University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Graham Alan Gooch, is a former English first-class cricketer who captained Essex and England. He was one of the most successful international batsmen of his generation, through a career spanning from 1973 until 2000, he became the most prolific run scorer of all time, with 67,057 runs across first-class and limited-overs games, his List A cricket tally of 22,211 runs is a record. He is one of only twenty-five players to have scored over 100 first-class centuries. Internationally, despite being banned for three years following a rebel tour to ostracized South Africa, Gooch is the second highest Test run scorer for England, his playing years spanned much of the period of domination by the West Indies, against whom his mid-forties batting average is regarded as creditable. His score of 154 against them at Headingley in 1991 is regarded as one of the greatest centuries of all time by many critics and former players, his career-best score of 333 – added to his second innings century – remains the highest match aggregate at Lord's.
He is the first to make 20 Test appearances at Lord’s. As captain, Matthew Engel noted, "his fanatical fitness and work-ethic gave the team more purpose than it had shown in a decade."After 118 Tests, aged forty-two, he retired into coaching and as team selector, before becoming a commentator. In 2009 he was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame, he returned to coach Essex, before becoming England batting coach in 2012. Gooch was born in Whipps Cross University Hospital, Essex, he was educated in Leyton. Gooch played first-class cricket between 1973 and 1997. Famous for his upright stance, a high bat-lift and heavy bat he became one of the most prolific run scorers top-class cricket has seen. On 8 November 2011, he received an honorary award from University of East London. Gooch made his debut in Test cricket in 1975 at 21 against the touring Australia side captained by Ian Chappell, his debut was not a great success as Gooch got a pair, England lost the first Test by an innings and 85 runs.
In the second Ashes Test in the series he scored 6 and 31 and was dropped from the side. He was not selected again until 1978 where his scoring rate for Essex meant that he could not be ignored and he became a mainstay in the England line-up. In 1980 he was awarded the Wisden Cricketer of the Year. Gooch had a further hiatus in his career when he went on the controversial 1982 South African rebel tour, which resulted in all of the players concerned, including Geoff Boycott, Alan Knott and Bob Woolmer, being banned from Test cricket for three years. Geoffrey Boycott was perceived as the key player organising the tour party but it was Graham Gooch who captained the team who gained the most media attention and in some cases vilification. Gooch was not handed the captaincy, it could be argued that more attention was on Gooch however as he was reaching his peak as a Test Player, others were in the twilight years of their cricket careers and so the ban was arguably felt more acutely by the captain.
Gooch claimed in the film "Out of the Wilderness" that'others' decided he "had no place in England cricket", hence his decision to join the tour. Upon the expiration of the ban, Gooch was restored to the England team in 1985. Opting to miss the 1986–87 tour of Australia for personal reasons, a severe loss of form resulted in failing to win back his England place for the 1987 summer and Test series against Pakistan – indeed at one stage he was dropped to the Second XI at Essex: but his form returned at the end of the summer, with a superb century in the MCC Bicentennial match, he returned to the England team for the Cricket World Cup in India and Pakistan, the subsequent winter tour of Pakistan. His career blossomed after being appointed captain, a position he held twice: firstly, at the end of the "summer of four captains" in 1988, as a replacement for the injured Chris Cowdrey. In his first match, England at least showed some spirit, taking a first-innings lead for the only time in the series: but Gooch's second-innings 84 stood alone as the rest of the batting collapsed, England losing the match.
His second match, the one-off Test against Sri Lanka, was won, all seemed fair for Gooch to remain as captain for the tour of India that winter. But that tour was cancelled over the Indian government's refusal to grant visas to the eight players who had sporting links with South Africa, including Gooch himself. Gower was thus returned as captain for the losing 1989 Ashes series – in which, for a second time, Gooch's loss of form with the bat resulted in his being dropped, by his own request this time. After Gower's resignation following the 4–0 Ashes defeat of 1989, the loss of a large number of players with Test experience to a second rebel tour of South Africa under Gatting, Gooch was re-appointed captain for the 1989–90 winter tour of the West Indies. England unexpectedly won the first Test, England's first victory over the Windies since 1973 and came close to winning the 3rd. However, Gooch suffered a broken hand and missed the rest of the tour – England lost the two remaining matches and the series.
