Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and an aero engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce. Building on Royce's reputation established with his cranes they developed a reputation for superior engineering by manufacturing the "best car in the world"; the First World War brought them into manufacturing aero engines. Joint development of jet engines began in 1940 and they entered production. Rolls-Royce has built an enduring reputation for development and manufacture of engines for defence and civil aircraft. In the late 1960s Rolls-Royce became hopelessly crippled by its mismanagement of development of its advanced RB211 jet engine and the consequent cost over-runs, though it proved a great success. In 1971 the owners were obliged to liquidate their business; the useful portions were bought by a new government-owned company named Rolls-Royce Limited which continued the core business but sold the holdings in British Aircraft Corporation immediately and transferred ownership of the profitable but now financially insignificant car division to Rolls-Royce Motors Holdings Limited.
This it sold to Vickers in 1980. Rolls-Royce obtained consent to drop 1971 from its name in 1977; the Rolls-Royce business remained nationalised until 1987 when, renaming the owner Rolls-Royce plc, the government sold it to the public. Rolls-Royce plc still owns and operates Rolls-Royce's principal business though since 2003 it is technically a subsidiary of listed holding company Rolls-Royce Holdings plc. A marketing survey in 1987 showed that only Coca-Cola was a more known brand than Rolls-Royce. In 1884 Henry Royce started an mechanical business, he made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904. Henry Royce was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Manchester on 4 May of that year. Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C. S. Rolls & Co. in Fulham. In spite of his preference for three- or four-cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10, in a subsequent agreement on 23 December 1904 agreed to take all the cars Royce could make. There would be four models: a 10 hp, two-cylinder model selling at £395, a 15 hp three-cylinder at £500, a 20 hp four-cylinder at £650, a 30 hp six-cylinder model priced at £890,All would be badged as Rolls-Royces, be sold by Rolls.
The first Rolls-Royce car, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp, was unveiled at the Paris Salon in December 1904. Rolls-Royce Limited was formed on 15 March 1906, by which time it was apparent that new premises were required for production of cars. After considering sites in Manchester, Coventry and Leicester, it was an offer from Derby's council of cheap electricity that resulted in the decision to acquire a 12.7 acres site on the southern edge of that city. The new factory was designed by Royce, production began in early 1908, with a formal opening on 9 July 1908 by Sir John Montagu; the investment in the new company required further capital to be raised, on 6 December 1906 £100,000 of new shares were offered to the public. In 1907, Rolls-Royce bought out C. S. Rolls & Co. During 1906 Royce had been developing an improved six-cylinder model with more power than the Rolls-Royce 30 hp. Designated the 40/50 hp, this was Rolls-Royce's first all-new model. In March 1908 Claude Johnson, Commercial Managing Director and sometimes described as the hyphen in Rolls-Royce, succeeded in persuading Royce and the other directors that Rolls-Royce should concentrate on the new model, all the earlier models were duly discontinued.
Johnson had an early example named, as if it were a yacht, Silver Ghost. Unofficially the press and public picked up and used Silver Ghost for all the 40/50 cars made until the introduction of the 40/50 Phantom in 1925; the new 40/50 was responsible for Rolls-Royce's early reputation with over 6,000 built. Its chassis was used as a basis for the first British armoured car used in both world wars. Aero-engine manufacture began in 1914. Rolls-Royce's Eagle, the first example was made in 1915, was the first engine to make a non-stop trans-Atlantic crossing by aeroplane when in June 1919 two Eagles powered the converted Vickers Vimy bomber on the transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown. In 1921 Rolls-Royce opened a new factory in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States where a further 1,701 "Springfield Ghosts" were built; this factory operated for 10 years, closing in 1931. It was located at the former American Wire Wheel factory on Hendee Street, with the administration offices at 54 Waltham Ave.
Springfield was the earlier location for the Duryea Motor Wagon Company, the location where the first American gasoline-powered vehicle was built. Their first chassis was completed in 1921. Bodies were supplied by Rolls-Royce Custom Coachwork and by Brewster & Co. in Long Island City, New York. After the First World War, Rolls-Royce avoided attempts to encourage British car manufacturers to merge. Faced with falling sales of the 40/50 Silver Ghost in short-lived but deep postwar slumps Rolls-Royce introduced the smaller, cheaper Twenty in 1922 ending the one-model policy followed since 1908; the new 40/50 hp Phantom replaced the Silver Ghost in 1925. The Phantom III introduced in 1936 was the last large pre-war model. A limited production of Phantoms for heads of state recommenced in 1950 and continued until the Phantom VI ended production in the late 1980s. In 1931 Rolls-Royce acquired
Lagonda is a British luxury car marque established in 1906, owned by Aston Martin since 1947. The marque has had a non-continuous presence in the luxury car market, being dormant for several times during its existence, most from 1995 to 2008 and 2010 to 2013; the Lagonda company was founded in 1906 in Staines, Middlesex, by an American, Wilbur Gunn, a former opera singer. He worked as a speed boat and motorcycle engineer in Staines, he named the company after the Shawnee settlement "Lagonda" in modern-day Springfield, the town of his birth. This is a glacially eroded limestone gorge of much beauty; the area played a major role in the Treaty of Easton and the aligning of the Shawnee tribe with the British during the French and Indian War. He had built motorcycles on a small scale in the garden of his house in Staines with reasonable success, including a win on the 1905 London–Edinburgh trial. In 1907 he launched his first car, the 20 hp, six-cylinder Torpedo, which he used to win the Moscow–St.
