Banten is the westernmost province on the island of Java, in Indonesia. Its provincial capital city is Serang; the province bordered West Java and the Special Capital Region of Jakarta to the east, the Java Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, the Sunda Strait to the west, which separates Java and the neighbouring island of Sumatra. The population of Banten was estimated at 11,834,087 at the start of 2014, up from over 10.6 million during the 2010 census. Part of the province of West Java, Banten became a separate province in 2000; the province is a transit corridor to the neighbouring Indonesian island of Sumatra. It has had a culture distinct from the rest of Java and that of the broader Indonesian archipelago. In recent years, the northern half those areas near Jakarta and the Java Sea coast, have experienced rapid rises in population and urbanization, while the southern half that facing the Indian Ocean, maintains more of its traditional character. Centuries ago, the area in what-is-now Banten is ruled by the Sundanese Tarumanagara kingdom.
After the fall of the Tarumanegara, Banten was controlled by many Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, such as the Srivijaya Empire and the Sunda Kingdom. The spread of Islam in the region begins in the 15th century. By the late 16th century, Islam has replaced Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion in the province, with the establishment of the Banten Sultanate. At that time however, Europeans traders started arriving in the region; the first was the Portuguese the British and the Dutch. In the end, through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch controlled the economy in the region, causing a gradual decline of the Banten Sultanate in the region. On 22 November 1808, the Dutch Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels declared that the Sultanate of Banten had been absorbed into the territory of the Dutch East Indies; this marked the beginning of direct Dutch rule in the region for the next 150 years. In March 1942, the Japanese invaded the Indies and occupied the region for 3 years, before they surrendered in August 1945.
The area was returned to Dutch control for 5 years, before they handed the region to the new Indonesian government when the Dutch left in 1950. Banten was absorbed into the province of West Java. However, separatist sentiment led to the creation of the province of Banten in 2000. A diverse province, Banten is populated by many ethnic groups, the most dominant being the Bantenese, a sub-group of the Sundanese people. Therefore, the Sundanese language forms the lingua franca of the province, although Indonesian is the main official language; the Javanese language is spoken by many Javanese migrants from Central or East Java. In the Lebak Regency lives the semi-isolated Baduy people, who spoke the Baduy language, an archaic form of the Sundanese language. Nonetheless, most of the people in Banten can speak Indonesian fluently as their second language; the name "Banten" turns out to have several possible origins. The first possible origins comes from the Sundanese phrase katiban inten, which means "struck down by diamonds".
The phrase comes from the history of the Bantenese people, who were animist embraced Buddhism or Hinduism. After Islam began to spread in Banten, the community began to embrace Islam; this spread of Islam in Banten is described as "struck down by diamonds". Another story about the origin of the name "Banten" is when the Hindu God Batara Guru Jampang traveled from east to west arrived at a place called Surasowan; when arriving in Surasowan, Batara Guru Jampang sits on a rock, called watu gilang. The stone was glowing, presented to King Surasowan, it was told that Surasowan was surrounded by a clear river of water, as if this country was surrounded by stars. The place is described as a ring covered with diamonds, which evolved into the name "Banten". Another possible origin is that "Banten" comes from the Indonesian word bantahan, because the local Bantenese people resisted to be subjected to regulations enacted by the Dutch colonial government at that time. Apart from the story of the origin of the name "Banten" mentioned above, the word "Banten" has appeared long before the establishment of the Banten Sultanate.
This word is used to name a river, namely the Cibanten River. The higher plains on the edge of Cibanten River are called Cibanten Girang, abbreviated as Banten Girang. Based on the results of research conducted in Banten Girang, there have been settlements in this area since the 11-12th century. In the 16th century, this area developed rapidly; the development of settlements in Banten Girang extends towards Serang and towards the northern coast. The coastal area would became the Sultanate of Banten, founded by Sunan Gunung Jati; this Sultanate controlled all terriitory of the former Sunda Kingdom in West Java. But Sunda Kelapa or Batavia were captured by the Dutch, while Cirebon and the Parahiyangan region were captured by the Mataram Sultanate; the territory of the former Banten Sultanate was converted to a residentie by the Dutch. In the 5th century, Banten was part of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara; the Lebak relic inscriptions, found in lowland villages on the edge of the Cidanghiyang River in Munjul, Pandeglang were discovered in 1947 and contains two lines of poetry with Pallawa script and Sanskrit language.
