Doug Collins (basketball)
Paul Douglas Collins is an American basketball executive, former player and television analyst. He was the first overall pick of a four-time NBA All-Star, he has been an NBA coach, coaching the Chicago Bulls, Detroit Pistons, Washington Wizards and Philadelphia 76ers. Collins served as an analyst for various NBA-related broadcast shows, he is a recipient of the Curt Gowdy Media Award. Collins was born in Illinois, he grew up in Benton, where his next-door neighbour was future film star John Malkovich. Collins enjoyed a successful high school basketball career at Benton Consolidated High School, under renowned coach Rich Herrin, after which he went on to play for Illinois State University in Normal, coached from 1970 by Will Robinson, the first black head coach in NCAA Division I basketball. Collins was drafted first overall in the 1973 NBA draft by the Philadelphia 76ers, he played eight seasons for Philadelphia, was an all star three times. In 1976–77, he joined Julius Erving leading the Sixers to the NBA Finals, where they lost to the Portland Trail Blazers.
A rash of injuries to his feet and left knee beginning in 1979, would end Collins' career in 1981. In all, he played 415 NBA games. After his retirement, Collins turned to coaching, he joined Bob Weinhauer's staff at the University of Pennsylvania as an assistant coach and followed Weinhauer to Arizona State for the same job. In May 1986, Collins was named head coach of the Chicago Bulls. Despite having Jordan, the Bulls were coming off a 30-52 season and fired their past two coaches after one season each. Collins helped the Bulls turn around their fortunes, showing an improvement of 10 games in each of his first two seasons, coaching Chicago to a 50-32 record in his second year. In his third year as coach, he brought Chicago to their first Eastern Conference Finals Appearance in 15 years, they were unable to get past their Central Division rival the "Bad Boys" Detroit Pistons. Despite the Bulls' success and his popularity in Chicago, Collins was fired in the summer of 1989. Collins was named the head coach of the Detroit Pistons in 1995.
His arrival in Detroit was similar to his in Chicago, as the Pistons had a second-year star who drew comparisons to Michael Jordan, Grant Hill. In his first season, he was able to improve the team's previous season's record by 18 games and lead them back to the playoffs, though they would be swept by the Orlando Magic. A fast start in his second season pushed Hill to the top of MVP consideration and Collins was named the Eastern Conference All-Star team's coach; the highlight of the year for Collins came on April 13, when the Pistons defeated the defending champion Bulls to end Detroit's 19-game losing streak against Chicago. The Pistons finished 54-28 and lost in the first round of playoffs to the Atlanta Hawks, 3–2 in the best-of-five series, he served as Pistons' head coach until February 2, 1998, when he was fired and replaced by Alvin Gentry. Collins became a television broadcaster, working for many years at various networks, such as NBC on the NBA on NBC and TNT on the NBA on TNT, he worked as a broadcaster for about three years before being hired to coach the Washington Wizards for the start of the 2001–02 NBA season.
In Washington, Collins was reunited with Charles Oakley. Once again, in his first season with his new team, Collins improved the team's previous season's record by 18 games. Though his.451 winning percentage through 2 seasons was better than the Wizards'.308 record the previous 2 seasons, Collins was fired at the conclusion of the 2002–03 season. On May 21, 2010, Collins was hired as head coach of the Philadelphia 76ers. While the 76ers started out poorly with a record of 3-13, the team showed great improvement as the season went on, clinched the seventh seed in the Eastern Conference for the playoffs. Under Collins, the team increased its win total by 14 games over the previous season, they lost to the eventual Eastern Conference champion Miami Heat in the first round, but were able to avoid a sweep, predicted. Collins finished second in Coach of the Year voting that season. In the lockout-shortened 2011–2012 season, Collins led the Sixers to an improved record, but Philadelphia was only able to take the eighth seed in the playoffs.