Petersburg trial of 1910. This success produced a healthy order for exports to Russia which continued until 1914. In 1913 Lagonda introduced an advanced small car, the 11.1, with a four-cylinder 1,099 cc engine, which, by 1914, featured a panhard rod and a rivetted unibody body and the first fly-off handbrake. The ratchet control button on the end of a fly-off handbrake is designed to work in the opposite way to what is expected. If the lever is lifted or pulled back to the "on" position, on letting go it releases unless the end button is pressed and held in place before letting go of the lever. Once set, the brake is released by lifting the handbrake lever in the setting direction; this mechanism was traditionally fitted to sports cars to facilitate a racing get-away, such as at traffic lights. It can be used to help the back wheels to slide, without the worry of the ratchet leaving the brake on. During the First World War Lagonda made artillery shells. After the end of the war the 11.1 continued with a larger, 1,400 cc, engine and standard electric lighting as the 11.9 until 1923 and the updated 12 until 1926.
Following Wilbur Gunn's death in 1920, three existing directors headed by Colin Parbury took charge. The first of the company's sports models was launched in 1925 as the 14/60 with a twin-cam 1,954 cc four-cylinder engine and hemispherical combustion chambers; the car was designed by Arthur Davidson. A higher output engine came in 1927 with the two-litre Speed model which could be had supercharged in 1930. A lengthened chassis version, the 16/65, with a six-cylinder 2.4-litre engine, was available from 1926 to 1930. Their final car of the 1920s was the three-litre using a 2,931 cc six-cylinder engine; this continued until 1933 when the engine grew to 3,181 cc and was available with a complex eight-speed Maybach transmission as the Selector Special. A new model for 1933 was the 16–80 using a two-litre Crossley engine with pre-selector gearbox from 1934. A new small car, the Rapier came along in 1934 with pre-selector gearbox; this lasted until 1935 but more were made until 1938 by a separate company, D. Napier & Son of Hammersmith, London.
At the other extreme was the near 100 mph 4.5-litre M45 with a Meadows-supplied six-cylinder, 4,467 cc, engine. A true sporting version, the M45R Rapide, with a tuned M45 engine and a shorter chassis, achieved a controversial Le Mans victory in 1935. In 1935 the three-litre grew to a 3.5-litre. All was not well financially and the receiver was called in 1935, but the company was bought by Alan P. Good, who just outbid Rolls-Royce, he persuaded W. O. Bentley to leave Rolls-Royce and join Lagonda as designer along with many of his racing department staff; the 4.5-litre range now became the LG45 with lower but heavier bodies and available in LG45R Rapide form. The LG45 came in three versions known as Sanction 1, 2 and 3 each with more Bentley touches to the engine. In 1938 the LG6, with independent front suspension by torsion bar and hydraulic brakes, came in. Along with ex-Rolls Royce employees, Stuart Tresillian and Charles Sewell, design expert Frank Feeley, Bentley hid distaste for the primitive conditions of Lagonda's factory, got to work on the new engine, to become his masterpiece, the V-12, launched in 1937.
The 4,480 cc engine delivered 180 bhp and was said to be capable of going from 7 to 105 mph in top gear and to rev to 5,000 rpm. The car was exhibited at the 1939 New York Motor Show: "The highest price car in the show this year is tagged $8,900, it is a Lagonda, known as the "Rapide" model, imported from England. The power plant is a twelve-cylinder V engine developing 200 horsepower." Richard Watney was managing director of Lagonda at the start of the Second World War: He was Rootes' retail sales manager for the London area until 1935, when he became managing director of Lagonda, Ltd. He is a production expert, who during the war organised and controlled for Lagonda one of the largest British gun production plants, plants which produced 50,000 25 lb shells a day. Watney developed and produced the "Crocodile" and "Wasp" flame-throwing equipment for armoured vehicles." Watney finished second at Le Mans in 1930 driving a Bentley. He returned to Rootes in 1946, was posted to Australia, he was killed in a car accident in Melbourne in 1949.