Returning for the summer of 1990, Gooch had a golden summer both as batsman and captain against India and New Zealand, scoring runs at will. Gooch scored a record 456 runs in the Lord's Test against India in 1990, 333 in the first innings and 123 in the second. Kumar Sangakkara of Sri Lanka is the only other player to score a triple century in the first innings and a century in the second innings
Nicotine marketing is the marketing of nicotine-containing products or use. Traditionally, the tobacco industry markets cigarette smoking, but it is marketing other products, such as e-cigarettes. Products are marketed through social media, stealth marketing, mass media, sponsorship. Expenditures on nicotine marketing are in the tens of billions a year. Nicotine marketing is regulated; the World Health Organization recommends a complete tobacco advertising ban. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing in increasing consumption of tobacco products is documented. Advertisements cause new people to become addicted when they are minors. Ads keep established smokers from quitting. Advertising peaks in January, when the most people are trying to quit, although the most people take up smoking in the summer; the tobacco industry has claimed that ads are only about "brand preference", encouraging existing smokers to switch to and stick to their brand. There is, substantial evidence that ads cause people to become, stay, addicted.
Marketing is used to oppose regulation of nicotine marketing and other tobacco control measures, both directly and indirectly, for instance by improving the image of the nicotine industry and reducing criticism from youth and community groups. Industry charity and sports sponsorships are publicized, portraying the industry as sharing the values of the target audience. Marketing is used to normalize the industry. Marketing is used to give the impression that nicotine companies are responsible, "Open and Honest"; this is done through an emphasis on informed choice and "anti-teen-smoking" campaigns, although such ads have been criticized as counterproductive by independent groups. Magazines, but not newspapers, that get revenue from nicotine advertising are less to run stories critical of nicotine products. Internal documents show that the industry used its influence with the media to shape coverage of news, such as a decision not to mandate health warnings on cigarette packages or a debate over advertising restrictions.
Counter-marketing is used by public health groups and governments. The addictiveness and health effects of nicotine use are described, as these are the themes missing from pro-tobacco marketing; because it harms public health, nicotine marketing is regulated. Advertising restrictions shift marketing spending to unrestricted media. Banned on television, ads move to print. Unlike conventional advertising, stealth marketing is not attributed to the organization behind it; this neutralizes mistrust of tobacco companies, widespread among children and the teenagers who provide the industry with most new addicts. Another method of evading restrictions is to sell less-regulated nicotine products instead of the ones for which advertising is more regulated. For instance, while TV ads of cigarettes are banned in the United States, similar TV ads of e-cigarettes are not; the most effective media are banned first, meaning advertisers need to spend more money to addict the same number of people. Comprehensive bans can make it impossible to substitute other forms of advertising, leading to actual falls in consumption.
However, skillful use of allowed media can increase advertising exposure. S. children to nicotine advertising is increasing as of 2018. Nicotine advertising uses specific techniques, but uses multiple methods simultaneously. For instance, the ad illustrated in this section uses many of the techniques discussed below, its tagline reads making use of reactance. The model's gesture echoes earlier ads; the 1999-2000 "Find your voice" ad campaign, of which this ad was a part, was criticized as offensive to smokers who have lost their voices to throat cancer, as targeting minority women and seeking to associate itself with empowerment, self-expression, women's rights, sexual allure. Nicotine marketing makes extensive use of reactance, the feeling that one is being unreasonably controlled. Reactance motivates rebellion, in behaviour or belief, which demonstrates that the control was ineffective, restoring the feeling of freedom. Ads thus explicitly tell the viewer to use nicotine. Instead, they suggest using nicotine as a way to rebel and be free.
