Karbala Kerbala, is a city in central Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad, a few dozen miles east of Lake Milh. Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate, has an estimated population of 700,000 people; the city, best known as the location of the Battle of Karbala in 680 CE, or the Mosques of Imam Husayn and Abbas, is considered a holy city for Shi'ite Muslims in the same way as Mecca and Jerusalem. Tens of millions of Shi'ite Muslims visit the site twice a year, rivaling Mecca as a place of pilgrimage; the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali is commemorated annually by millions of Shi'ites. Up to 8 million pilgrims visit the city to observe ‘Āshūrā’, which marks the anniversary of Husayn's death, but the main event is the Arba‘īn, where up to 30 million visit the holy graves. Most of the pilgrims travel on foot from more than 56 countries. There are many opinions among different investigators, as to the origin of the word "Karbala"; some have pointed out that "Karbala" has a connection to the "Karbalato" language, while others attempt to derive the meaning of word "Karbala" by analyzing its spelling and language.
They conclude that it originates from the Arabic word "Kar Babel", a group of ancient Babylonian villages that included Nainawa, Al-Ghadiriyya, Karbella, Al-Nawaweess, Al-Heer. This last name is where Husayn ibn Ali's grave is located; the investigator Yaqut al-Hamawy had pointed out that the meaning of "Karbala" could have several explanations, one of, that the place where Husayn ibn Ali was martyred is made of soft earth—"Al-Karbalat". According to Shi'ite belief, the archangel Gabriel narrated the true meaning of the name Karbalā’ to Muhammad: a combination of karb and balā’." Karbala experiences a semi-arid climate with hot, dry summers and cool winters. All of the yearly precipitation is received between November and April, though no month is wet; the Battle of Karbala was fought on the bare deserts on the way to Kufa on October 10, 680. Both Husayn ibn Ali and his brother Abbas ibn Ali were buried by the local Banī Asad tribe, at what became known as the Mashhad Al-Husayn; the battle itself occurred as a result of Husain's refusal of Yazid I's demand for allegiance to his caliphate.
The Kufan governor, Ubaydallah ibn Ziyad, sent thirty thousand horsemen against Husayn as he traveled to Kufa. The horsemen, under'Umar ibn Sa'd, were ordered to deny Husayn and his followers water in order to force Husayn to agree to give an oath of allegiance. On the 9th of Muharram, Husayn refused, asked to be given the night to pray. On 10 Muharram, Husayn ibn Ali prayed the morning prayer and led his troops into battle along with his brother Abbas. Many of Husayn's followers, including all of his present sons Ali Akbar, Ali Asghar and his nephews Qassim and Muhammad were killed. In 63 AH, Yazid ibn Mu'awiya released the surviving members of Husayn's family from prison. On their way to the Mecca, they stopped at the site of the battle. There is record of Sulayman ibn Surad going on pilgrimage to the site as early as 65 AH; the city began as a tomb and shrine to Husayn and grew as a city in order to meet the needs of pilgrims. The city and tombs were expanded by successive Muslim rulers, but suffered repeated destruction from attacking armies.
The original shrine was destroyed by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutawakkil in 850 but was rebuilt in its present form around 979, only to be destroyed by fire in 1086 and rebuilt yet again. Like Najaf, the city suffered from severe water shortages that were only resolved in the early 18th century by building a dam at the head of the Husayniyya Canal. In 1737, the city replaced Isfahan in Iran as the main centre of Shia scholarship. In the mid-eighteenth century it was dominated by the dean of scholarship, Yusuf Al Bahrani, a key proponent of the Akhbari tradition of Shia thought, until his death in 1772, after which the more state-centric Usuli school became more influential; the Wahhabi sack of Karbala occurred in 21 April 1802, under the rule of Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad the second ruler of the First Saudi State, when 12,000 Wahhabi Muslims from Najd attacked the city of Karbala. The attack was coincident with 10 Muharram; this fight left 3,000–5,000 deaths and the dome of the tomb of Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad and son of Ali bin Abi Talib, was destroyed.