In 1947, the company was taken over by David Brown and moved in with Aston Martin, which he had bought, in Feltham, Middlesex. The old Staines works at Egham Hythe passed to Petters Limited, in which A. P. Good had acquired the controlling interest. Production restarted with the last prototypes from
Cricklewood is an area of north-west London, England, 5 miles northwest of Charing Cross, between Willesden Green and Dollis Hill to the west and Kilburn to the south, West Hampstead and Childs Hill to the south-east and east, Brent Cross to the north. The area is split between three London boroughs: Barnet to the north-east, Brent to the west and Camden to the south-east. Cricklewood was a small rural hamlet around Edgware Road the Roman road, called Watling Street, until the impetus for its urbanisation came with the surface and underground railways in nearby Willesden Green in the 1870s; the shops on Cricklewood Broadway, as Edgware Road is known here, contrast with quieter surrounding streets of late-Victorian, 1930s housing. The area has strong links with Ireland due to a sizeable Irish population and The Crown pub, now the Clayton Crown Hotel, is a local landmark; the 35-hectare Gladstone Park marks its north-western edge. Cricklewood has two conservation areas, the Mapesbury Estate and the Cricklewood Railway Terraces, in 2012 was awarded £1.65 million from the Mayor of London's office to improve the area.
The small settlement at the junction of Cricklewood Lane and the Edgware Road was established by 1294, which by 1321 was called Cricklewood. By the 1750s the Crown was providing for coach travellers, by the 1800s it had a handful of cottages and Cricklewood House as neighbours, was known for its "pleasure gardens". By the 1860s there were a number of substantial villas along the Edgware Road starting with Rockhall Lodge. Childs Hill and Cricklewood station renamed Cricklewood, opened in 1868. In the summer of 1881 the Midland Railway Company moved its locomotive works from Kentish Town to the new "Brent Sidings", in October of the same year it was announced that new accommodation for its workers would be built the now-listed Railway Cottages. Mr H. Finch laid out a handful of streets directly behind the Crown Inn, in 1880; the station had become the terminus for the Midland Railway suburban services by 1884. The census of 1881 showed that the population had grown enough for a new church, St. Peter's replaced a tin chapel in 1891.
A daughter church called Little St. Peter's was opened in 1958 on Claremont Way but closed in 1983; the parish church on Cricklewood Lane was rebuilt in the 1970s. This church building was closed in 2004. Services for Anglicans were held in the Carey Hall on Claremont Road but were discontinued there in December 2015; the London General Omnibus Company commenced services to Regent Street from the Crown in 1883, in 1899 opened a bus garage, still in use and was rebuilt in 2010. By the 1890s, houses and shops had been built along part of Cricklewood Lane. Cricklewood Broadway had become a retail area by 1900 replacing the Victorian villas; the Queens Hall Cinema the Gaumont, replaced Rock Hall House, was itself demolished in 1960. Thorverton and Dersingham Roads were laid out in 1907, the year of the opening of Golders Green Underground station. Cowhouse Farm, latterly Dicker's Farm and Avenue Farm, was closed in 1932. From 1908 to 1935, Westcroft Farm was owned by the Home of Rest for Horses; the Metropolitan Borough of Hampstead opened the Westcroft Estate in 1935.
Much of the land to the west of Edgware Road was part of the estate of All Souls Oxford. Much of the land was wooded and in 1662 there were 79 oaks in Cricklewood; the transformation of the area came with the opening of the underground station in Willesden Green in 1879, known as Willesden Green and Cricklewood station from 1894 to 1938. A number of developers built houses in the 1890s and 1900s. George Furness laid out what he called Cricklewood Park between 1900 on Clock Farm. Roads in the area are named after trees; the name Cricklewood Park is no longer used. To the south of this, Henry Corsellis built Rockhall and Howard Roads from 1894. All Souls' College built a group of roads named after fellows of the college. Further expansion westward was blocked by the Dollis Hill estate, which became a public park, Gladstone Park, in 1901. To the north of Furness's Cricklewood Park Estate, Earl Temple built Temple Road by 1906 and surrounding roads. To the south, the Mapesbury Estate was built between 1895 and 1905 and is a Conservation Area of semi-detached and detached houses.
With the introduction of the tram system in 1904, the motorisation of bus services by 1911, numerous important industries were established. The first of these was the Phoenix Telephone Company in 1911; the Handley Page Aircraft Company soon followed, from 1912 until 1917, at 110 Cricklewood Lane and subsequently occupying a large part of Claremont Road. The Cricklewood Aerodrome was adjacent to their factory; the former aircraft factory was converted into Cricklewood Studios in 1920, the largest film studio in the country at the time. It became the production base for Stoll Pictures during the silent era. After turning out a number of quota quickies, it closed down in 1938; some years the property was redeveloped and hosts a Wickes DIY store. A number of plans were drawn up around the turn of the 20th century to extend the developing London Underground network to Cricklewood. Several proposals were put forward to construct an und