Against the top seeded Chicago Bulls, Collins led the Sixers to their first playoff series victory since 2003. It was the fifth time in NBA history, they lost. Collins resigned as 76ers coach on April 18, 2013, citing a need to spend more time with his five grandchildren, it was announced. Collins represented the United States at the 1972 Summer Olympics in West Germany; those basketball games are remembered by U. S. fans for the controversial gold medal basketball game between the United States and the Soviet Union, in which Collins played a key part. Collins started doing work for CBS in the mid-1980s, calling playoff games, he was the lead color analyst for the local broadcasts of the 76ers' games during the 1985–86 season. In-between his various coaching stints he has done broadcasting work for CBS, NBC, TNT, TBS. After being fired by the Wizards, Collins returned to announcing games for TNT. In addition, he served as an analyst for NBC Sports' TV coverage of basketball at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
He was a basketba
Benton is a city in Franklin County, United States. The population was 7,087 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Franklin County. Benton, the county seat of Franklin County, took its name from the prominent senator from Missouri, Thomas Hart Benton; the village of Benton was organized in 1841 on 20 acres of property donated by John Ewing and Walter S. Akin. In 1902 the village became a city, incorporated under the mayor/commissioner form of government. Franklin County was platted in 1818, the year, it included the territory, now Williamson County. In 1839 the county was split in half and the county seat was permanently fixed "at a hill at the south end of Rowling's Prairie", the site of the future city of Benton; the Franklin County Courthouse sits in the center of the Public Square. It is the third courthouse; the Italianate building was constructed in 1874-75 at a cost of $27,500.00 Much of Benton's growth in the past can be traced to the abundance of high sulfur coal, the presence of multiple railroads, rich soil and the industry of her people.
On April 19, 1928 Benton was the site of the last public hanging in Illinois, when local gangster Charles Birger was executed on the gallows next to the county jail for the December 12, 1926 murder of Joe Adams, mayor of nearby West City, Illinois. A replica of the gallows and hangman's noose were built by the late retired Old Ben Coal miner, businessman & carpenter, Birchard L. Wampler and his son Birchard Neil Wampler, they remain standing today next to the old Franklin County Jail turned Museum. In September 1963, George Harrison of The Beatles visited Benton while on vacation, the first time any member of the group visited American soil, he stayed at the home of Louise, at 113 McCann Street. The bungalow is now the Hard Day's Nite Breakfast. During his trip he traveled from Benton to Fenton's Music Store in Mt. Vernon, IL to purchase a Rickenbacker 425 that sold at auction for $657k. Harrison performed with a band called "The Four Vests" at the Veterans of Foreign Wars hall in Eldorado, Illinois.
In an interview, Harrison's sister Louise said "his real first visit to America was when he came to the midwest in September 1963 and he met these wonderful, friendly, real warm Midwesterners... school teachers, retired miners and all kinds of just wonderful people... and a little band. He had a fantastic time, he thought they were just wonderful people."In August 2017, a 16-foot tall commemorative mural of George Harrison was created and donated California artist John Cerney. Cerney caught word of Harrison's memorable visit to the town on a Sirius radio program, which inspired Cerney's creation; the "highway art" can be found facing southbound traffic along Interstate 57. The project was completed just in time for tourists to admire it as they traveled through the city for the Total Solar Eclipse of 2017. Benton's website is listed as: www.bentonil.com According to the 2010 census, Benton has a total area of 5.66 square miles, of which 5.48 square miles is land and 0.18 square miles is water.
Benton Public Library serves all residents of Benton High School District. Www.benton.lib.il.us Benton and surrounding areas are served by two weekly newspapers, The Benton News and The Benton Gazette. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,880 people, 2,938 households, 1,824 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,286.2 people per square mile. There were 3,270 housing units at an average density of 611.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.72% White, 0.29% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.51% of the population. There were 2,938 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.9% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.86.