The fight lasted for 8 hours. After the First Saudi State invasion, the city enjoyed semi-autonomy during Ottoman rule, governed by a group of gangs and mafia variously allied with members of the'ulama. In order to reassert their authority, the Ottoman army laid siege to the city. On January 13, 1843 Ottoman troops entered the city. Many of the city leaders fled leaving defense of the city to tradespeople. About 3,000 Arabs were killed in the city, another 2,000 outside the walls; the Turks lost 400 men. This prompted many students and scholars to move to Najaf, which became the main Shia religious centre. Between 1850 and 1903, Karbala enjoyed a generous influx of money through the Oudh Bequest; the Shia-ruled Indian Province of Awadh, known by the British as Oudh, had always sent money and pilgrims to the holy city. The Oudh money, 10 million rupees, originated in 1825 from the Awadh Nawab Ghazi-ud-Din Haider. One third was to go to his wives, the other two thirds went to holy cities of Kar
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land, the property of some person and all structures integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, machinery, dams, mines and roads, among other things. The term is historic, arising from the now-discontinued form of action, which distinguished between real property disputes and personal property disputes. Personal property was, continues to be, all property, not real property. In countries with personal ownership of real property, civil law protects the status of real property in real-estate markets, where estate agents work in the market of buying and selling real estate. Scottish civil law calls real property "heritable property", in French-based law, it is called immobilier; the word "real" derives from Latin res, used in Middle English to mean "relating to things real property". In common law, real property was property that could be protected by some form of real action, in contrast to personal property, where a plaintiff would have to resort to another form of action.
As a result of this formalist approach, some things the common law deems to be land would not be classified as such by most modern legal systems, for example an advowson was real property. By contrast the rights of a leaseholder originate in personal actions and so the common law treated a leasehold as part of personal property; the law now broadly distinguishes between real personal property. The conceptual difference was between immovable property, which would transfer title along with the land, movable property, which a person would retain title to. In modern legal systems derived from English common law, classification of property as real or personal may vary somewhat according to jurisdiction or within jurisdictions, according to purpose, as in defining whether and how the property may be taxed. Bethell contains much historical information on the historical evolution of real property and property rights. To be of any value a claim to any property must be accompanied by a verifiable and legal property description.
Such a description makes use of natural or manmade boundaries such as seacoasts, streams, the crests of ridges, highways and railroad tracks or purpose-built markers such as cairns, surveyor's posts, official government surveying marks, so forth. In many cases, a description refers to one or more lots on a plat, a map of property boundaries kept in public records; the law recognizes different sorts of interests, called estates, in real property. The type of estate is determined by the language of the deed, bill of sale, land grant, etc. through which the estate was acquired. Estates are distinguished by the varying property rights that vest in each, that determine the duration and transferability of the various estates. A party enjoying an estate is called a "tenant"; some important types of estates in land include: Fee simple: An estate of indefinite duration, that can be transferred. The most common and most absolute type of estate, under which the tenant enjoys the greatest discretion over the disposal of the property.
Conditional Fee simple: An estate lasting forever as long as one or more conditions stipulated by the deed's grantor does not occur. If such a condition does occur, the property reverts to the grantor, or a remainder interest is passed on to a third party. Fee tail: An estate which, upon the death of the tenant, is transferred to his or her heirs. Life estate: An estate lasting for the natural life of the grantee, called a "life tenant". If a life estate can be sold, a sale does not change its duration, limited by the natural life of the original grantee. A life estate pur; such an estate may arise if the original life tenant sells her life estate to another, or if the life estate is granted pur autre vie. Leasehold: An estate of limited term, as set out in a contract, called a lease, between the party granted the leasehold, called the lessee, another party, called the lessor, having a longer estate in the property. For example, an apartment-dweller with a one-year lease has a leasehold estate in her apartment.