The inscriptions which tells the life in the Tarumanegara kingdom under the reign of Purnawarman. After the collapse of the Tarumanagara kingdom, due to an attack by Srivijaya, power in western Java fell to the Kingdom of Sunda; the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 122
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Betawi people or Betawis, are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the city of Jakarta and its immediate outskirts, as such described as the native inhabitants of the city. They are the descendants of the people. However, the term "native" itself is questionable, since the Betawi people emerged in the 18th century as an amalgamation of various immigrant ethnic groups into Batavia; the Betawis are one of the youngest. They are a creole ethnic group in that their ancestors came from various parts of Indonesia and abroad. Prior to the 19th century, the self-identity of Betawi people was not yet formed. In the 17th century, Dutch colonials began to import servants and labours from all over the archipelago into Batavia. One of the earliest were Balinese slaves bought from Ambonese mercenaries. Subsequently, other ethnic groups followed suit. Foreign ethnic groups were included. Circa 17th to 18th century, the dwellers of Batavia were identified according to their ethnics of origin; this was shown in the Batavia census record that listed the immigrant's ethnic background of Batavian citizens.
They were separated into specific ethnic-based enclaves kampungs, why in today's Jakarta there are some regions named after an ethnic-specific names such as. These ethnic groups formed around the 18th to 19th centuries, it was not until late 19th or early 20th century that the group — who would become the dwellers of Batavia, referred to themselves as "Betawi", which refers to a creole Malay-speaking ethnic group which has a mixed culture of different influences. The term "Betawi" was first listed as an ethnic category in 1930 census of Batavia residents; the Betawi people have a language distinct from the surrounding Sundanese and Javanese. The Betawis are known for their traditions in food; the Betawi are part of the Malay family, because their traditions and language are categorized into the Malay culture. The Betawi language—also known as Betawi Malay, is a Malay-based creole language, it was the only Malay-based dialect spoken on the northern coast of Java. Betawi vocabulary has many Hokkien Chinese and Dutch loanwords.
Today the Betawi language is a popular informal language in Indonesia and used as the base of Indonesian slang. It has become one of the most widely-spoken languages in Indonesia, one of the most active local dialects in the country. A majority of the Betawi people follow Sunni Islam. However, there are a significant number. Among the Betawi ethnic Christians, some have claimed that they are the descendants of the Portuguese Mardijker which intermarried with the local population, who settled in the area of Kampung Tugu, North Jakarta. Although today Betawi culture is perceived as a Muslim culture, it had other roots which includes Christian Portuguese and Chinese Peranakan culture. There is an ongoing debate on defining Betawi culture and identity—as mainstream Betawi organizations are criticized for only accommodating Muslim Betawi while marginalizing non-Muslim elements within Betawi culture—such as Portuguese Christian Betawi Tugu and Tangerang Cina Benteng community; the culture and artform of the Betawi people demonstrate the influences experienced by them throughout their history.
Foreign influences are visible, such as Portuguese and Chinese influences on their musics, Sundanese and Chinese influences in their dances. Contrary to popular perception, which believed that Betawi culture is marginalized and under pressure from the more dominant neighbouring Javanese and Sundanese culture—Betawi culture is thriving, since it is being adopted by immigrants who has settled in Jakarta; the Betawi culture has become an identity for the city, promoted through municipal government patronage. The Betawi dialect is spoken in TV shows and drama; the Gambang kromong and Tanjidor, as well as Keroncong Kemayoran music is derived from the kroncong music of Portuguese Mardijker people of Tugu area, North Jakarta. The Ondel-ondel large bamboo masked-puppet giant effigy is similar to Chinese-Balinese Barong Landung and Sundanese Badawang, the artforms of masked dance; the traditional Betawi dances costumes shows both Chinese and European influences, while the movements such as Yapong dance, derived from Sundanese Jaipongan dance with a hint of Chinese style.
