Bentley 4½ Litre
The Bentley 4½ Litre was a British car based on a rolling chassis built by Bentley Motors. Walter Owen Bentley replaced the Bentley 3 Litre with a more powerful car by increasing its engine displacement to 4.4 L. Bentley buyers used their cars for personal transport and arranged for their new chassis to be fitted with various body styles saloons or tourers. However, the publicity brought by their competition programme was invaluable for marketing Bentley's cars. At the time, noted car manufacturers such as Bugatti and Lorraine-Dietrich focused on designing cars to compete in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, a popular automotive endurance course established only a few years earlier. A victory in this competition elevated any car maker's reputation. A total of 720 4½ Litre cars were produced between 1927 and 1931, including 55 cars with a supercharged engine popularly known as the Blower Bentley. A 4½ Litre Bentley won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1928. Though the supercharged 4½ Litre Bentley's competitive performance was not outstanding, it set several speed records, most famously the Bentley Blower No.1 Monoposto in 1932 at Brooklands with a recorded speed of 222.03 km/h.
The 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race is a 24-hour race around the Circuit de la Sarthe. The inaugural race was held 26–27 May 1923, attracted many drivers French. There were two foreign competitors in the first race, Frank Clement and Canadian John Duff, the latter winning the 1924 competition in his personal car, a Bentley 3 Litre. "Made with precision and the finest material," and with recent success, the luxurious Bentley cars attracted attention. After two years without success, Bentley convened a group of wealthy British men, "united by their love of insouciance, elegant tailoring, a need for speed," to renew Bentley's success. Both drivers and mechanics, these men nicknamed the "Bentley Boys", drove Bentley automobiles to victory in several races between 1927 and 1931, including four consecutive wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, forged the brand's reputation, it was within this context. Two cylinders were removed from the 6½ Litre model, reducing the displacement to 4.4 litres. At the time, the 3 Litre and the 6½ Litre were available, but the 3 Litre was an outdated, under-powered model and the 6½ Litre's image was tarnished by poor tyre performance.
Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin, described as "the greatest British driver of his day" by W. O. Bentley, was one of the Bentley Boys, he refused to adhere to Bentley's assertion that increasing displacement is always preferable to forced induction. Birkin, aided by a former Bentley mechanic, decided to produce a series of five supercharged models for the competition at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, thus the 4 1/2 litre. The first supercharged Bentley had been a 3-litre FR5189, supercharged at the Cricklewood factory in the winter of 1926/7; the Bentley Blower No.1 was presented in 1929 at the British International Motor Show at Olympia, London. The 55 copies were built to comply with 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. Birkin arranged for the construction of the supercharged cars having received approval from Bentley chairman and majority shareholder Woolf Barnato and financing from wealthy horse racing enthusiast Dorothy Paget. Development and construction of the supercharged Bentleys was done in a workshop in Welwyn Garden City by Amherst Villiers, who provided the superchargers.
W. O. Bentley was hostile to forced induction and believed that "to supercharge a Bentley engine was to pervert its design and corrupt its performance." However, having lost control of the company he founded to Barnato, he could not halt Birkin's project. Although the Bentley 4½ Litre was heavy, weighing 1,625 kg, spacious, with a length of 4,380 mm and a wheelbase of 3,302 mm, it remained well-balanced and steered nimbly; the manual transmission, required skill, as its four gears were unsynchronised. The robustness of the 4½ Litre's lattice chassis, made of steel and reinforced with ties, was needed to support the heavy cast iron inline-four engine; the engine was "resolutely modern" for the time. The displacement was 4,398 cc: 100 mm bore and 140 mm stroke. Two SU carburetters and dual ignition with Bosch magnetos were fitted; the engine produced 110 hp for 130 hp for the racing model. The engine speed was limited to 4,000 rpm. A single overhead camshaft actuated four valves per cylinder, inclined at 30 degrees.
