Bentley Turbo R
The Bentley Turbo R is a high-performance automobile which was produced by Bentley Motors Limited from 1985 to 1999. The R stood for roadholding, to set it apart from its predecessor and it initially inherited the turbocharged engine from the Mulsanne Turbo and sported a retuned suspension and wider tires on alloy wheels, a first for a Bentley. From the 1987 model year, the Turbo Rs V8 engine was retuned with fuel injection for added torque. Motor Trend called the Turbo R the first Bentley in decades deserving of the name in their review of the car on its introduction to the United States in 1989. The suspension changes, though subtle, transformed the soft. This goal was met by upping the anti-roll bar rates by 100% in front and 60% in the rear, a Panhard rod to anchor the rear sub-frame was introduced, reducing side-to-side movement in corners. Spring rates remained the same as on the Mulsanne, although official figures were never provided by Rolls-Royce, Motor Trend estimated power output at 221 kW with 660 N·m of torque.
Priced at US$195,000 in the US market, the Turbo R slotted above the Bentley Mulsanne S and Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit, the Turbo R was sold alongside the Mulsanne Turbo for a brief moment, but the Mulsanne was taken out of production in 1985. In October 1986, for the 1987 model year, the Turbo R received anti-lock brakes, other modifications carried out at the same time included new, slimmer sports seats and a higher rear axle ratio. In mid-1988 changes to the appearance were made, introducing twin round headlamps, a New Turbo R model was introduced in 1995. Changes included Zytek fuel injection and appearance modifications, there was a special version for the German market, the Turbo R Sport, which featured the Continental Ts sporty alloys and carbon-fibre rather than walnut panels inside. In 1995, the Bentley Turbo S was announced as a limited model. Effectively a stop-gap model before the introduction of the Bentley Arnage, just 60 units were produced, distributed across selected European, Middle Eastern and Asian markets, the same engine was fitted to 12 Bentley Continental S, and 3 to special build Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit S.
The car was fitted with a differential, and with both new 255/55WR17 tyres and traction control fitted, permitted a top speed of 155 miles per hour. In 1996 production of the short wheelbase Turbo R ended, leaving only the model sold as the Turbo RL - now known simply as the Turbo R. For 1998, the Turbo R was replaced by the sportier yet Turbo RT, the Bentley Turbo RT was the last, most powerful and most expensive of the Turbo R line. The Bentley RT came with a 400 bhp 6 and it is visually differentiated from other Bentley Turbo R models by its sport wheels, radiator mesh grille and colour-coded bumpers with bright mesh inserts. Performance was sufficient, with a top speed limited to 150 mph, the cars base price was US$211,600, or roughly US$65,000 more than the Turbo R
Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury — pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity — at increased expense. The term is broad, highly variable and relative and it is a perceptual and subjective attribute that may be comprehended differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. Therefore, automakers differentiate among their product lines in collusion with the car-buying public, while a high price is the most frequent factor, it is styling and even public opinion which cars had the highest and lowest status associated with them. Every era in history has had a group of car marques and models that have been expensive to purchase, due to their alleged superiority of their design. Aimed at wealthy buyers, such automobiles might be generically termed luxury cars and this term is used for unique vehicles produced during an era when luxury was individualistic consideration, and coachwork could be tailored to an owner like a bespoke suit. Although there is literature about specific marques, there is a lack of systematic.
Luxury vehicle makers may either be stand-alone companies in their own right, such as BMW and Mercedes-Benz, badge engineering is often used for cost savings, for example, the Lincoln vehicles that are based on Ford platforms or Acura models derived from Honda. Though widely used, the term luxury is broad and highly variable and it is a perceptual and subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. According to the European Commission, the luxury segment is classified as F-segment. However, the boundaries between the segments are increasingly becoming blurred and diluted as features once exclusive to luxury vehicles become standard equipment on even small cars. ACRISS is a system used by many car rental companies in the US for classifying vehicles. The system includes Luxury and Premium categories, Australia, In Australia, for taxation purposes a luxury car is defined as a passenger car whose value exceeds a certain threshold. France, In France the term voiture de luxe is used, Germany, In Germany the term Upper class is used.