This marketing message is at odds with the feelings of smokers, who feel trapped by their addiction and unable to quit. Mention of addiction is avoided in nicotine advertising. Reactance can be eliminated by concealing attempts to manipulate or control behaviour. Unlike conventional advertising, stealth marketing is not attributed to the organization behind it; this neutralizes mistrust of tobacco companies, widespread among children and the teenagers who provide the industry with most new addicts. The internet and social media are suited to stealth an
Sir Isaac Vivian Alexander Richards, KNH, OBE, known as Viv Richards, is an Antiguan former cricketer, who represented the West Indies at test and international levels. He is regarded as one of the greatest batsmen of all time. Richards was voted one of the five Cricketers of the Century by a 100-member panel of experts in 2000, along with Sir Donald Bradman, Sir Garfield Sobers, Sir Jack Hobbs and Shane Warne, he is the mentor of T20 team Quetta Gladiators in Pakistan Super League. In one-day cricket, Richards was judged by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack to have played the best One Day International innings of all time. In December 2002, he was chosen by Wisden as the greatest ODI batsman of all time, as well as the third greatest Test batsman of all time, after Sir Don Bradman and Sachin Tendulkar, his consistent batting ability is regarded. Overall, Richards scored 8,540 runs in 121 Test matches at an average of 50.23, including 24 centuries. As a captain, he won 27 of 50 Test matches and lost only 8.
He scored nearly 7,000 runs in One Day Internationals and more than 36,000 in first-class cricket. Knighted for his contributions to cricket, today Richards is an occasional cricket commentator and team mentor. Richards was born to Malcolm and Gretel Richards in St. John's, Antigua part of the British Leeward Islands, he attended St. John's Boys Primary School and Antigua Grammar Secondary School on a scholarship. Richards discovered cricket at a young age, his brothers and Donald, both played the game, representing Antigua as amateurs, they encouraged him to play. The young Viv practised with his father and Pat Evanson, a neighbour and family friend, who had captained the Antigua side. Richards left school aged 18, worked at D'Arcy's Bar and Restaurant in St. John's, he joined St. John's Cricket Club and the owner of the restaurant where he worked, D'Arcy Williams, provided him with new whites, pads and a bat. After a few seasons with St. John's C. C. he joined Rising Sun Cricket Club. Richards made his first-class debut in January 1972 when he was 19.
He took part in a non-competition match, representing the Leeward Islands against the Windwards: Richards made 20 and 26. His competitive debut followed a few days later. Playing in the domestic West Indian Shell Shield for the Combined Leeward and Windward Islands in Kingston, Jamaica versus Jamaica, he scored 15 and 32, top-scoring in the second innings in a heavy defeat for his side. By the time Richards was 22, he had played matches in the Antigua, Leeward Islands and Combined Islands tournaments. In 1973, his abilities were noticed by Len Creed, Vice Chairman at Somerset, in Antigua at the time as part of a West Country touring side. Richards relocated to the United Kingdom, where Creed arranged for him to play league cricket for Lansdown C. C. in Bath. He made his Lansdown debut, as part of the second XI, at Weston-super-Mare on 26 April 1973. Richards was employed by the club as assistant groundsman to head groundsman, John Heyward, to allow him some financial independence until his career was established.
After his debut he was promoted to the first team where he was introduced to the Lansdown all-rounder "Shandy" Perera from Ceylon. Richards cites Perera as a major influence on his cricket development with regards to post-game analysis, he finished his first season at Lansdown top of the batting averages and shortly afterwards was offered a two-year contract with county side Somerset. Richards moved to Taunton in 1974 in preparation for his professional debut with Somerset CCC where he was assigned living accommodation by the club. On 27 April 1974 Richards made his Benson & Hedges Cup debut for Somerset against Glamorgan in Swansea. Richards was awarded Man of the Match. Richards made his Test match debut for the West Indian cricket team in 1974 against India in Bangalore, he made an unbeaten 192 in the second Test of the same series in New Delhi. The West Indies saw him as a strong opener and he kept his profile up in the early years of his promising career. In 1975 Richards helped the West Indies to win the inaugural Cricket World Cup final, a feat he described as the most memorable of his career.
He starred in the field, running out Ian Chappell and Greg Chappell. The West Indies were again able to win the following World Cup in 1979, thanks to a Richards century in the final at Lord's, Richards believes that on both occasions, despite internal island divisions, the Caribbean came together, he was until 2005 the only man to score a century and take 5 wickets in the same one-day international, against New Zealand at Dunedin in 1986–87. He rescued his side from a perilous position at Old Trafford in 1984 and, in partnership with Michael Holding, smashed 189 to win the game off his own bat. 1976 was Richards' finest year: he scored 1710 runs, at an astonishing average of 90.00, with seven centuries in 11 Tests. This achievement is all the more remarkable considering he missed the second Test at Lord's after contracting glandular fever; this tally stood as the world record for most Test runs by a batsman in a single calendar year for 30 years until broken by Mohammad Yousuf of Pakistan on 30 November 2006.