This was a technically advanced design at a time. The camshaft was driven by bevel gears on a vertical shaft at the front of the engine, as on the 3 Litre engine; the Bentley's tanks - radiator and petrol - had quick release filler caps that opened with one stroke of a lever. This saved time during pit stops; this 4½ was equipped with a canvas top stretched over a lightweight Weymann body. The hood structure was light but with high wind resistance; the steering wheel measured about 45 cm in diameter and was wrapped with solid braided rope for improved grip. Brakes were conventional, consisting of 17-inch drum brakes finned for improved cooling and operated by rod. Semi-elliptic leaf springs were used at rear. Fixed head coupé by Harrison 1928 The essential difference between the Bentley 4½ Litre and the Blower was the addition of a Roots-type supercharger to the Blower engine by engineer Amherst Villiers, who had produced the supercharger. W. O. Bentley, as
The Porsche Cayenne is a mid-size luxury crossover sport utility vehicle produced by the German manufacturer Porsche since 2002, with North American sales beginning in 2003. It is the first V8-engined vehicle built by Porsche since 1995, when the Porsche 928 was discontinued, it is Porsche's first off road variant vehicle since its Super and Junior tractors of the 1950s, the first Porsche with four doors. Since 2008, all engines have featured direct injection technology; the second-generation Cayenne was unveiled at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show in March following an online reveal. The Cayenne shares its platform, body frame and electronics with the similar Volkswagen Touareg and Audi Q7; the second generation received a facelift in 2014 with minor external changes, introduced a new plug-in E-Hybrid version, with its public launch at the Paris Motor Show. The Porsche Cayenne entered the market with mixed anticipation. However, it soon proved that it was the performance vehicle among SUVs and was praised for its excellent handling and powerful engines.
The lineup consisted of the V8-powered Cayenne S and Cayenne Turbo. In the model cycle, VR6 and diesel-powered versions joined the lineup; the base model is powered by a 3.2-L VR6 engine producing 250 PS. Acceleration from 0–60 mph is approx 7.5 seconds with the manual transmission and 8.1 seconds with the Tiptronic S. The S is powered by an 8-cylinder engine with a dry-sump lubrication system and variable valve timing, it produces 340 310 lb ⋅ ft of torque. Acceleration from 0 -- 60 mph takes the top speed is 150 mph. Introduced only for 2006, a special distinctive Cayenne S Titanium Edition Wagon, a 1 Year exclusive, limited production SUV featuring a lightweight steel body, titanium-painted accented body parts, side lower rocker body panels, 4 sports chrome tailpipes, 19" titanium painted alloy wheels, bi-xenon headlights, two-tone interior upholstery, Porsche PCM w/ trip computer navigation, MP3 audio and Bose cabin surround sound; this sporty design S is powered by an alloy 4.5L V8 engine with a dry-sump lubrication system and variable valve timing.
The Cayenne S engine produces 340 310 lb · ft of torque. Acceleration is quicker from 0–60 mph at sub 6.8 seconds and the top speed is 150+ mph. It featured sport tuned suspension, includes a low-range case, a locking differential and six-speed automatic Tiptronic transmission; the GTS features a sport suspension and 21-inch wheels. It has an aerodynamic body kit; the Porsche Cayenne GTS has a 0–100 km/h time of 5.7 seconds. A six-speed manual transmission is offered; the first-generation Cayenne Turbo has 450 PS, can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 5.3 seconds. A Turbo S version was built in 2006 to compete with the Mercedes-Benz ML 63 AMG; the Cayenne Turbo and Turbo S include a low-range case, a locking differential, height-adjustable, off-road suspension. The S is powered by a twin-turbocharged 4.5 L V8 that produces 720 N ⋅ m of torque. In 2008 an updated Turbo model, featuring a larger 4.8-L engine, was revealed at the Beijing Auto Show. It produces 50 PS more power, can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 4.9 seconds.
Revealed with the new Turbo, was a new 550 hp Turbo S model. Acceleration from 0–60 mph for that car takes 4.7 seconds and it can be had with optional ceramic composite brakes. Porsche has sold a diesel version of the Cayenne, powered by a 3.0-L V6 VW TDI engine, since February 2009. The engine is rated at 550 N ⋅ m of torque; the car was unveiled at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. The diesel can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 9.2 seconds. The Cayenne S Transsyberia was a racing vehicle for Transsyberia rally, only 26 were built; the street version was built to commemorate Porsche's victory in Transsyberia rally. It is a variant with the 405 hp direct-inject 4.8-L V8 from the Cayenne GTS. Sales began with a production run of 600 road vehicles. In May 2009, a limited edition version based on the Cayenne GTS was introduced, designed by Porsche Design Studio and included a Porsche Design chronograph Type P’6612. Production was limited to 1000 units, 100 in the USA; the second-generation Porsche Cayenne went on sale in April–May 2010 as a 2011 model, with an official debut at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show.