Lessees agree to pay a stated rent to the lessor. Though a leasehold relates to real property, the leasehold interest is classified as personal property. A tenant enjoying an undivided estate in some property after the termination of some estate of limited term, is said to have a "future interest". Two important types of future interests are: Reversion: A reversion arises when a tenant grants an estate of lesser maximum term than his own. Ownership of the land returns to the original tenant; the original tenant's future interest is a reversion. Remainder: A remainder arises when a tenant with a fee simple grants someone a life estate or conditional fee simple, specifies a third party to whom the land goes when the life estate ends or the condition occurs; the third party is said to have a remainder. The third party may have a legal right to limit the life tenant's use of the land. Estates may be held jointly as joint tenants as tenants in common; the difference in these two types of joint ownership of an estate in land is the inheritability of the estate and the shares of interest that each tenant owns.
In a joint tenancy with rights of survivorshi
Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies the behaviour of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms. One goal of microeconomics is to analyze the market mechanisms that establish relative prices among goods and services and allocate limited resources among alternative uses. Microeconomics shows conditions, it analyzes market failure, where markets fail to produce efficient results. Microeconomics stands in contrast to macroeconomics, which involves "the sum total of economic activity, dealing with the issues of growth and unemployment and with national policies relating to these issues". Microeconomics deals with the effects of economic policies on microeconomic behavior and thus on the aforementioned aspects of the economy. In the wake of the Lucas critique, much of modern macroeconomic theories has been built upon microfoundations—i.e. Based upon basic assumptions about micro-level behavior.
Microeconomic theory begins with the study of a single rational and utility maximizing individual. To economists, rationality means an individual possesses stable preferences that are both complete and transitive; the technical assumption that preference relations are continuous is needed to ensure the existence of a utility function. Although microeconomic theory can continue without this assumption, it would make comparative statics impossible since there is no guarantee that the resulting utility function would be differentiable. Microeconomic theory progresses by defining a competitive budget set, a subset of the consumption set, it is at this point that economists make the technical assumption that preferences are locally non-satiated. Without the assumption of LNS there is no 100% guarantee but there would be a rational rise in individual utility. With the necessary tools and assumptions in place the utility maximization problem is developed; the utility maximization problem is the heart of consumer theory.
The utility maximization problem attempts to explain the action axiom by imposing rationality axioms on consumer preferences and mathematically modeling and analyzing the consequences. The utility maximization problem serves not only as the mathematical foundation of consumer theory but as a metaphysical explanation of it as well; that is, the utility maximization problem is used by economists to not only explain what or how individuals make choices but why individuals make choices as well. The utility maximization problem is a constrained optimization problem in which an individual seeks to maximize utility subject to a budget constraint. Economists use the extreme value theorem to guarantee that a solution to the utility maximization problem exists; that is, since the budget constraint is both bounded and closed, a solution to the utility maximization problem exists. Economists call the solution to the utility maximization problem a Walrasian demand function or correspondence; the utility maximization problem has so far been developed by taking consumer tastes as the primitive.
However, an alternative way to develop microeconomic theory is by taking consumer choice as the primitive. This model of microeconomic theory is referred to as revealed preference theory; the theory of supply and demand assumes that markets are competitive. This implies that there are many buyers and sellers in the market and none of them have the capacity to influence prices of goods and services. In many real-life transactions, the assumption fails because some individual buyers or sellers have the ability to influence prices. Quite a sophisticated analysis is required to understand the demand-supply equation of a good model. However, the theory works well in situations meeting these assumptions. Mainstream economics does not assume a priori that markets are preferable to other forms of social organization. In fact, much analysis is devoted to cases where market failures lead to resource allocation, suboptimal and creates deadweight loss. A classic example of suboptimal resource allocation is that of a public good.
In such cases, economists may attempt to find policies that avoid waste, either directly by government control, indirectly by regulation that induces market participants to act in a manner consistent with optimal welfare, or by creating "missing markets" to enable efficient trading where none had existed. This is studied in the field of public choice theory. "Optimal welfare" takes on a Paretian norm, a mathematical application of the Kaldor–Hicks method. This can diverge from the Utilitarian goal of maximizing utility because it does not consider the distribution of goods between people. Market failure in positive economics is limited in implications without mixing the belief of the economist and their theory; the demand for various commodities by individuals is thought of as the outcome of a utility-maximizing process, with each individual trying to maximize their own utility under a budget constraint and a given consumption set. The study of microeconomics involves several "key" areas: Supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a competitive market.