Another dance is Topeng Betawi mask dance. Betawi popular folk drama is called lenong, a form of theater that draw themes from local urban legends, foreign stories to everyday life of Betawi people. Silat Betawi is a martial art of Betawi people, not quite popular, but has gained wider attention thanks to the popularity of silat films, such as The Raid. Betawi martial art was rooted in Betawi culture of jagoan that during colonial times went against colonial authority. In Betawi dialect, their style of pencak silat is called maen pukulan whi
Royal Netherlands East Indies Army
The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies, in areas that are now part of Indonesia. The KNIL's air arm was the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force. Elements of the Royal Netherlands Navy were stationed in the Netherlands East Indies; the KNIL was formed by royal decree on 14 september 1814. It was not part of the Royal Netherlands Army, but a separate military arm formed for service in the Netherlands East Indies, its establishment coincided with the Dutch drive to expand colonial rule from the 17th century area of control to the far larger territories constituting the Dutch East Indies seventy years later. The KNIL was involved in many campaigns against indigenous groups in the area including the Padri War, the Java War, crushing the final resistance of Bali inhabitants to colonial rule in 1849, the prolonged Aceh War. In 1894, Lombok and Karangasem were annexed in response to reports of the local Balinese aristocracy oppressing the native Sasak people.
Bali was taken under full control with the Dutch intervention in Bali and the final Dutch intervention in Bali. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the KNIL resumed the conquest of the Indonesian archipelago. After 1904 the Netherlands East Indies were considered pacified, with no large-scale armed opposition to Dutch rule until World War II, the KNIL served a defensive role protecting the Dutch East Indies from the possibility of foreign invasion. Once the archipelago was considered pacified the KNIL was involved with military policing tasks. To ensure a sizeable European military segment in the KNIL and reduce costly recruitment in Europe, the colonial government introduced obligatory military service for all resident male conscripts in the European legal class in 1917. In 1922 a supplemental legal enactment introduced the creation of Home Guard for European conscripts older than 32. No large-scale armed threat to Dutch rule existed until World War II. Dutch forces in the Netherlands East Indies were weakened by the defeat and occupation of the Netherlands itself, by Nazi Germany, in 1940.
The KNIL was cut off except by Royal Netherlands Navy units. The KNIL, hastily and inadequately, attempted to transform into a modern military force able to protect the Dutch East Indies from foreign invasion. By December 1941, Dutch forces in Indonesia numbered around 85,000 personnel: regular troops consisted of about 1,000 officers and 34,000 enlisted soldiers, of whom 28,000 were indigenous; the remainder were made up of locally organised militia, territorial guard units and civilian auxiliaries. The KNIL air force, Militaire Luchtvaart KNIL numbered 389 planes of all types, but was outclassed by superior Japanese planes; the Royal Netherlands Navy Air Service, or MLD had significant forces in the NEI. During the Dutch East Indies campaign of 1941–42, most of the KNIL and other Allied forces were defeated. Most European soldiers, which in practice included all able bodied Indo-European males, were interned by the Japanese as POWs. 25% of the POWs did not survive their internment. A handful of soldiers indigenous personnel, mounted guerilla campaigns against the Japanese.
These were unknown to, unassisted by, the Allies until the end of the war. During early 1942, some KNIL personnel escaped to Australia; some indigenous personnel were interned in Australia under suspicion of sympathies with the Japanese. The remainder began a long process of re-grouping. In late 1942, a failed attempt to land in East Timor, to reinforce Australian commandos waging a guerrilla campaign ended with the loss of 60 Dutch personnel. Four "Netherlands East Indies" squadrons were formed from ML-KNIL personnel, under the auspices of the Royal Australian Air Force, with Australian ground staff. KNIL infantry forces, were augmented by recruitment among Dutch expatriates around the world and by colonial troops from as far away as the Dutch West Indies. During 1944 -- 45, some small units saw action in Borneo campaign. Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger or KNIL, commanded by Lt. Gen. Hein Ter Poorten. 1st Military Area, overseeing western part of Java, coterminous with 1st Infantry Division, commanded by Maj. Gen. W. Schilling.
Combat units: 1st Infantry regiment, based in Weltevreden, commanded by Col. Struivenberg HQ Company Motorized Infantry company of 1st Infantry Regiment Heavy Infantry company of 1st Infantry regiment 10th Infantry battalion, based in Weltevreden 11th Infantry battalion, based in Meester Cornelis 12th Infantry battalion, based in Meester Cornelis, commanded by Capt. F. A. M. Harterink 14th Infantry battalion, based in Buitenzorg 2nd Infantry regiment, based in Bandoeng, commanded by Col. Toorop HQ Company Motorized Infantry company of 2nd Infantry Regiment Heavy Infantry company of 2nd Infantry regiment 4th Infantry battalion, based in Tjimahi 9th Infantry battalion, based in Bandoeng 15th Infantry battalion, based in Bandoeng Mobile battalion, based in Bandoeng, commanded by Capt. G. J. Wulfhorst Reconnaissance platoon, commanded by Lt. van Hellenberg Hubar Armored company, commanded by Capt. Bakhuis 1st Armored platoon, commanded by Lt. Christian 2nd Armored platoon, commanded by Lt. Cox 3rd Armored platoon, commanded by Sgt.