Richards had a long and successful career in the County Championship in England, playing for many years for Somerset. In 1983, the team won t
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Gloucestershire. Founded in 1870, Gloucestershire have always been first-class and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England; the club played its first senior match in 1870 and W. G. Grace was their captain; the club plays home games at the Bristol County Ground in the Bishopston area of north Bristol. A number of games are played at the Cheltenham cricket festival at the College Ground and matches have been played at the Gloucester cricket festival at The King's School, Gloucester. Gloucestershire's most famous players have been W. G. Grace, whose father founded the club, Wally Hammond, who scored 113 centuries for them; the club has had two notable periods of success: in the 1870s when it was unofficially acclaimed as the Champion County on at least three occasions, from 1999 to 2006 when it won seven limited overs trophies, a "double double" in 1999 and 2000, the Sunday League in 2000.
Champion County – 1874, 1876, 1877. It is known that the related sport of "Stow-Ball" aka "Stob-Ball" was played in the county during the 16th century. In this game, the bat was called a "stave". See Alice B Gomme: The Traditional Games of England and Ireland. A game in Gloucester on 22 September 1729 is the earliest definite reference to cricket in the county. From until the founding of the county club little has been found outside parish cricket. In the early 1840s, Dr Henry Grace and his brother-in-law Alfred Pocock founded the Mangotsfield Cricket Club which merged in 1846 with the West Gloucestershire Cricket Club, whose name was adopted until 1867, after which it became the Gloucestershire County Cricket Club. Grace hoped that Gloucestershire would join the first-class county clubs but the situation was complicated in 1863 by the formation of a rival club called the Cheltenham and Gloucestershire Cricket Club. Dr Grace's club played Gloucestershire's initial first-class match versus Surrey at Durdham Down in Bristol on 2, 3 & 4 June 1870.
Gloucestershire joined the County Championship at this time but the existence of the Cheltenham club seems to have forestalled the installation of its "constitutional trappings". The Cheltenham club was wound up in March 1871 and its chief officials accepted positions in the hierarchy of Gloucestershire. So, although the exact details and dates of the county club's foundation are uncertain, it has always been assumed that the year was 1870 and the club celebrated its centenary in 1970. What is certain is that Dr Grace was able to form the county club because of its playing strength his three sons WG, EM and Fred; the early history of Gloucestershire is dominated by the Grace family, most notably W G Grace, the club's original captain and held that post until his departure for London in 1899. His brother E M Grace, although still an active player, was the original club secretary. With the Grace brothers and Billy Midwinter in their team, Gloucestershire won three Champion County titles in the 1870s.
Since Gloucestershire's fortunes have been mixed and they have never won the official County Championship. They struggled in the pre-war years of the County Championship because their best batsmen, apart from Gilbert Jessop and Charlie Townsend, were rarely available; the bowling, except when Townsend did sensational things on sticky wickets in late 1895 and late 1898, was weak until George Dennett emerged – it had the fault of depending far too much on him. Wally Hammond, who still holds many of the county's batting records formed part of an strong inter-war team, although the highest championship finish during this period was second in 1930 and 1931, when Charlie Parker and Tom Goddard formed a devastating spin attack. Outstanding players since the war include Tom Graveney, "Jack" Russell and overseas players Mike Procter, Zaheer Abbas and Courtney Walsh. Gloucestershire was successful in one-day cricket in the late 1990s and early 2000s winning several titles under the captaincy of Mark Alleyne and coaching of John Bracewell.