In the city, the population was spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 22.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,177, the median income for a family was $35,339. Males had a median income of $27,323 versus $19,403 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,787. About 15.6% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.6% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. Benton Evening News
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
West Frankfort, Illinois
West Frankfort is a city in Franklin County, United States. The population was 8,182 at the 2010 census; the city is part of the Metro Lakeland area. Although one might associate the name "West Frankfort" with the city "Frankfurt" in Germany, or Frankfort in Kentucky, the truth is far more local. Around 1810, early Tennessee settler Francis Jordan and his seven brothers began the construction of a fort atop a hill in present-day Franklin County. Completed in 1811, the fort was named "Frank's Fort," in Jordan's honor; the name Frankfort is from a French trapper's hutte built on the hill long before the arrival of the Jordan brothers. Frank's Fort was built in Ill. near Corinth. A few miles to the east, Francis' brother, Thomas Jordan, built "Jordan's Fort" in Cave Township, Franklin County, Ill. near the town of Thompsonville. The construction of these forts was in response to the danger of attack during Tecumseh's War, which culminated in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Then-governor of the Illinois Territory, Ninian Edwards encouraged the construction of these forts and offered the services of the Saline Militia in their erection.
Thus, both Jordan family forts were built with the help of the Illinois Militia for safety of the civilians. Since the Shawnee Trail, an important trading route linking Kaskaskia and Old Shawneetown, ran along the high ground in the vicinity of the fort, this area became an attractive destination for settlers in search of cheap land made available by the passed Bit Act of 1850; the resulting settlement took the name of the nearby fort, subsequently shortened to "Frankfort." Frankfort grew during this period, with its population rivaling that of Chicago, at the time. Frankfort was Franklin County's first county seat until 1839, when the lower half of the county was declared as Williamson County. After railroad tracks linking Chicago and Memphis, were laid 4 miles west of Frankfort, many businesses and residents migrated to the new commercial center forming near the tracks; this new community became known as West Frankfort, for its location to the west of Frankfort. The two cities merged and retained the name West Frankfort.
The area of West Frankfort known as Frankfort is still sometimes referred to locally as Frankfort Heights or, more simply as "the Heights", due to its higher elevation relative to the rest of the city. A post office was maintained in Frankfort Heights until its destruction by fire in 2004, making West Frankfort one of the smallest cities in the United States to have two ZIP codes. Beginning in 1904, the Deering Coal Mine Company took Franklin County and West Frankfort from no coal production in 1900 to being the #1 coal producer in Illinois by 1917. Once the mines opened, the population increased 3,500 in seven years. By 1927, West Frankfort's population had reached 19,896. In the late 1940s, four theatres and a minor league baseball team marked the downtown area. See Tri-State Tornado. On December 1, 1929, an explosion at the Old Ben Coal Company's Old Ben No. 8 Mine killed 7 people. The Old Ben No. 8 Mine exploded again on July 1947, killing 27 people. The West Frankfort Cardinals were a minor-league baseball team from 1947–50, serving as a Class D affiliate of the St. Louis Cardinals.
The Orient No. 2 coal mine exploded on December 1951, killing 119 men. The mine, located outside of West Frankfort, was one of the area's major employers. According to lifelong residents, everyone in West Frankfort was affected by this tragedy, including grade schoolers of the time who remember their own losses or the suffering of classmates. Many residents had said they could never celebrate Christmas again. After the catastrophe, the West Frankfort Junior High School became a temporary morgue for identification of the bodies, with many calls going out for funeral directors; the explosion received national attention from the wire services and Life Magazine. Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson visited the site to support those mourning; the United States Bureau of Mines called the explosion "avoidable," with the disaster resulting in Congress passing the Federal Coal Mine Safety Act of 1952. The area was in totality during the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, with Giant City State Park 25 miles to the southwest, experiencing the longest period of totality during the eclipse.
It will be within the path of totality of the solar eclipse of April 8, 2024, making it one of only a handful of cities within the direct paths of both eclipses. West Frankfort is located at 37°53′55″N 88°55′24″W. According to the 2010 census, West Frankfort has a total area of 5.011 square miles, of which 4.97 square miles is land and 0.041 square miles is water. As of the 2000 census, there were 8,196 people, 3,596 households, 2,207 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,726.8 people per square mile. There were 3,973 housing units at an average density of 837.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.55% White, 1.13% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.77% of the population. Of the 3,596 households, 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.6% were non-families.
34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.0% had someone living alone, 65 yea
Maroon is a dark reddish purple or dark brownish red color that takes its name from the French word marron, or chestnut. The Oxford English Dictionary describes it as "a brownish crimson or claret color." In the RGB model used to create colors on computer screens and televisions, maroon is created by turning down the brightness of pure red to about one half. Maroon is the complement of teal. Maroon is derived from French marron, itself from the Italian marrone that means both chestnut and brown, from the medieval Greek maraon; the first recorded use of maroon as a color name in English was in 1789. Business Maroon is the signature color of the Japanese private rail company, Hankyu Railway, decided by a vote of women customers in 1923. In the 1990s, Hankyu planned an alternative color; that plan was called off following opposition by local residents. Government Maroon was named as the official color of the state of Queensland, Australia, in November 2003. While the declared shade of maroon is RGB 115/24/44, Queenslanders display the spirit of the state by wearing all shades of maroon at sporting and cultural events.
Military The distinctive maroon beret has been worn by many airborne forces around the world since 1942. It is sometimes referred to as the "red beret." Maroon was the distinguishing colour of the Caçadores regiments of the Portuguese Army. Music The Famous Maroon Band Maroon 5Religion Vajrayana Buddhist monks, such as the Dalai Lama, wear maroon robes. Maroon, along with golden yellow, is worn in the Philippines by Catholic devotees of the Black Nazarene during its procession on 9 January. School colors Many universities, high schools and other educational institutions have maroon as one of their school colors. Popular combinations include maroon and white and grey, maroon and gold. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Texas A&M University. Maroon and Gold are the official school colors of the University of Minnesota. Maroon and Gold are the official school colors of the Central Michigan University. Maroon and Gold are the official school colors of Shimer College, representing Mount Carroll Seminary.
Maroon and White are the official school colors of the University of Chicago. The school employs light and dark gray in its official primary color palette. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Lower Merion High School. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Mississippi State University and the name of the university's alma mater. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Colgate University. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Missouri State University. Maroon and Gold are the official school colors of Arizona State University and the name of the university's fight song. Maroon and Orange are the official school colors of Virginia Tech. Sports Sports teams use maroon as one of their identifying colors, as a result many have received the nickname "Maroons"; the University of Chicago Maroons have used the nickname since a vote came at a meeting of students and faculty on May 5, 1894. Maroons was the official nickname of the athletic teams representing Mississippi State College, now Mississippi State University from 1932 until 1961 when it was changed to the Bulldogs.
Bulldogs had been used as an unofficial nickname as far back as 1905. Maroons is the common nickname for the Queensland Rugby League team when it plays against the Blues in an annual competition of three games known as the State of Origin series in Australia. Vexillology Maroon and white are the colors of the Flag of Qatar; the Flag of Latvia is sometimes called maroon and white, but the legal colors were red and white, but in 2009 the colors were changed to carmine and white. Displayed on the right is the bright tone of maroon, designated as maroon in Crayola crayons beginning in 1949, it rose. The color halfway between brown and rose is crimson, so this color is a tone of crimson. Displayed on the right is the color rich maroon, i.e. maroon as defined in the X11 color names, much brighter and more toned toward rose than the HTML/CSS maroon shown above. See the chart Color name clashes in the X11 color names article to see those colors that are different in HTML/CSS and X11. Displayed on the right is the web color dark red.