In preparation for the unveiling, the Cayenne production facility in Leipzig, closed in December 2009 to commence factory retooling for the new model, a process that took 2–3 months. The 2011 Porsche Cayenne is larger than its predecessors, but features a more slanted rear window, less upright windshield, a more sloping roofline, door-mounted mirrors, smaller windows at the rear of the vehicle, headlights inspired by the Carrera GT, taillights that extend onto the car's tailgate, LED daytime running lights and a vastly redesigned interior modeled after the Panamera; the 2011 Cayenne is 250 kg lighter than the previous models due to extensive use of aluminum and magnesium, making it more fuel efficient than the previous lineup. Despite its lower stance, the new vehicle's off-road capabilities have been retained without compromising the street performance-orien
Geneva Motor Show
The Geneva International Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport; the Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, is considered an important major international auto show. First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition; the show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own. Areas of the show: Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels. Electric cars and alternative powered cars.
Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, engineering. Converted cars. Accessories and parts for motor cars OEM: original equipment manufacturers Workshop installations for the repair and maintenance of motor cars Miscellaneous products and services related to the car industry Animation / Attractions; the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 89th Geneva Motor Show was held between 7 and 17 March 2019; the 88th Geneva Motor Show was held on 8 to 18 March 2018. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017; the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015; the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014. The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013; the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011; the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010.
Over 80 introductions were expected for the show. Press days for the show started on 2 March 2010; the 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009. The following vehicles were introduced: The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 6–16 March 2008; the following vehicles were introduced: The following were scheduled to be introduced at the 2007 Geneva Auto Show: In addition, Subaru introduced its new boxer diesel engine, Honda showed its next generation clean diesel engine. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas. Ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP 1.6l natural gas engine. Serial production will be evaluated. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small electric city car, with a battery that can be 80% recharged in just 15 minutes; the following introductions were featured at the 2006 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2005 Geneva show: The following introductions were made from 4 to 14 March 2004 at the Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2003 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2002 Geneva show: The following major introductions were made at the 2001 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2000 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1999 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1998 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1997 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1996 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1995 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1994 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1993 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1992 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1991 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1990 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1989 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo SZ Alpina B10 Bi-Turbo Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 Daihatsu Applause Ford Fiesta Urba Ford Via concept Lancia Delta Integrale 16v Lotus Carlton Mercedes-Benz 500SL Peugeot Agades concept Sbarro Osmos concept The following introductions were made at the 1988 Geneva show: Ford Saguaro concept Maserati Karif Sbarro Robur concept The following introductions were made at the 1987 Geneva show: Aston Martin Lagonda Sbarro Monster G concept The following introductions were made at the 1986 Geneva show: Aston Martin V8 Zagato coupe BMW 524d Citroën Eole concept Rover CCV concept Sbarro Challenge 2+2 concept Volvo 480 Zender Vision 3C concept The following introductions were made at the 1985 Geneva show: Ferrari 412 Lamborghini Countach LP5000 S Quattrovalvole Michelotti PAC Peugeot Griffe 4 concept Sbarro Challenge concept Sbarro Super Five Volvo 780 The following introductions were made at the 1984 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo 33 1.5 Giardinetta Alfa Romeo Tempo Libero concept Ferrari 288 GTO Ford APV concept Lamborghini Jalpa P350 Sbarro Super Eight concept Sbarro Mercedes Benz Biturbo Zagato Z33 "Free Time" The following introductions were made at the 1983 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo Delfino concept Alfa Romeo Zeta Sei concept Fiat Ritmo Coupe concept Ford Trio concept Lincoln Quicksilver concept Renault Gabbiano concept The following introductions were made at the 1982 Geneva show: Bentley Mulsanne Turbo Lamborghini LMA002 Michelotti CVT 58 concept Opel Corsa Spider concept Sbarro Super Twelve concept Volkswagen Golf GTD The followin
Bentley Continental R
The Bentley Continental R was a luxury coupé made by Bentley from 1991 to 2003. It was the first Bentley to feature a body not shared with a Rolls-Royce model since the S3 Continental of 1965, the first to use the GM 4L80-E transmission, the fastest, most expensive, most powerful Bentley of its day, it was the most expensive production car in the world at launch. A convertible derivative, the Bentley Azure, was launched in 1995; as Managing Director of Rolls Royce Motor Cars in the early 1980s, David Plastow could see the potential in the Bentley brand. It had been neglected for the previous 15 years and made up only a small percentage of the company's sales at that time outside the UK in important markets such as the USA; the first move was to turbo charge the standard Bentley 4 door saloon: the Bentley Mulsanne Turbo was launched in 1982. On the back of this, Peter Ward, marketing director at the company, wanted to further enhance the distinctive sporting nature of the Bentley brand and move away from a Bentley, a re-badged Rolls Royce.