The club operated on a small budget and was famed as a team greater than the sum of its parts, boasting few international stars. Gloucestershire's overall knockout record between 1999 and 2002 was 28 wins and seven losses from 37 games, including 16 wins from 18 at the Bristol County Ground; the club's run of success started by defeating Yorkshire to win the Benson & Hedges Super Cup in 1999 before beating neighbours Somerset in the 1999 NatWest Trophy final at Lord's. In 2000 Gloucestershire completed a hat-trick of one-day titles, winning all the domestic limited overs tournaments, the Benson and Hedges Cup, the C&G Trophy and the Sunday League in the same season; the club maintained its success winning the C&G Trophy in 2003 and 2004, beating Worcestershire in the final on both occasions. The club's captain f
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Somerset County Cricket Club
Somerset County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Somerset; the club's limited overs team was the Somerset Sabres, but is now known only as Somerset. Somerset's early history is complicated by arguments about its status, it is regarded as a minor county from its foundation in 1875 until 1890, apart from the 1882 to 1885 seasons when it is considered by substantial sources to have been an unofficial first-class team, holding important match status. There are, two matches involving W. G. Grace in 1879 and 1881 which are considered first-class by some authorities. In 1891, Somerset joined the County Championship, which had just become an recognised competition, has important match status from 1891 to 1894; the county is classified as an official first-class team from 1895 by Marylebone Cricket Club and the County Championship clubs. Somerset have never won the County Championship, their highest finish being second, which they achieved in 2001, 2010, 2012, 2016 and 2018.
The club won their first silverware in the late 1970s, winning both the Gillette Cup and John Player League in 1979. In the years since, Somerset have experienced some success in one-day cricket, winning the Gillette Cup on two further occasions, the Benson & Hedges Cup twice and the John Player League once more; the team has reached the final of the Twenty20 cup competition on four occasions, winning it in 2005. The club has its headquarters at the County Ground, where in the present-day all of its games are played. Since 2005, Somerset play at Taunton Vale against MCC Universities teams; the club have played at a number of other grounds in their past, with a significant number of matches at Clarence Park, Weston-super-Mare and the Recreation Ground, Bath. One Day Cup – 1979, 1983, 2001 National League – 1979 Benson & Hedges Cup – 1981, 1982 Twenty20 Cup – 2005 Minor Counties Championship – 1961, 1965 Second XI Championship – 1994, 2004 In the seventeenth century, the related sport of "Stow-Ball", or "Stob-Ball" was being played in north Somerset, as in neighbouring Gloucestershire and Wiltshire, as well as parts of Dorset.
This sport most used either the base of a tree or its remaining stump as its wicket, as both'stow' and'stob' are dialect words for'stump'. However,'stow' could refer to a frame used to support crawling tunnels in mines such as those lead mines in north Somerset, providing another possibility for the wicket; the ball was made of a leather case, stuffed with boiled quills, was four inches in diameter the same size as a modern softball, while the bats, known as'staves' were shaped to a field hockey stick and made of withy or willow. The earliest confirmed reference to cricket in Somerset is a match on 13 July 1751, played in memory of the late Frederick, Prince of Wales, a noted patron of the sport; the first organised club to be recognised in Somerset was Lansdown Cricket Club, formed in 1825, although a Bath cricket club seems to have preceded it with a similar collection of enthusiasts from around 1817–1824. With a limited number of other organised clubs to play, fixtures were few and far apart in the founding years, with matches being played against Clifton and Teignmouth.
Lansdown placed Somerset in the cricketing world, played a number of matches against'England XI' in various forms. In 1865, the first attempt at a county side was made with the formation of Yeovil and County Cricket Club, they performed poorly in their opening matches against local club sides, on one occasion lost three players to their opposition the day before the match was scheduled to begin. In spite of these problems, they did play a'county' fixture, against the Gentlemen of Devon; the first recorded occasion of a Gentlemen of Somerset side playing comes five years however, when a Somerset side travelled down to Culm Vale to take on the Gentlemen of Devon, this match resulting in a draw. The formation of Somerset County Cricket Club was decided in 1875 after the playing of one such match between the Gentlemen of Somerset and the Gentlemen of Devon at Sidmouth in Devon. Having played a two-day match, which the Somerset team won by eight wickets, the Gentlemen of Somerset and their friends held a meeting and resolved the Somerset should have its own county cricket club.
Somerset is the only one of the present first-class counties in English cricket whose county cricket club was founded outside the boundaries of the traditional county. After their resolution, the gentlemen continued playing games under the name Gentlemen of Somerset, but their fixtures became more regular; the following 1878 season, two matches were played by a Somerset team. In 1879, Somerset played. During these early seasons, Somerset were never far from insolvency. An initial letter sent out after the formation of the club had only managed to raise £70 17s, while gate receipts in t