List of colors Media related to Maroon at Wikimedia Commons
White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
Scarabs were popular amulets and impression seals in Ancient Egypt. They survive in large numbers and, through their inscriptions and typology, they are an important source of information for archaeologists and historians of the ancient world, they represent a significant body of ancient art. For reasons that are not clear, amulets in the form of scarab beetles had become enormously popular in Ancient Egypt by the early Middle Kingdom and remained popular for the rest of the pharaonic period and beyond. During that long period the function of scarabs changed. Amulets, they were inscribed for use as personal or administrative seals or were incorporated into jewelry; some scarabs were created for political or diplomatic purposes to commemorate or advertise royal achievements. By the early New Kingdom, heart scarabs had become part of the battery of amulets protecting mummies. From the middle Bronze Age, other ancient peoples of the Mediterranean and the Middle East imported scarabs from Egypt and produced scarabs in Egyptian or local styles in the Levant.
Scarabs are a common product of present day forgers. Scarabs were produced in vast numbers for many centuries and many thousands have survived, they were intended to be worn or carried by the living. They were carved or moulded in the form of a scarab beetle with varying degrees of naturalism but at least indicating the head, wing case and legs but with a flat base; the base was inscribed with designs or hieroglyphs to form an impression seal. Scarabs were drilled from end to end to allow them to be strung on a thread or incorporated into a swivel ring; the common length for standard scarabs is between 6 mm and 40 mm and most are between 10 mm and 20 mm. Larger scarabs were made from time to time for particular purposes. Heart scarabs should be considered separately. Scarabs were either carved from stone or moulded from Egyptian faience. Once carved, they would be glazed blue or green and fired; the most common stone used for scarabs was a form of steatite, a soft stone which becomes hard when fired.
Hardstone scarabs were made and the stones most used were green jasper and carnelian. While the majority of scarabs would have been green or blue the coloured glazes used have either become discoloured or have been lost, leaving most steatite scarabs appearing white or brown. Scarabs were of light color. In ancient Egyptian religion, the sun god Ra is seen to roll across the sky each day, transforming bodies and souls. Beetles of the Scarabaeidae family roll dung into a ball as food and as a brood chamber in which to lay eggs. For these reasons the scarab was seen as a symbol of this heavenly cycle and of the idea of rebirth or regeneration; the Egyptian god Khepri, Ra as the rising sun, was depicted as a scarab beetle or as a scarab beetle-headed man. The ancient Egyptians believed that Khepri renewed the sun every day before rolling it above the horizon carried it through the other world after sunset, only to renew it, the next day. A golden scarab of Nefertiti was discovered in the Uluburun wreck.
By the end of the First Intermediate Period scarabs had become common. They replaced cylinder seals and circular "button seals" with simple geometric designs. Throughout the period in which they were made, Scarabs were engraved with the names of pharaohs and other royal persons. In the Middle Kingdom scarabs were engraved with the names and titles of officials and used as official seals. From the New Kingdom scarabs bearing the names and titles of officials became rarer, while scarabs bearing the names of gods combined with short prayers or mottos, like "With Ra behind there is nothing to fear" became more popular; these "wish" scarabs are difficult to translate. Amenhotep III is famous for having commemorative scarabs made; these were large and made of steatite. They are beautifully crafted scarabs created under royal supervision or control and carry lengthy inscriptions describing one of five important events in his reign. More than 200 examples have survived and they have been found in locations that suggest they were sent out as royal gifts/propaganda in support of Egyptian diplomatic activities.
These large scarabs continued and developed an earlier Eighteenth Dynasty tradition of making scarabs celebrating specific royal achievements, such as the erection of obelisks at major temples during the reign of Thuthmosis III. The tradition was revived centuries during the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, when the Kushite pharaoh Shabaka had large scarabs made commemorating his victories in imitation of those produced for Amenhotep III. Although scarab amulets were sometimes placed in tombs as part of the deceased's personal effects or as jewelry they have no particular association with ancient Egyptian funerary rites. There are, three types of funerary scarabs, heart scarabs, pectoral scarabs and naturalistic scarabs. Heart scarabs became popular in the early New Kingdom and remained in use until the Third Intermediate Period, they are large scarabs made