Russia, Russian markets use the term representative class vehicle, the classification varies, for instance Consumer Guide Automotive in the U. S. The premium compact segment is targeted at a market of consumers who found the existing entry-level luxury offerings to be too expensive. By offering a smaller, more fuel-efficient, and less expensive vehicle, premium compacts introduces younger buyers to the luxury marque, in hopes of retaining the coveted customer loyalty. This includes the Acura CSX, Audi A3, Buick Verano, BMW2 Series, BMW i3, Cadillac ELR, Chrysler 200, Lexus CT, Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Saab 9-2X, and the Volvo V40. Premium compacts compete with well-equipped midsize cars, and with options they overlap much with compact executive cars, Premium compacts may share components with mass market cars from the marques parent company, and/or have less sophisticated platforms compared to upmarket vehicles in the lineup
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
The Bentley S3 is a four-door luxury car produced by Bentley from late 1962 until 1965. The S3 was very similar to the S2, with the most-visible exterior difference being a four-headlamp layout reflecting that introduced on the Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud III the same model year, the interior was modified with individual seats for front passengers and increased leg room in the rear. The 6.2 L V8 engine continued with minor modifications, the power steering was improved. Bentley S3 saloon, £6,126, over triple the British-built top of the range Jaguar Mark X £2,022, Park Ward Continental sports saloon, £8,495, a premium of about 40% over an S3. Bentley S3,1286 Bentley S3 long wheelbase,32 The S3 was first announced and displayed at the Paris Motor Show October 1962, in 1959, Rolls-Royce acquired H. J. Mulliner & Co. coachbuilders. In 1961, HJM was merged with Park Ward, which had been in the possession of Rolls-Royce since 1939, to form Mulliner, the S3 Continental was strictly coachbuilt. Most bodies were of the altered HJM style, available in fixed head or drop head coupe form, of the 328 coachbuilt S3, nearly 100 were by MPW.
Again, fixed head or a drop head coupe configurations were available, the most prominent visual difference from the S2 configuration was the four canted headlights. For the first time, this body was offered on the Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud, the final S3 was delivered in 1966, when the new Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow and Bentley T-series were readily available. Like earlier Continentals, the sportier S3 bodywork was manufactured entirely from aluminum, unlike the heavier and this, combined with higher gearing and the better compression ratios made for a markedly faster car. Four-doored Continentals bodied by H. J, another elegant four-door saloon for the S3 Continental came from James Young). Despite being highly desirable the extremely expensive Continentals sold in smaller quantities than the S3 saloon by a factor of four. Bentley S3 Continental,311 Dalton, Rolls Royce - The Elegance Continues, Dalton-Watson Ltd
Bentley Mark V
The Bentley Mark V was Rolls-Royces second Bentley model. Intended to have announced at the Earls Court Motor Show set down for late October 1939 it had much in common with its predecessor. War was declared on 3 September 1939 and a few days Bentley announced it had ceased production of civilian items, the Mark V was sold only as a bare chassis to be fitted with an owners own coachbuilder. It proved to be the last Derby Bentley, after the war moved to Crewe. Piston crowns were raised and rectangular combustion chambers provided, externally an oil filter was mounted on the forward right hand side. Without a beam axle the engine could be mounted forward and particular care was taken to mount it so as to minimise noise. The engine displaced 4¼-litres with an 88.9 mm bore and 114.3 mm stroke, syncromesh was provided on all ratios but first and reverse. Previously it had provided on just third and fourth speeds. This proved a very welcome refinement adding greatly to the pleasure of driving the car.