They appointed stylists John Heffernan and Ken Greenley to come up with ideas for a new, Bentley coupé. The fibreglass mock up was displayed at the 1984 Geneva Motor Show in Rolls-Royce's "Project 90" concept of a future Bentley coupé; the concept was met with an enthusiastic reception, but the Project 90 design was shelved as the company began to work towards a replacement for the Rolls-Royce Corniche. During this process, Graham Hull, chief stylist in house at Rolls Royce, suggested the designs before the board for the Corniche, would suit a Bentley coupé better. From this point it was decided the Corniche could continue as it was, efforts would once again be channelled into a new Bentley coupé. In 1986 Graham Hull produced a design rendering of a new Bentley coupé which became the Continental R. Based on the Rolls-Royce SZ platform, an aerodynamically shaped two-door coupé body had been styled. John Heffernan and Ken Greenley were retained to complete the design of the Continental R, they had run the Automotive Design School at the Royal College of Art and headed up their own consultancy, International Automotive Design, based in Worthing, Southern England.
Greenley and Heffernan liaised throughout the styling process with Graham Hull. The interior was the work of Graham Hull and the small in house styling team at Rolls Royce; the shape of the car was different from the somewhat slab sided four-door SZ Rolls-Royce and Bentley vehicles of the time and offered a much improved 0.37 coefficient of drag. The Continental R featured roof-cut door frames, a necessity to allow easier access into the car which had a lower roofline than its 4-door saloon contemporaries. A subtle spoiler effect was a feature of the rear; the finished car is acknowledged as a cleverly and attractively styled vehicle disguising its huge dimensions. The "Continental" designation recalls the Bentley Continental of the post-war period; the "R" was meant to recall the R Type Bentleys from the 1950s as well as the Turbo R of the 1980s and 90s where the "R" refers to "roadholding". The revival of the Bentley marque following the introduction of the Bentley Mulsanne Turbo, the Continental R, is acknowledged to have saved Rolls Royce Motor cars and formed the groundwork which led to the buyout and parting of the Rolls Royce and Bentley brands in 1998.
Bentley was once again capable of standing alone as a marque in its own right. A completed pre-production Continental R was secretly taken to Switzerland for a surprise launch of the model at the 1991 Geneva Motor Show, it was driven from behind a wall on the Rolls Royce stand to Handel's Zadok the Priest and the Sultan of Brunei purchased the show car at the event for over £2m. The new Mercedes S Class, W140 launched at the show, was upstaged by the unexpected, vermilion red, new Bentley Coupé. From launch, 1991, the 6.75 L Garrett-turbocharged engine from the current Bentley Turbo R was chosen for use in the Continental R. In early, first generation, cars power output of 325 hp at 4000rpm and peak torque of 450 lb⋅ft at 2000rpm was available, although this was always estimated, as, at that time, Rolls-Royce still had a policy of not supplying official figures, preferring to describe as "sufficient"; the car used the new 4-speed GM 4L80-E automatic transmission, exhaustively tested by Rolls Royce, over 1 million miles, modified by them in order to deliver high levels of refinement.
The car featured self-levelling hydraulic suspension, ventilated disc brakes at the front, with twin calipers. Engine management via the MK-Motronic digital fuel injection with mapped ignition control system. At launch, top speed was 145 mph, a 0-60 mph time of 6.6 seconds. The Continental R was priced at US$271,780 in 1992. £178,000 in the UK at launch. All cars were equipped with a centre console mounted electronic gear selector, with a Sport button to adjust gearbox mapping and stiffen the suspension for more aggressive driving and handling. For such a large and heavy car, the Continental R was acknowledged by road testers and journalists as displaying superb handling characteristics at high speeds; the 1994 model year, priced in the UK at £180,120, saw a number of revisions to the engine, including revisions to the c
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
The Bentley Azure is a large, four seater convertible built by Bentley Motors Limited at its factory in Crewe, England. The model debuted in 1995 on the Bentley Continental R platform and was produced until 2003. After a three-year break a new version powered by a updated engine and riding on the newer Arnage platform debuted in 2006; the Azure debuted in March 1995 at the Geneva Motor Show on the platform of the Continental R model, launched in 1991. Production only crept to a start, with a mere nine examples finished in the first year – in 1996, after full production had started, no less than 251 Azures were finished. Pininfarina assisted in the two-year process of turning the Continental R into a full four-seater convertible, built the shell and soft-top at their factory in Italy from parts sourced in the UK. Final assembly was carried out at Crewe. A roll-bar was never considered. At 210 in in length and 5,750 lb in weight, the Azure surprised onlookers with its size and bulk, intended to both convey a sense of "presence" and allow for comfortable seating of four adult passengers.