It concludes that in a competitive market with no externalities, per unit taxes, or price controls, the unit price for a particular good is the price at which the quantity demanded by consumers equals the quantity supplied by producers. This price results in a stable economic equilibrium. Elasticity is the measurement of how resp
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
A waqf known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets. The donated assets may be held by a charitable trust; the person making such dedication is known as a donor. In Ottoman Turkish law, under the British Mandate of Palestine, the waqf was defined as usufruct State land of which the State revenues are assured to pious foundations. Although based on several hadiths and presenting elements similar to practices from pre-Islamic cultures, it seems that the specific full-fledged Islamic legal form of endowment called waqf dates from the 9th century CE. In Sunni jurisprudence, waqf spelled wakf is synonymous with ḥabs. Habs and similar terms are used by Maliki jurists. In Twelver Shiism, ḥabs is a particular type of waqf, in which the founder reserves the right to dispose of the waqf property; the person making the grant is called al-waqif.
The term waqf means "confinement and prohibition" or causing a thing to stop or stand still. The legal meaning of Waqf according to Imam Abu Hanifa, is the detention of a specific thing in the ownership of waqf and the devoting of its profit or products "in charity of poors or other good objects". Imam Abu Yusuf and Muhammad say: Waqf signifies the extinction of the waqif's ownership in the thing dedicated and detention of all the thing in the implied ownership of God, in such a manner that its profits may revert to or be applied "for the benefit of Mankind". Bahaeddin Yediyıldız defines the waqf as a system which comprises three elements: hayrat and waqf. Hayrat, the plural form of hayr, means “goodnesses” and refers to the motivational factor behind vakıf organization. There is no direct injunction of the Qur'an regarding Waqf, derived from a number of hadiths. One says, "Ibn Umar reported, Umar Ibn Al-Khattab got land in Khaybar, so he came to the prophet Muhammad and asked him to advise him about it.
The Prophet said,'If you like, make the property inalienable and give the profit from it to charity.'" It goes on to say that Umar gave it away as alms, that the land itself would not be sold, inherited or donated. He gave it away for the relatives, the slaves, the jihad, the travelers and the guests, and it will not be held against him who administers it if he consumes some of its yield in an appropriate manner or feeds a friend who does not enrich himself by means of it. In another hadith, Muhammad said, "When a man dies, only three deeds will survive him: continuing alms, profitable knowledge and a child praying for him." Islamic law puts several legal conditions on the process of establishing a waqf. A waqf is a contract, therefore the founder must be of the capacity to enter into a contract. For this the founder must: be an adult be sound of mind capable of handling financial affairs not under interdiction for bankruptcyAlthough waqf is an Islamic institution, being a Muslim is not required to establish a waqf, dhimmis may establish a waqf.
If a person is fatally ill, the waqf is subject to the same restrictions as a will in Islam. The property used to found; the object should not be illegal in Islam. These objects should not be in the public domain. Thus, public property cannot be used to establish a waqf; the founder cannot have pledged the property to someone else. These conditions are true for contracts in Islam; the property dedicated to waqf is immovable, such as estate. All movable goods can form waqf, according to most Islamic jurists; the Hanafis, however allow most movable goods to be dedicated to a waqf with some restrictions. Some jurists have argued that gold and silver can be designated as waqf; the beneficiaries of the waqf can be public utilities. The founder can specify. Public utilities such as mosques, bridges and drinking fountains can be the beneficiaries of a waqf. Modern legislation divides the waqf as "charitable causes", in which the beneficiaries are the public or the poor) and "family" waqf, in which the founder makes the beneficiaries his relatives.
There can be multiple beneficiaries. For example, the founder may stipulate that half the proceeds go to his family, while the other half go to the poor. Valid beneficiaries must satisfy the following conditions: They must be identifiable. At least some of the beneficiaries must exist at the time of the founding of the waqf; the Mālikīs, hold that a waqf may exist for some time without beneficiaries, whence the proceeds accumulate are given to beneficiaries once they come into existence. An example of a non-existent beneficiary is an unborn child; the beneficiaries must not be at war with the Muslims. Scholars stress that non-Muslim citizens of the Islamic state c
Will and testament
A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution. For the devolution of property not disposed of by will, see inheritance and intestacy. Though it has at times been thought that a "will" was limited to real property while "testament" applies only to dispositions of personal property, the historical records show that the terms have been used interchangeably. Thus, the word "will" validly applies to both real property. A will may create a testamentary trust, effective only after the death of the testator. Throughout most of the world, disposal of an estate has been a matter of social custom. According to Plutarch, the written will was invented by Solon, it was a device intended for men who died without an heir. The English phrase "will and testament" is derived from a period in English law when Old English and Law French were used side by side for maximum clarity.
Other such legal doublets include "breaking and entering" and "peace and quiet". The conception of the freedom of disposition by will, familiar as it is in modern England and the United States, both considered common law systems, is by no means universal. In fact, complete freedom is the exception rather than the rule. Civil law systems put some restrictions on the possibilities of disposal. Advocates for gays and lesbians have pointed to the inheritance rights of spouses as desirable for same-sex couples as well, through same-sex marriage or civil unions. Opponents of such advocacy rebut this claim by pointing to the ability of same-sex couples to disperse their assets by will. However, it was observed that "ven if a same-sex partner executes a will, there is risk that the survivor will face prejudice in court when disgruntled heirs challenge the will", with courts being more willing to strike down wills leaving property to a same-sex partner on such grounds as incapacity or undue influence.
Types of wills include: nuncupative - oral or dictated. Holographic will - written in the hand of the testator. Self-proved - in solemn form with affidavits of subscribing witnesses to avoid probate. Notarial - will in public prepared by a civil-law notary. Mystic - sealed until death. Serviceman's will - will of person in active-duty military service and lacking certain formalities under English law. Reciprocal/mirror/mutual/husband and wife wills - wills made by two or more parties that make similar or identical provisions in favor of each other. Unsolemn will - will in which the executor is unnamed. Will in solemn form - signed by testator and witnesses; some jurisdictions recognize a holographic will, made out in the testator's own hand, or in some modern formulations, with material provisions in the testator's hand. The distinctive feature of a holographic will is less that it is handwritten by the testator, that it need not be witnessed. In Louisiana this type of testament is called an Mystic will.
It must be written and signed in the handwriting of the testator. Although the date may appear anywhere in the testament, the testator must sign the testament at the end of the testament. Any additions or corrections must be hand written to have effect. In England, the formalities of wills are relaxed for soldiers who express their wishes on active service. A minority of jurisdictions recognize the validity of nuncupative wills for military personnel or merchant sailors. However, there are constraints on the disposition of property if such an oral will is used. Administrator - person appointed or who petitions to administer an estate in an intestate succession; the antiquated English term of administratrix was used to refer to a female administrator but is no longer in standard legal usage. Beneficiary - anyone receiving a gift or benefiting from a trust Bequest - testamentary gift of personal property, traditionally other than money. Codicil - amendment to a will. Decedent - the deceased Demonstrative Legacy - a gift of a specific sum of money with a direction, to be paid out of a particular fund.
Descent - succession to real property. Devise - testamentary gift of real property. Devisee - beneficiary of real property under a will. Distribution - succession to personal property. Executor/executrix or personal representative - person named to administer the estate subject to the supervision of the probate court, in accordance with the testator's wishes in the will. In most cases, the testator will nominate an executor/PR in the will unless that person is unable or unwilling to serve. In some cases a literary executor may be appointed to manage a literary estate. Exordium clause is the first paragraph or sentence in a will and testament, in which the testator identifies himself or herself, states a legal domicile, revokes any prior wills. Inheritor - a beneficiary in a succession, testate or intestate. Intestate - person who has not created a will, or who does not have a valid will at the time of death. Legacy - testamentary gift of personal property, traditionally of m