The gear change lever was moved closer to the driver by the seat squab. The clutch employed an improved design, a new divided transmission shaft eased potential vibration problems. This was the first Bentley to dispense with a front beam axle. It followed Rolls-Royces lead from 1936 and instead used a new design of independent front suspension in its new chassis. Low rate open coil springs sat within pairs of triangulated wishbones holding the front wheels at their outer point. The upper wishbones acted on a hydraulic damper, the arms at the bottom were set wide apart so that the rearward one could act as a torque member under braking. These assemblies on each side were linked by a strong anti-roll bar, by Girling using Rolls-Royces mechanical servo assistance. 57% of the effort was now applied to the front of the car, Chassis B-24-AW Thirty five MK V Chassis were manufactured numbered B-2-AW through to B-70-AW with even numbers only being used. Mark V, seventeen cars completed Corniche MK V, One car completed, the chassis number given was 14-BV Some consider Marks I, II and III to have been Rolls-Royce development vehicles and therefore Mark IV the first Derby 3½-litre and 4¼-litre Bentleys
W. O. Bentley
Walter Owen Bentley, MBE was an English engineer who designed engines for cars and aircraft, raced cars and motorcycles, and founded Bentley Motors Limited in Cricklewood near London. He was known as W. O. without any need to add the word Bentley, born in Hampstead, was the youngest of his Adelaide-born parents’ nine children. His father was retired businessman Alfred Bentley, and mother was Emily and he recalled, The sight of one of Patrick Stirlings eight-foot singles could move me profoundly. My longest day, ” he said, “was London to Leeds and back and this was a total days run of 400 miles, entailing a consumption of about seven tons of coal, every pound of it to be shovelled. He completed his apprenticeship in the summer of 1910 but decided that the railways did not offer him enough scope for a satisfying career, in 1909 and 1910 Bentley raced Quadrant and Indian motorcycles. He competed in two Isle of Man Tourist Trophy races, on a Rex in 1909 and as a member of Indians factory team in 1910 and he was fascinated by the cabbies ingenuity at fiddling the meters.
In 1912 he joined his brother, H. M. Bentley, fitted with the alloy pistons and a modified camshaft, a DFP took several records at Brooklands in 1913 and 1914. As security considerations prevented his broadcasting the information to engine manufacturers and that man, Commander Wilfred Briggs, would be his senior officer throughout the war. Bentley next visited Louis Coatalen at Sunbeam, with the result that the innovation was used in all their aero engines. Bentley visited Gwynnes, whose Chiswick factory made French Clerget engines under licence, when the Clerget licensees proved unwilling to implement Bentley’s more important suggestions the Navy gave him a team to design his own aero engine at the Humber factory in Coventry. Designated the BR1, Bentley Rotary 1, the engine was different from the Clerget except in the design of the cam mechanism. A prototype was running in the summer of 1916. The bigger BR2 followed in early 1918, in recognition, Bentley was awarded the MBE. After he was invited In 1920 to make a claim, which the Clerget licensees contested unsuccessfully, after the war, in early 1919, W. O.
and his brother founded Bentley Motors Limited. They formed a group at small premises in Cricklewood to turn his aero engines business into one of car production, in a group that included Frank Burgess and Harry Varley, they set about designing a high quality sporting tourer for production under the name Bentley Motors. Clive Gallop joined the team as a designer to help develop their 3,000 cubic centimetres straight-4 engine. The 3-litre engine ran for the first time in New Street Mews, Baker Street, a plaque marks the building in what is now Chagford Street NW1. W. O. ’s first complete Bentley 3 Litre car began road tests in January 1920, W. O. ’s motto was To build a good car, a fast car, the best in class.95 mph
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
The Rolls-Royce Corniche is a two-door, front-engine, rear wheel drive five-seater manufactured and marketed by Rolls-Royce as a coupé and convertible from 1971 to 1995. The exterior design was by John Polwhele Blatchley, the model was assembled and finished in London at Mulliner Park Ward as continuation of the 1965 Silver Shadow coupe and 1966 drophead, with the Corniche name applied in March 1966. The Corniche was sold as a Bentley, though that model became known as the Continental in 1984, the first car with the Corniche nameplate was a 1939 prototype based on the Bentley Mark V and never produced because of the onset of World War II. The Corniche nameplate stems from the originally French and Italian term for a coastal road, rolls Royce began marketing the Corniche in 1971, having registered the name in the 1930s. The original Corniche was a based on the Bentley Mark V featuring coachwork by the Paris firm. The single car undertook 15,000 miles of testing in Continental Europe before being blown up by a bomb at Dieppe while waiting at the dockside to be shipped to England.
The Corniche, available as coupé or convertible, used the standard Rolls-Royce V8 engine with an alloy block. The bore was 4.1 in and the stroke was 3.9 in for a total of 6.75 L. Twin SU carburettors were initially fitted, desmogged export models retained the twin SUs until 1980, when Bosch fuel injection was added. A three-speed automatic transmission was standard, a four-wheel independent suspension with coil springs was augmented with a hydraulic self-levelling system, at first on all four, but on the rear wheels only. Four wheel disc brakes were specified, with ventilated discs added for 1972, the car originally used a 119.75 in wheelbase. This was extended to 120 in in 1974 and 120.5 in in 1979, the Corniche received a mild restyling in the spring of 1977. Difference included rack-and-pinion steering and rubber bumpers, aluminium radiator, oil cooler, changes included a modified rear independent suspension in March 1979. In March 1981, after the Silver Spirit had gone on sale, for 1985 there were cosmetic and interior changes.
Corniche models received Bosch KE/K-Jetronic fuel injection in 1977 and this engine, called the L410I, produced approximately 240 PS at just above 4,000 rpm for a top speed of 190 kilometres per hour. The Bentley version was updated in July 1984 with a new name, the Continental and color-coded bumpers, rear view mirrors, production totaled 1090 Rolls-Royce Corniche Saloons,3239 Rolls-Royce Corniche Convertibles,69 Bentley Corniche Saloons and 77 Bentley Corniche Convertibles. The Corniche II name was applied for the United States market from 1986, anti-lock brakes were added for 1988, but air bags would not be available until the Corniche III. Also new for 1988 were some changes to the interior. Later in 1988 there was a new reverse warning lens type and pattern around the license plate, as well as newly designed seats
Sir Harry Ralph Ricardo was one of the foremost engine designers and researchers in the early years of the development of the internal combustion engine. Ricardo was descended from a brother of the political economist David Ricardo. He was one of the first people in England to see an automobile when his grandfather purchased one in 1898 and he was from a relatively wealthy family and educated at Rugby School. In October 1903 he joined Trinity College, Cambridge as an engineering student. Ricardo had been using tools and building engines since the age of ten, in 1911 Ricardo married Beatrice Bertha Hale, an art student at the Slade School of Art, in London. Her father, Charles Bowdich Hale, was the Ricardos family doctor and they had three daughters, and lived most of their married life at Lancing and Edburton in West Sussex. His engine had a cylinder, and was the heaviest entered. He was persuaded to join the Professor of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics, Bertram Hopkinson and he graduated with a degree in 1906 and spent another year researching at Cambridge.
Ricardo is said by Percy Kidner, Co-managing director of Vauxhall, before graduation, Ricardo had designed a two-stroke motorcycle engine to study the effect of mixture strength upon the combustion process. When he graduated, the firm of Messrs Lloyd and Plaister expressed interest in making the engine. Ricardo produced designs for two sizes, and the one sold about 50 engines until 1914, when the war halted production. In 1909 he designed a two-stroke 3. 3-litre engine, for his cousin Ralph Ricardo, the engine was to be used in the Dolphin car. The cars were made, but it became apparent that they cost more to make than the selling price. The company fared better making two-stroke engines for fishing boats, in 1911 the firm collapsed and Ralph departed for India. Ricardo continued to design engines for electric lighting sets, these were produced by two companies until 1914. In 1915 Ricardo set up a new company, Engine Patents Ltd. which developed the engine that would eventually be used in the first successful tank design, the Daimler sleeve-valve engine used in the Mark I created copious amounts of smoke, which easily gave away its position.
Ricardo was asked to look at the problem of reducing smoky exhaust gases, existing companies were able to undertake construction of such an engine but not the design, so Ricardo designed it himself. As well as having reduced emissions, the new engine was much more powerful than the existing ones
Bentley 3 Litre
The Bentley 3 Litre was a car chassis manufactured by Bentley. The companys first it was developed from 1919 and made available to customers coachbuilders from 1921 to 1929, the Bentley was very much larger than the 1368 cc Bugattis that dominated racing at the time, but double the size of engine and strength compensated for the extra weight. Its weight and speed prompted Ettore Bugatti to call it the fastest lorry in the world, the 3 Litre was delivered as a running chassis to the coachbuilder of the buyers choice. Bentley referred many customers to their near neighbour Vanden Plas for bodies, dealers might order a short cost-saving run of identical bodies to their own distinctive design. Most bodies took the simplest and cheapest form, customers included Prince George, Duke of Kent, Gertrude Lawrence, and Beatrice Lillie. The 3.0 L straight-4 engine was designed by ex-Royal Flying Corps engineer Clive Gallop and was very advanced for its time. It was one of the first production car engines with 4 valves per cylinder, dry-sump lubrication, the four valve SOHC Hemi design, with a bevel-geared shaft drive for the camshaft, was based on the pre-war 1914 Mercedes Daimler M93654 racing engine.