Power came from the company's stalwart 6.75-litre V8, featuring a single, intercooled Garrett turbocharger and producing in the region of 360 hp – Rolls-Royce and Bentley did not yet give official power numbers at the time of the Azure's introduction. By the time production began in earnest, new engine management from Zytek meant a slight power increase to 385 hp at 4,000 rpm and 750 N⋅m of torque at 2,000 rpm. With a zero to sixty miles per hour time of 6.3 seconds and a top speed of 241 km/h, the Azure was fast for a car of its size and poor aerodynamic profile. Owing to the limited space and workforce at Bentley's Crewe factory, the Azure's thick, powered convertible top was designed and manufactured by Pininfarina, which added to the vehicle's cost. New in 1995, the Azure was priced at $347,645 – $36,355 more than the Continental R on which it was based. From 1999 until the end of production, the Azure was available in "Mulliner" trim, which added special bespoke trim and additional equipment and allowed the buyer the option for further customisation during the build-process.
One of limited editions included'2000 Symbolic Edition', an only 4-made Mulliner commission. *stated by Pininfarina production records**From 2 varying documents, newer data used Volkswagen purchased Bentley from Vickers in 1998, three years into production of the Mark 1 model. Volkswagen executives decided to keep the then-current Azure in production until 2003 release its successor at a date. Production of the new Azure began for the 2006 model year. Now based on the Arnage platform, power came from the then-current variant of the Bentley turbocharged V8 making 450 hp and 645 lb⋅ft of torque. New Arnage was designed for the BMW 4.4-liter engine. However, due to strained relationships between the two manufacturers, Volkswagen was forced to re-work the "original" 6.75-liter Rolls-Royce/Bentley V8 in 2001, including a switch from the old single-turbo system to a modern twin-turbocharger setup, reducing turbo-lag and increasing horsepower output. A new, model-specific six-speed automatic transmission fed power to the rear wheels.
Bentley claims a 0 to 60-mile-per-hour time of 5.6 seconds and a top speed of 168 mph faster than the previous edition and still good for a vehicle of this size and weight. The United States Department of Energy lists Bentley Azure as the least fuel-efficient car in its class with only 9 miles per US gallon city and 15 miles per US gallon highway rates; the "T" is a higher performance version of the Bentley Azure. Styling changes include 8.5J x 20-inch five-spoke, two-piece alloy wheels with 255/40 ZR20 Pirelli P Zero tyres,'Le Mans' lower front wing air vents, dark-tinted upper and lower grilles,'jewel' fuel filler cap, door mirror mountings finished in body colour. The exterior styling was inspired from Bentley Mark VI. Audio system includes large display audio head unit with Secure Digital memory card slot, iPod/USB/3.5 mm AUX interface. Electronic Stability Programme, Tire Pressure Monitoring System are now standard equipment; the twin turbocharged engine is rated 1,000 N ⋅ m torque. It has a 0–60 miles per hour time of 5.1 seconds, 0–100 mph time in 12.1 seconds and a top speed of 179 mph.
The car was unveiled at the LA Auto Show. The Azure had no immediate successor. However, at the 2014 L. A. Auto Show, Bentley unveiled a concept car built on the Mulsanne platform that follows the same formula as the two generations of Azure that proceeded it. Bentley did not use the Azure name again with the concept calling it the Bentley Grand Convertible. In 2017, Bentley announced that the Grand Convertible would be produced in limited numbers at a cost of 3.9 million dollars each. This automobile will only be sold in Europe, the Middle East, Russia- none will be imported to North or South America or Australia or India or Africa
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume