versions of Urban's speech reflect much more what authors thought Urban II should have said to launch the First Crusade than what Urban II did say. As a better means of evaluating Urban's true motives in calling for a crusade to the Holy Lands, there are four extant letters written by Pope Urban himself: one to the Flemish. However, whereas the three former letters were concerned with rallying popular support for the Crusades
San Marcello al Corso
San Marcello al Corso, a church in Rome, Italy, is a titular church whose cardinal-protector holds the rank of cardinal-priest. The church, dedicated to Pope Marcellus I, is located just inset from Via del Corso, in ancient times called via Lata, which now connects Piazza Venezia to Piazza del Popolo, it stands diagonal from the church of Santa Maria in Via Lata and two doors from the Oratory of Santissimo Crocifisso. While the tradition holds that the church was built over the prison of Pope Marcellus I, it is known that the Titulus Marcelli was present no than 418, when Pope Boniface I was elected there; the "Septiformis" litany, commanded by Pope Gregory I in 590, saw the men moving from San Marcello. Pope Adrian I, in the 8th century, built a church on the same place, under the modern church; the corpse of Cola di Rienzo was held in the church for three days after his execution in 1354. On 22 May 1519, a fire destroyed the church; the money collected for its rebuilding was used to bribe the landsknechts, who were pillaging the city during the Sack of Rome.
The original plan to rebuild the church was designed by Jacopo Sansovino, who fled the city during the Sack and never returned to finish it. The work was continued by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, who rebuilt the church, but a Tiber flood damaged it again in 1530, it was only in 1692–1697 that the church was completed with a facade by Carlo Fontana, commissioned by Monsignor Marcantonio Cataldi Boncompagni. The exterior travertine statues were sculpted by Francesco Cavallini, the stucco bas-relief over the entrance, with depicts San Filippo Benizio, was created by Antonio Raggi. Benizio had been a member of the Servite order. Under the main altar, decorated with 12th century opus sectile, are the relics of several saints, which include those of Pope Marcellus as well as Digna and Emerita; the last chapel on the left is dedicated to St Philip Benizi. The late-Baroque decoration contains sculptures by Francesco Cavallini and reliefs by Ercole Ferrata and Antonio Raggi; the first chapel on the left has the double tomb of Cardinal Giovanni Michiel and his grandson Antonio Orso sculpted by Jacopo Sansovino.
Behind the facade is a Crucifixion by Giovanni Battista Ricci. The tomb of Cardinal Cennino was sculpted by Giovanni Francesco de'Rossi. Along the right, the first chapel of Marchese Maccarani holds an Annunciation by Lazzaro Baldi. Digna and Emerita of Pietro Barbieri. Inside is a cyborium designed by Carlo Bizzaccheri. On the left nave, in the fifth chapel, is a San Filippo Benizi by Pier Leone Ghezzi and Gagliardi. Inside of the chapel has busts of Muzio, Lelio Frangipane by Alessandro Algardi. In the third chapel on the left is a Doloroso by Pietro Paolo Naldini, Sacrifice of Isaac and discovery of Moses by Domenico Corvi; the church is administered and owned by the Servite Order since 1369. "San Marcello al Corso", Chris Nyborg. Titi, Filippo. Descrizione delle Sculture e Architetture esposte in Roma. Marco Pagliarini, Rome. Pp. 321–324. GCatholic Media related to San Marcello al Corso at Wikimedia Commons