A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o
Johnson & Johnson
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886. Its common stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the company is ranked No. 37 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Johnson & Johnson is headquartered in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the consumer division being located in Skillman, New Jersey; the corporation includes some 250 subsidiary companies with operations in 60 countries and products sold in over 175 countries. Johnson & Johnson had worldwide sales of $70.1 billion during calendar year 2015. Johnson & Johnson's brands include numerous household names of first aid supplies. Among its well-known consumer products are the Band-Aid Brand line of bandages, Tylenol medications, Johnson's baby products, Neutrogena skin and beauty products, Clean & Clear facial wash and Acuvue contact lenses. Johnson & Johnson operates over 250 companies in what is termed "the Johnson & Johnson family of companies".
The company operates in three broad divisions. Inspired by a speech by antiseptic advocate Joseph Lister, Robert Wood Johnson joined his brothers James Wood Johnson and Edward Mead Johnson to create a line of ready-to-use surgical dressings in 1885; the company produced its first products in 1886 and incorporated in 1887. Those products featured a logo resembling the signature of James Wood Johnson similar to the logo used today, it is one of the longest-used company logos in the world. Robert Wood Johnson served as the first president of the company, he worked to improve sanitation practices in the nineteenth century, lent his name to the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Upon his death in 1910, he was succeeded in the presidency by his brother James Wood Johnson until 1932, by his son, Robert Wood Johnson II. Robert Wood Johnson's granddaughter, Mary Lea Johnson Richards, was the first baby to appear on a Johnson & Johnson baby powder label, his great-grandson, Jamie Johnson, made a documentary called Born Rich about the experience of growing up as the heir to one of the world's greatest fortunes.
McNeil Consumer Healthcare was founded on March 1879, by 23-year-old Robert McNeil. In 1904, one of McNeil's sons, Robert Lincoln McNeil, became part of the company, together they created McNeil Laboratories in 1933; the company focused on direct marketing of prescription drugs to hospitals and doctors. Development of acetaminophen began under the leadership of Robert L. McNeil, Jr. who served as the firm's chairman. In 1959, Johnson & Johnson acquired McNeil Laboratories and a year the company was able to sell Tylenol for the first time without a prescription. In 1977, two subsidiary companies were created: McNeil Medicals Products and McNeil Consumer Products Company; the focus of McNeil medicals. In 1993 McNeil medicals products merged with the Ortho Pharmaceutical to form Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical. In 2001 McNeil Consumer Healthcare changed its name to McNeil Consumer & Specialty medicals products. However, it was changed to "McNeil Consumer Healthcare"; the company markets over-the-counter and prescription medicals products including complete lines of Tylenol and Motrin IB products for adults and children.
In 2008 a Wellness & Prevention Platform was established with the double acquisition of Orlando-based LGE Performance Systems, Inc. and Ann Arbor-based HealthMedia, Inc. In 1933, Swiss chemist Bernhard Joos set up a small research laboratory in Schaffhausen, Switzerland; this set the basis for the founding of Chemische Industrie-Labor AG on 12 May 1936. In 1959, Cilag joined the Johnson family of companies. In the early nineties, the marketing organizations of Cilag and Janssen Pharmaceutica were joined to form Janssen-Cilag; the non-marketing activities of both companies still operate under their original name. Cilag continues to have operations under the Cilag name in Switzerland, ranging from research and development through manufacturing and international services. In May 2011 Cilag acquired the over-the-counter operations of J B Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Limited for around $260 million. In June 2012, the division announced the acquisition of CorImmun GmbH, its lead compound, COR-1, a small cyclic peptide in development for the treatment of heart failure.
In August 2014, Cilag acquired Covagen a biopharmaceutical company which specializes in the development of multi-specific protein-based therapeutics. As part of the acquisition Cilag will gain access to Covagen's lead drug candidate, COVA 322, a bi-specific anti-tumor necrosis factor -alpha/anti-interleukin -17A FynomAb, is in a Phase Ib study for psoriasis. Janssen Pharmaceuticals can be traced back to 1933. In 1933, Constant Janssen, the father of Paul Janssen, acquired the right to distribute the pharmaceutical products of Richter, a Hungarian pharmaceutical company, for Belgium, the Netherlands and Belgian Congo. On 23 October 1934, he founded the N. V. Produkten Richter in Turnhout. After the Second World War, the name for the company products was changed to Eupharma, although the company name Richter would remain until 1956. Paul Janssen founded his own research laboratory in 1953 on the third floor of the building in the Statiestraat, still within the Richter-Eurpharma company of his father.
On 5 April 1956, the name of the company was changed to NV Laboratoria Pharmaceutica C. Janssen. On 2 May 1958, the research department in Beerse became a separate legal entity, the N. V. Research Laboratori