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IUPAC name
Other names
Benzisothiazolinone, Benzisothiazolin-3-one, Benzisothiazolone
3D model (JSmol)
Abbreviations BIT
ECHA InfoCard 100.018.292
MeSH 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one
Molar mass 151.18 g·mol−1
Appearance white powder
Melting point 158 °C (316 °F; 431 K)[1]
1 g/L
Main hazards Xn, N[1]
R-phrases (outdated) R22, R38, R41, R43, R50[1]
S-phrases (outdated) (S2), S24, S26, S37/39, S61[1]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Benzisothiazolinone (BIT) is a widely used biocide and belongs to the group of isothiazolinones.


Benzisothiazolinone has a microbicide and a fungicide mode of action. It is widely used as a preservative, for example in:

  • emulsion paints, caulks, varnishes, adhesives, inks, and photographic processing solutions
  • home cleaning and car care products; laundry detergents, stain removers and fabric softeners;
  • industrial settings, for example in textile spin-finish solutions, leather processing solutions, preservation of fresh animal hides and skins
  • agriculture in pesticide formulations
  • gas and oil drilling in muds and packer fluids preservation.[2]:iv

In paints, it is commonly used alone or as a mixture with methylisothiazolinone. Typical concentrations in products are 200–400 ppm depending on the application area and the combination with other biocides. According to a study in Switzerland, 19% of the paints, varnishes and coatings contained BIT in 2000. The fraction in adhesives, sealants, plasters and fillers was shown at that time as 25%.[3] A later study in 2014 shows a dramatic rise in usage, to 95.8% of house paints.[4]

Health hazards[edit]

It is a known human immune system toxicant,[5] and also is classified as irritant for skin, eyes and lungs.[6] It is widely used as active ingredient of many home cleaning products, paints, varnishes, adhesives, washing agents, plasters, sealants, and fabric treatments. It is related to Methylisothiazolinone, which was listed as 2013 Contact Dermatitis Allergen of the Year. Benzisothiazolinone has also been linked with Systemic Contact Dermatitis via airborne contact.[7]

In 2012, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety in Europe found BIT's "sensitising potential is of concern...Sensitisation from related isothiazolinones is an important problem in consumers. This has occurred because there has been consumer exposure before safe levels of exposure relevant to sensitisation have been established. Benzisothiazolinone is a skin sensitiser in animal models with potency similar to methylisothiazolinone. Methylisothiazolinone, at 100 ppm (0.01%) in cosmetic products is causing contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in the consumer. Benzisothiazolinone is known to be a sensitiser in man and has induced sensitisation at circa 20 ppm in gloves."[8]

The opinion further states: "There is no information on what may be safe levels of exposure to benzisothiazolinone in cosmetic products from the point of view of sensitisation. Until safe levels of exposure have been established, the use of benzisothiazolinone in cosmetic products as a preservative or for other functions cannot be considered safe in relation to sensitisation."



  • Wilfried Paulus: Directory of Microbicides for the Protection of Materials and Processes. Springer Netherland, Berlin 2006, ISBN 1-4020-4861-0.