Just before the outbreak of the war Mercedes had placed one of the winning Grand Prix cars in their London showroom in Long Acre. Bentley, being commissioned in the Royal Naval Air Service, a notable difference to both the Mercedes and the aero engines was the cast-iron monobloc design, and the fully Aluminium enclosed camshaft, which greatly contributed to its durability. But having the valve-head and block in one-piece made for a complicated and this was a feature shared during that time by the Bugattis which the car was to compete with. The engine was among the first with two spark plugs per cylinder, pent-roof combustion chambers, and twin carburetters. It was extremely undersquare, optimized for low-end torque, with a bore of 80 mm, the Speed Model could reach 90 mph, the Super Sports could exceed 100 mph. The chassis from a Humber was designed by Frederick Tasker Burgess previously chief designer at Humber who had worked with W. O. during the war producing the aero engines BR1 and BR2.
It should be noted that Bentley did not deliver complete vehicles, only the rear wheels had brakes until 1924, when four-wheel brakes were introduced. There were three variants of the 3 litre and they became known by the colours commonly used on the radiator badge. There was a definite rule controlling badge colours but astonishingly it has since established that given special circumstances the factory would indeed supply a wrong colour. This was the model with 117.5 in wheelbase from 1921 to 1929 or long 130.0 in wheelbase from 1923 to 1929. This used a 5.3,1 high compression engine in the 117.5 in wheelbase chassis and was made from 1924 to 1929
Bentley Mulsanne (2010)
The Bentley Mulsanne is a British handmade full-size luxury car produced by Bentley Motors Limited in the United Kingdom. The car is named after the Mulsanne Corner of the Le Mans racing circuit, Bentley has brought back the Mulsanne nameplate as a four-door saloon/sedan that was last used in 1992, and this model replaces the Bentley Arnage. The new Mulsanne was unveiled at the 2009 Pebble Beach Concours dElegance and convertible variants are expected to follow at some point as replacements for the Arnage-based Brooklands and Azure respectively. Like the Arnage, the Mulsanne retains the 6.75 L OHV V8 engine, the engine is lighter and features cylinder de-activation and variable cam phasing to improve fuel efficiency. Unlike the less expensive Bentley Continental Flying Spur and Bentley Continental GT, the Mulsanne is the first flagship car to be independently designed by Bentley Motors in nearly 80 years, the last being W. O. Bentleys 8 litre model in 1930, most Bentleys shared platforms with Rolls-Royce cars.
The rear is a version of the 2006 Azure. The new Mulsanne was unveiled at the 2009 Pebble Beach Concours dElegance, the first vehicle produced, with chassis number 00001, was sold in 2009 Gooding & Company Pebble Beach auction for US$500,000 to an undisclosed bidder. Deliveries to the UK began in Summer 2010, features include stainless steel knobs on the dashboard that control the vent plungers are electronic micro switches that control electric servos. The feedback remains that of a rod to control the damper. Customers have a choice of 114 paint colors,21 carpet colors, nine wood veneers, the rear seating area may be configured to accommodate either 2 or 3 passengers. Optional is a Naim 2200 watt audio system with MP3, winter accessories were introduced in 2011. The 2013 enhanced Mulsanne was unveiled in 2013 Geneva International Motor Show, Mulsanne Mulliner Driving Specification was unveiled at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, followed by 2012 New York International Auto Show,2012 Goodwood Festival of Speed,2012 Los Angeles Auto Show.
Mulsanne Executive Interior Concept is a version of Mulsanne demonstrating a new multimedia connectivity concept designed for executives, the vehicle was unveiled in 2011 Los Angeles Auto Show. It is a vehicle based on Bentley Mulsanne, with convertible body. It is a version of Mulsanne commemorating Queen Elizabeth IIs birthday. The vehicle was unveiled in Beijing International Automotive Exhibition in Sanlitun district, the design of Mulsanne Executive Interior was based on Mulsanne Executive Interior Concept. The car is offered in two Specifications, Theatre and iPad, the iPad Specification includes 2 electrically-deployed veneered picnic tables for rear passengers, twin iPads with wireless keyboards