Bentonville is the ninth-largest city in Arkansas, United States and the county seat of Benton County. The city is centrally located in the county with Rogers adjacent to the east; the city is the world headquarters of Walmart, the world's largest retailer. It is one of the four main cities in the four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area, ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 residents in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau; the city itself had a population of 35,301 at the 2010 Census, with an estimated population of 49,298 in 2017. The area now known as Bentonville's first known use by humans was as hunting grounds by the Osage Nation who lived in Missouri; the Osage would leave their settlements to hunt in present-day Benton County for months at a time before returning to their families. White settlers first inhabited the area around 1837 and named their settlement "Osage". By this time, the Osage had ceased using the area for hunting, the white settlers began to establish farms.
Upon establishment of Benton County on September 30, 1836, Osage was deemed a suitable site for the county seat, the town square was established as the home of county government the following year. Osage was renamed Bentonville in honor of Thomas Hart Benton, a senator from Missouri who supported Arkansas statehood. Two years after Arkansas received statehood in 1836, thousands of Cherokee people from Georgia passed through Benton County as part of the Trail of Tears route to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. Although no Civil War battles were fought inside Bentonville, the city was occupied by both armies and saw all of its buildings burned, either by opposing armies or guerrilla outlaws. Bentonville was a staging point for the Confederate army prior to the Battle of Pea Ridge, fought about 12 miles northeast of town, the town saw a brief skirmish just prior to After the war, the area established a vibrant apple industry, with Benton County becoming the leading apple producing county in the nation in 1901.
In the 1920s and 1930s the county developed a reputation as a leader in poultry production that continued into the World War II years, which the area still maintains today. The post war economy helped. In 1950, Sam Walton bought the Harrison Variety Store on the Bentonville town square, he remodeled the building and opened "Walton’s 5 and 10 Variety Store" on March 18, 1951. This single store led to the creation of Walmart, the world's largest retailer, which still influences the community today; the late twentieth and early twenty-first century has seen a dramatic reduction in the manufacturing sector in Bentonville, corresponding with an increase in tourism and entertainment focused on the natural setting and outdoor opportunities of the area as well as the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, which opened in 2011. This has resulted in Bentonville being the fastest growing city in Arkansas, the larger Northwest Arkansas area one of the fastest growing in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.5 square miles, of which 31.3 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 0.67%, is water.
The Northwest Arkansas region consists of three Arkansas counties: Benton and Washington. The area had a population of 347,045 at the 2000 census which had increased to 463,204 by the 2010 Census; the Metropolitan Statistical Area does not consist of the usual principal-city-with-suburbs morphology. The Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport is located to the southwest of Bentonville and is used to connect all of the northwest Arkansas region to the rest of the nation. For more than the last decade, Northwest Arkansas has been one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States. Bentonville lies in the humid subtropical climate zone with influence from the humid continental climate type. Bentonville experiences all four seasons and does receive cold air masses from the north, however some of the Arctic masses are blocked by the higher elevations of the Ozarks. July is the hottest month of the year, with an average high of 89 °F and an average low of 66 °F. Temperatures above 100 °F are common, with recent temperatures during summer months staying above 100 degrees for several weeks at a time.
January is the coldest month with an average high of 46 °F and an average low of 24 °F. The city's highest temperature was 114 °F, recorded in 1954; the lowest temperature recorded was −16 °F, in 1996. As of 2017 Bentonville had a population of 49,298; the racial and ethnic composition of the population was 77.0% non-Hispanic white, 2.4% non-Hispanic black, 1.2% Native American, 5.8% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from some other race and 2.5% from two or more races. 8.7% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 19,730 people, 7,458 households, 5,265 families residing in the city; the city grew in the 1990s. According to the US Census and surrounding communities in Benton County is second in growth for Arkansas and among the 100 fastest-growing counties in the United States; the population density was 928.9 people per square mile. There were 7,924 housing units at an average density of 373.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.92% White, 0.88% Black or African American, 1.33% Native
Arkansas's 3rd congressional district
Arkansas's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The district covers Northwest Arkansas and takes in Bentonville, Fayetteville and Fort Smith; the district is represented by Republican Steve Womack, who succeeded fellow Republican and now U. S. Senator John Boozman. Wal-Mart's corporate headquarters are located in this district in Bentonville; the University of Arkansas is located in Fayetteville. Springdale is the home of Tyson Foods, it is the most Republican district in the state. The seat has been in Republican hands continuously since the election of John Paul Hammerschmidt in 1966. George W. Bush received 62% of the vote in this district in 2004. John McCain swept the district in 2008 with 64.16% of the vote while Barack Obama received 33.45% of the vote. It was Obama's worst performance in Arkansas; the 2018 election will be held on November 6, 2018. As of April 2015, there are three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Arkansas's 3rd congressional district that are living.
The most recent representative to die was John Paul Hammerschmidt on April 1, 2015. All three former members listed went on to become either the Governor or a U. S. Senator. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Rogers is located in Northwest Arkansas, United States, one of the fastest growing metro areas in the country. Rogers was the location of the first Walmart store, whose corporate headquarters is located in neighboring Bentonville. Rogers is a city in the Ozarks in Benton County. Daisy Outdoor Products, known for its air rifles, has both its headquarters and its Airgun Museum in Rogers; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 55,964. In 2017 the estimated population was 66,430. Rogers is part of the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, one of the fastest growing in the nation; the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, more known as Northwest Arkansas, is ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States, with 465,776 inhabitants as of the 2010 U. S. Census. Rogers was named after Captain Charles Warrington Rogers, vice-president and general manager of the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway known as the Frisco; the town was established in 1881, the year.
The community was incorporated on June 6, 1881. In June 2007, BusinessWeek magazine ranked Rogers as 18th in its list of the 25 best affordable suburbs in the American South, and in 2010, CNN Money ranked Rogers #10 on their list of 100 Best Places to Live. The first retail business owned by the Stroud family was a store in Pea Ridge, co-owned by Allen Bryant Stroud and his son Harlan Lafayette Stroud; that business was established prior to 1879 and Allen Stroud served as postmaster at Pea Ridge for a time. In 1884, H. L. Stroud sold his interest in the Stroud store in Pea Ridge and purchased a dry goods store at the corner of First and Walnut Streets in Rogers which he named Stroud's Mercantile. In 1887 he brought in his brother Evan Giesen. In 1891 H. L. Stroud moved his business into a storefront on the north side of the 100 block of Walnut Street. Stroud's continued to prosper, in 1899 H. L. built the brick building at 114–116 West Walnut Street. Stroud's continued to be the leading retail business in Rogers up into the 1960s, when in 1962 Sam Walton opened the first location of what would become the retail giant Walmart just seven blocks away.
Walton's new store combined with the nationwide movement of retail centers from aged downtowns to malls and shopping centers eroded Stroud's customer base, leading the locally beloved retailer to permanently close in 1993 after 109 years in business. In 1912 the city council formed a commission of local businessmen to facilitate the paving of downtown Rogers. Despite the constant complaints of dusty and muddy streets, the enthusiastic support of prominent citizens such as Coin Harvey, bickering over the cost and method of paving delayed the start of the project until July 1924; the downtown area was paved with concrete and overlaid with bricks in rows, changing to a basket weave pattern at the intersections of streets. The work was completed in December 1924, the brick pavement remains today, with renovations done to the streets in 2010. Rogers is located at 36°19′46″N 94°8′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.6 square miles, of which 33.5 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
The climate in this area is characterized by warm, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rogers has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of 2010 Rogers had a population of 55,964. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 62.0% non-Hispanic white, 1.3% non-Hispanic black, 1.0% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 0.1% non-Hispanics of some other race, 3.0% from two or more races and 31.5% Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 38,829 people, 14,005 households, 10,209 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,158.0 people per square mile. There were 14,836 housing units at an average density of 442.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.75% White, 0.47% Black or African American, 1.05% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 9.43% from other races, 1.80% from two or more races. 19.29% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 14,005 households out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,474, the median income for a family was $45,876. Males had a median income of $30,911 versus $22,020 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,761. About 9.4% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.
In addition to the Rogers Commercial Historic District, Rogers has numerous properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, with the oldest being the Pea Ridge National Military Park. Ro
Madison County, Arkansas
Madison County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,717; the county seat is Huntsville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836, named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States. Madison County is part of the Northwest Arkansas region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 837 square miles, of which 834 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water. Carroll County Newton County Johnson County Franklin County Crawford County Washington County Benton County Ozark National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 14,243 people, 5,463 households, 4,080 families residing in the county; the population density was 7/km². There were 6,537 housing units at an average density of 3/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 95.94% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 1.22% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.47% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races. 3.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,463 households out of which 33.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.00% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,895, the median income for a family was $32,910. Males had a median income of $24,911 versus $18,786 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,736. About 14.70% of families and 18.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.60% of those under age 18 and 18.00% of those age 65 or over.
During the Secession Convention of 1861, Arkansas voted to leave the Union and join the Confederate States of America. When Chairman David Walker called for a second vote seeking a unanimous decision, only Madison County representative Isaac Murphy refused to change his vote. Murphy would be appointed Governor of Arkansas during Reconstruction under Abraham Lincoln's conciliatory policy. Madison County is Republican, voted for the Republican candidate several times when Arkansas was part of the "Solid South". U. S. Highway 412 Highway 12 Highway 16 Highway 21 Highway 23 Highway 45 Highway 74 The Huntsville Municipal Airport is a public-use airport located two nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Huntsville. Huntsville Hindsville St. Paul Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships.
Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research. Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications; the townships of Madison County are listed below. Orval E. Faubus, governor of Arkansas during the desegregation days, was from the Combs community near Huntsville, he is buried in Combs Cemetery. Ronnie Hawkins, rockabilly singer, his backing band, The Hawks played with Bob Dylan and became The Band. Danny L. Patrick, Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Madison and Carroll counties from 1967 to 1970. John Selman and lawman, best known for killing John Wesley Hardin in 1895, was born in Madison County. List of lakes in Madison County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Arkansas Madison County Map Official Site