Maj. Verboeken Mechanized Infantry company, commanded by Capt. Brendgen 1st Mechanized Infantry platoon, commanded by Lt. Rheasa 2nd Mechanized I
Indonesian National Revolution
The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence, was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia. It took place between Indonesia's declaration of independence in 1945 and the Netherlands' recognition of Indonesia's independence at the end of 1949; the four-year struggle involved sporadic but bloody armed conflict, internal Indonesian political and communal upheavals, two major international diplomatic interventions. Dutch military forces were able to control the major towns and industrial assets in Republican heartlands on Java and Sumatra but could not control the countryside. By 1949, international pressure on the Netherlands and the partial military stalemate became such that it recognised Indonesian independence; the revolution marked the end of the colonial administration of the Dutch East Indies, except for Netherlands New Guinea. It significantly changed ethnic castes as well as reducing the power of many of the local rulers.
It did not improve the economic or political fortune of the majority of the population, although a few Indonesians were able to gain a larger role in commerce. The Indonesian independence movement began in May 1908, commemorated as the "Day of National Awakening". Indonesian nationalism and movements supporting independence from Dutch colonialism, such as Budi Utomo, the Indonesian National Party, Sarekat Islam and the Indonesian Communist Party, grew in the first half of the 20th century. Budi Utomo, Sarekat Islam and others pursued strategies of co-operation by joining the Dutch initiated Volksraad in the hope that Indonesia would be granted self-rule. Others chose a non-cooperative strategy demanding the freedom of self-government from the Dutch East Indies colony; the most notable of these leaders were Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, two students and nationalist leaders who had benefited from the educational reforms of the Dutch Ethical Policy. The occupation of Indonesia by Japan for three and a half years during World War II was a crucial factor in the subsequent revolution.
The Netherlands had little ability to defend its colony against the Japanese army, within only three months of their initial attacks, the Japanese had occupied the Dutch East Indies. In Java, to a lesser extent in Sumatra, the Japanese spread and encouraged nationalist sentiment. Although this was done more for Japanese political advantage than from altruistic support of Indonesian independence, this support created new Indonesian institutions and elevated political leaders such as Sukarno. Just as for the subsequent revolution, the Japanese destroyed and replaced much of the Dutch-created economic and political infrastructure. On 7 September 1944, with the war going badly for the Japanese, Prime Minister Koiso promised independence for Indonesia, but no date was set. For supporters of Sukarno, this announcement was seen as vindication for his collaboration with the Japanese. Under pressure from radical and politicised pemuda groups and Hatta proclaimed Indonesian independence, on 17 August 1945, two days after the Japanese Emperor's surrender in the Pacific.
The following day, the Central Indonesian National Committee elected Sukarno as President, Hatta as Vice-President. PROCLAMATION We, the people of Indonesia, hereby declare the independence of Indonesia. Matters which concern the transfer of power etc. will be executed by careful means and in the shortest possible time. Djakarta, 17 August 1945 In the name of the people of Indonesia, Soekarno—Hatta It was mid-September before news of the declaration of independence spread to the outer islands, many Indonesians far from the capital Jakarta did not believe it; as the news spread, most Indonesians came to regard themselves as pro-Republican, a mood of revolution swept across the country. External power had shifted; these strikes were only broken in July 1946. The Japanese, on the other hand, were required by the terms of the surrender to both lay down their arms and maintain order; the resulting power vacuums in the weeks following the Japanese surrender, created an atmosphere of uncertainty, but one of opportunity for the Republicans.
Many pemuda joined pro-Republic struggle groups. The most disciplined were disbanded Giyugun and Heiho groups. Many groups were undisciplined, due to both the circumstances of their formation and what they perceived as revolutionary spirit. In the first weeks, Japanese troops withdrew from urban areas to avoid confrontations. By September 1945, control of major infrastructure installations, including railway stations and trams in Java's largest cities, had been taken over by Republican pemuda who encountered little Japanese resistance. To spread the revolutionary message, pemuda set up their own radio stations and newspapers, graffiti proclaimed the nationalist sentiment. On most islands, struggle committees and militia were set up. Republican newspa
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
The Sundanese are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java. They number 40 million, form Indonesia's second most populous ethnic group, after the neighboring Javanese. In their language, the Sundanese refer to themselves as Urang Sunda, while Orang Sunda or Suku Sunda is its Indonesian equivalent; the Sundanese have traditionally been concentrated in the provinces of West Java, Banten and the western part of Central Java. Sundanese migrants can be found in Lampung and South Sumatra, to lesser extent in Central Java and East Java; the name Sunda derives from the Sanskrit prefix su- which means "goodness" or "possessing good quality". An example is suvarna used to describe gold. Sunda is another name for Hindu God Vishnu. In Sanskrit, the term Sundara or Sundari means "beautiful" or "excellence"; the term Sunda means bright, purity and white. The Sundanese are of Austronesian origins who are thought to have originated in Taiwan, migrated through the Philippines, reached Java between 1,500 BC and 1,000 BC.
There is a hypothesis that argues that the Austronesian ancestors of contemporary Sundanese people came from Sundaland, a sunken massive peninsula that today forms the Java Sea, the Malacca and Sunda straits, the islands between them. According to recent genetic study, together with Javanese and Balinese has equal ratio of genetic marker shared between Austronesian and Austroasiatic heritages; the Sunda Wiwitan belief contains the mythical origin of Sundanese people. The oldest of these bataras is called Batara Cikal and is considered the ancestor of the Kanekes people. Other six bataras ruled various locations in Sunda lands in Western Java. A Sundanese legend of Sangkuriang contain the memory of the prehistoric ancient lake in Bandung basin highland, which suggest that Sundanese inhabit the region since Mesolithic era, at least 20,000 years ago. Another popular Sundanese proverb and legend mentioned about the creation of Parahyangan highlands, the heartland of Sundanese realm; this legend suggested the Parahyangan highland as the playland or the abode of gods, as well as suggesting its natural beauty.
The earliest historical polity which appeared in the Sundanese realm in the Western part of Java was the kingdom of Tarumanagara, which flourished between the 4th and 7th century. Hindu influences reached the Sundanese people as early as the 4th century CE as is evident in Tarumanagara inscriptions; the adoption of this dharmic faith in Sundanese way of life was, never as intense as their Javanese counterparts. It seems that despite the central court beginning to adopt Hindu-Buddhist culture and institution, the majority of common Sundanese still retained their native natural and ancestral worship. By the 4th century, the older megalithic culture was still alive and well next to the penetrating Hindu influences. Court cultures flourished in ancient times, for example, during the era of Sunda Kingdom, however the Sundanese appear not to have had the resources nor desire to construct large religious monuments similar to those built by Javanese in Central and East Java; the traditional rural Sundanese method of rice farming, by ladang or huma, in contrast to Javanese irrigated sawah wet rice cultivation contributed to small populations of sparsely inhabited Sundanese villages.
Geographic constraints that isolate each region led Sundanese villages to enjoy their simple way of life and their independence more. That was the factor that would contribute to the carefree nature, conservative and somewhat individualistic social outlook of Sundanese people; the Sundanese seem to love and revere their nature in spiritual ways, leading to them adopting some taboos in order to conserve the nature and maintain the ecosystem. The conservative tendency and their somewhat opposition to foreign influences, is demonstrated in extreme isolationist measures adopted keenly by Kanekes or Baduy people, they have rules against interacting with outsiders and adopting foreign ideas and ways of life. They have set some taboos, such as not cutting trees nor harming forest creatures, in order to conserve their natural ecosystem. One of the earliest historical records that mentions the name "Sunda" appears in the Sanghyang Tapak inscription dated 952 saka discovered in Cibadak, near Sukabumi.
In 1225, a Chinese writer named Chou Ju-kua, in his book Chu-fan-chi, describes the port of Sin-t'o, which refers to the port of Banten or Kalapa. By examining these records, it seems that the name "Sunda" started to appear in the early 11th century as a Javanese term used to designate their western neighbours. A Chinese source more refers to it as the port of Banten or Sunda Kelapa. After the formation and consolidation of the Sunda Kingdom's unity and identity during the Pajajaran era under the rule of Sri Baduga Maharaja, the shared common identity of Sundanese people was more established, they adopted the name "Sunda" to identify their people and their language. Inland Pasundan is mountainous and hilly, until the 19th century, was thickly forested and sparsely populated; the Sundanese traditionally live in small and isolat